Lecture Summaries Exam 2 Monday, April 3, 2017 10:52 AMSummaries for Exam 2 General Topics covered on Exam 2: Tree of Life: Interpreting & understanding phylogenies/ Trees/ cladograms Speciation Macroevolution Evolutionary novelties Origins of Life Prokaryote evolution & metabolism: Bacteria & Archaea Evolution of We also discuss several other topics like anth 420 study guide
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eukaryotes: protist groups as ancestors to multicellular organisms Endosymbiosis Evolution of plants Evolution of fungi (brief!) Evolution of animals: Origins of animals and invertebrates Evolution of vertebrates Evolution of Humans (primate evolution- end of chapter 23) LA3 – Understanding phylogenies: Candy cladograms (Lecture 13) LA4 – Human Evolution (Lecture 18) Lecture 12 Tree of Life (Chapter 16-all) Phylogeny vs. Cladogram Derived vs. Convergent vs. Primitive similarity Monophyletic vs. Polyphyletic vs. Paraphyletic groups (examples) Monophyletic groups recognized using: ○ Outgroup analysis ○ Parsimony Lectures 14- Speciation (Chapter 17) Species difficult to define ○ BSC most widely used for sexual organisms ○ Emphasis on restriction of gene flow Species separated by pre/post zygotic barriers Barriers arise via allopatric speciation ○ Physical division of population ○ Divergence due to founder effect, drift, selection ○ Possible reinforcement if recontact Species separated by pre/post zygotic barriers Barriers arise via allopatric speciation ○ Physical division of population ○ Divergence due to founder effect, drift, selection ○ Possible reinforcement if recontact …And sympatric speciation ○ Ecological isolation, auto and allopolyploidy Adaptive radiation Lectures 14- Macroevolution & Evolutionary novelity (See lecture notes on ELMS for chapter material) The fossil record shows both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium Gradualism ○ Emphasis on gradual diversification Punctuated equilibrium ○ Emphasis on divergence of peripheral isolates at speciation, followed by stasis ○ Mechanism not that different from gradualist view ○ Stasis maintained by stabilizing and fluctuating selection, and by developmental constraint Large scale patterns of diversification can be facilitated by: ○ Environmental change ○ Ecological opportunity - New niches open ○ Ecological opportunity - Key innovations Sources of major evolutionary novelty include: ○ Exaptation - modification of pre-existing parts ○ Duplication ○ Heterochrony ○ Homeotic genes Origins of Life (Chapter18) (read through slides posted online and chapter material) Origins - How did life arise? The Shape of the Tree ○ Diversity, abundance, and features of major groups Factors influencing the Shape of the tree, e.g. ○ “Key Innovations” and their consequences (wings; flowers) ○ Major transformations ○ Major Radiations ○ Borrowing and merging - the tangled tree ○ Convergence Life is …..○ Major transformations ○ Major Radiations ○ Borrowing and merging - the tangled tree ○ Convergence Life is ….. Four big steps to life Organics, polymers, boundaries, information DNA/protein world preceded by an RNA world Ribozymes - Genotype, phenotype, selection RNA world preceded by ? Lecture 15- Bacteria and Archaea (Chapter 19) “Prokaryotes” oldest, most diverse group ○ All combinations of energy, carbon sources Early Earth environment anaerobic ○ Only anaerobic glycolysis possible - low yield ○ Very widespread, apparently old Photosynthesis -> Oxygen revolution 2.5bya ○ Bad for anaerobes (major extinction!) ○ Allowed aerobic respiration!!! Big Idea: Evolution as tinkering Prokaryotes Paraphyletic - Archaea closer to us! ▪ Archaea is monophyletic Extremely diverse metabolism ▪ Photo, Chemo autotrophs; Photo, chemo heterotrophs Arose in an anaerobic world Rise of photosynthesis allowed aerobic respiration ▪ Evolution borrowed pathways from photosynthesis Prokaryotes ○ Diversity of Bacteria Examples ○ Diversity of Archaea Examples Lecture 16: Eukaryotes- Endosymbiosis (Chapter 20) Origin of Eukaryotes took a while ○ Prokaryotes/Eukaryotes very different Eukaryote origins ○ Autogenous vs. Endosymbiotic theories ○ Chloroplasts, mitochondria from endosymb. ○ Evidence of endosymbiosis Protist not a kingdom- very diverseEukaryote origins ○ Autogenous vs. Endosymbiotic theories ○ Chloroplasts, mitochondria from endosymb. ○ Evidence of endosymbiosis Protist not a kingdom- very diverse ○ Selected protist diversity Coloniality common in Protists Multicellularity has evolved many times Plant Evolution (Chapter 21) Land plants must Conserve water ▪ Cuticle, protected embryo, reduced gametophyte Transport nutrients ▪ Vascular tissue Withstand gravity ▪ Vascular tissue with lignin Transfer gametes or otherwise disperse genes ▪ Gametophyte->pollen, pollination, fruit Protect or reduce vulnerable life stages ▪ Protected embryo, reduced gametophyte, seed 4 radiations of land plants ○ Examples and characteristics of each Lecture 17: Fungi Evolution (Chapter 22 (skip 22.3) Fungi are closely related to animals, but represent a separate origin of multicellularity Fungi are heterotrophs, via absorption ○ Saprobes, parasites, mutualists ○ Often involved in very close and important mutualistic relationships Fungi are composed of hyphae that form mycelia Usually three phases of the life cycle ○ Haploid, heterokaryotic, diploid Can usually reproduce asexually or sexually ○ Sexual - Plasmogamy, Karyogamy Lecture 17: Chapter 23: Animals I, II & III Animals I (invertebrates) Origins of multicellularity? To what group and why are fungi most closely related? Characteristics of animals Embryonic development Eumetazoans are? Animal oriins?Origins of multicellularity? To what group and why are fungi most closely related? Characteristics of animals Embryonic development Eumetazoans are? Animal origins? Body symmetry Sponges (Porifera) • Key characteristics Cnidarians • Key characterstics & examples Animals II - Bilateral animals: Characteristics of bilateral animals? Protostomes vs. Deuterostomes? ○ Flatworms- characteristics and examples ○ Roundworms Advantages of coelom over pseudocoelom? ○ Key characteristics and examples of: ○ Mollusks (Cephalopods, gastropods, chitons, bivalves) Annelids ○ Arthropods (Chelicerates, insects, crustaceans, myriapods) ○ Echinoderms Animals III- Chordates Chordate characteristics 2 invertebrate chordates vertebrate chordates & main characteristics jawless fish jawed fish sharks & rays- cartilage bony fish 3 groups & characteristics amphibians Amniotes: Reptiles, Birds, Mammals & characteristics Summary Chordates are Deuterostomes Trend towards high energy lifestyle Chordate characteristics ○ Notochord, Dorsal hollow nerve cord, Pharyngeal slits, tail Vertebrates have Neural crest cells, skeleton ○ Important for high energy lifestyle Gnathostomes have awsTrend towards high energy lifestyle Chordate characteristics ○ Notochord, Dorsal hollow nerve cord, Pharyngeal slits, tail Vertebrates have Neural crest cells, skeleton ○ Important for high energy lifestyle Gnathostomes have jaws ○ More efficient feeding Tetrapods have jointed limbs ○ Better locomotion on land Amniotes have an amniotic egg ○ More resistant to drying Birds and mammals have independently evolved many features related to a very high metabolic rate ○ Effective respiration, circulation, locomotion, high body temperature, insulation Lecture 18: End of Chapter 23: Homonid (Human) Evolution Humans are anthropoid primates • Chimps are our closest living relatives • Split approximately 6 mya By 4 mya, hominids still had small brains, but were already fully bipedal (A.afarensis) Genus Homo appears about 2.5 mya • Larger brain and Oldawan tools • May hominids coexisting at this time Homo erectus appears about 1.8 mya • In Indonesia by about 1 mya • More sophisticated tools Fairly modern looking humans appear about 700,000 ya Africa Neanderthals appear in Europe 150,000 ya • Separate species • Limited technology; no art; language? Gone by 27,000 ya Modern Homo sapiens appear 100,000 ya • Africa, Israel • See society with culture by 40,000 ya • Out of Africa model