You can't change the nules of the game unless you know lunit al *How do you change the rules of the game. they exist to [lts au want the rules of the game] or muitter. Win AS Much As You can Game TM Introducing the social structure 2/23117 Individuals who make Bad choices • WAMAYC- The 3 "I'S" 1- ilustrates how much we're willing tIf you want to learn more check out david rosenbaum ucr
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o do to win" sowe tend to look at individuail explanations Bucome if you clo well, it's on your if you dlo poorly, it's on you s individualismo hoy - Instrumentalismiextra creclit points" become incredibly valueble which is a socially constructed reality - Individualismi explanations focus on individual faults t actions, cuareness of social structure is limited -Intersection: clominant cultural values (ex. conspektion # winning) + the social structures (rules of the game) reinforce each other two - Sociological conclusions 4 Rules of the game affects both our behavior & outcome 4 Being aware of the structure of the game enables us to change the way we play it 4 The social structure is both outsice" & "inside" us 2128117 please doneo salgo WAMAUC-Illustreeting rey concepts - Social Structure: Newman pg 200), abstract - Social Dilemma: long-term ruin for own short-term interests Clasbee Tracedy of the comnions situation in which people ucting individually t in their own selt interest use up commonly alculabie lout Linu ted resources, creating disaster for entire community u sheep gruzing story SS: ilityral nos or social Structure 2/28/17 Grew up setting, surinese is ow wen , Ex. we beating spect based fructu Social Structure: u force that opposes indivichael action that is obsen wble, external to the individuals + independent of individual motivation, structure as construint CBIau in Risman NA OR Social Structure the "rules of the game" swo Ex. We grew up in an Engush & Speating setting, so our inability _ to speütt Chinese is structural & based on how we were structured one social institutions Key Elements of the SS Social Institutions 2 - Definition lic conleu la - persistentt connected sets of rules (formul informel) that prescribe behwioral roles, construin uctivity t shape expectations Cheohane 1989,3) social class is a social institution 70 - Excomplesieducation, groen politics, religion, economy, family law, mass media 4 isu is an organization that is a part of the Targer apparatus of the educational institution - IS Gender u social insntution? 4 could say yes because gins & bous are expected to act certain ways, dress codes - IS cender a social institution? Gwu could say yes because of clouble consciousness + stereotypes - Is Cluss a social institution? sexuality? y could say yes because we have a heteronormutive society (sexuality) 2128117 jinshtutional Effects b - Institutions are hey source of predictability - social institutions are often seen as a problem - Social institutions constrain our behewiort expectations - We can't live wout social institutions (necessary - the boot source of many problems 4 treating drunk driving us individual or social problem? - We can change the type & form of the social institution wl something else Institutional intersections - Institutions clo not exist in isolation, they wonte together u For example politics t economy teclucation, economics family-Gencer, politics tall-cendereconomy Education as Institution. 312/17 * We spend more on our military than the next 7 countries combined. Trump increasing it over 100%-54 mil Is education the "great equalizer" we are told it is. Roles of Education System: socialization t sucicu Repro cluction - socialization 2 4 Teach culture, teach appropriate behawior, prepare students for luar marnet, informed citizens 4 The Hidden curriculum benawiors & cutituces taught outside the regular curriculum. - Teaches students: punctuality, passive consumption of ideas; to obey authority, to accept existing social order 312/17 The university as a Sorting Machine A entical Analysis of Eclucation as a social Institution I common sense Beliefs About Higher Education - Edu. is a path to upward mobility - Access + Attainment based on merita - College is vocational training - Students learn specialized stius for jobs in specific occupations - From Opening Day Suney na y purpose of eclue is to acquire job specific stils 82 to Agree sal y my major will determine where I what I'm employed 72° Agree 4 Which best predicts hether someone mu cettend college & complete their ctegree Hard worth 73° 6 - Inteligence 9olo |- Parents Edu. 1906 4 The more education your parents have the higher possibility Sociological Analysis of Higher Education in Society - There is no egucil access to education - Ecu functions as a social sorting mechanism 4 social reproduction on - Collecie is about ucquining cultural capital as much us it is about human capital 4 Sulivan's argument (not opinion) ater research Who you know is social capital The more wecete ties you hawe, the more you'll succes - Cultural capital is whether you can relate 317.17 Myth of merit too - students from highest income families who haue Low test scores are just as likely to receive a 4 year degree as students from lowest income families wi high test scores - students from high income backgrounds have higher chances of receiving at least a bachelor's degree ele -Bones & Gintis, 1976, 2002) Largue education explains clifferential incomes, not cognitive ability log. 4 research has supported hypotheses conceming roles of personality traits, ruther than skills, as determinants of Tabor market success to 4 amount of education & amount of income positively correlate, but amount of education & cognitive ability do not correlate (no merit inte - Arum & Roksa (2011 44600 of stuctents show no significant increase after 2 yrs ! 136°6 of gracluates don't improve antical thinking compier reasoning or communication skills sorting + Social Reproduction 2013 - social reproduction when social institutions perpetuate social + economic inequalities across the generations " we continue to reproduce class differences w/ the system of who goes t graduates thom college based on family incomerclass VSO Reproducing Ciuss 1 - Graduation rates for 1st generation stuctents are 30° to lower than for those from families wl educated parents 317/17 Reproducing Rucial Inequality - 2x as many blacks & hispanics crop out us whites - More Whites coniplete u bachelor's degree - has to co w income inequality too | Social Reproduction.Attending a prestigious School Matters - alumni of the most selective colleges earned, on average, 40° to more a year than those who graduated from the least selective public universities cloneracleostecente a Are stuctents alienated from their own education? 3/9/17 Capitalism us socicel Institution What is the economy for? ian) watottnine Economy us social institution -Economy Social institution that governs the production, clistribution, t consuniption of goods, senices & raw materials There is more than one type of economy - Feudalism, sicwery, subsistence economies, simple market econorues, state bureaucratic socialism, etc. Capitalism (Conley 575 - privately owned, competition in free market Brudysou 3/9/17 Key Principles of capitalismo - pruate control of revenue generating property & resources Lex. factories, land, housing, patents, intellectual property, etc) - Goods + senices produced for murets wil singular goul of muximizing profits for owners -economic activity governed by competition in free markets among incuviduals & firms seeting to maximize utlity use-valve (shelter) us. Exchange valle (wants) Capitalism & Free markets. Assumptions of free-muuket capitalism - inciviclucl actors pursut selt interests (profits thre competition in "free markets post - actors in these markets act rationally in pursuit of maximizing gain qu - uctors haut complete into on which to buse their rational choices economic decision SELOR Problems w "Free" Markets - actors clon't have pertect or coniplete into + do not act rationally" -interested actors (capitalists) will try to control + shape into luds) - asymmetry of power - no market can exist wout government - capitalism is amorat 319/17 Ideology of capitalism 12 capitalism, like an economic systems, is a constructed Reality Di -rules, norms 7 values are created t administered by humans of b - socially constructed rules become understood us "reality', 'naturael," "right," or "the way it is" - alternatives not considered or not imagined -“The Market" becomes reified. The needs t uales of "The Economy" trump the needs & values of humans who the economy is supposed to serve *- Reitication when you take something man-mice + attribute nature to it Inatural attributes Impli cations of capitalism - market values trump human values (mining ucciclents, health care Pepsi us. Lore) in - public goods become private property Ceciu cction, drugs, BRCA1, art, music) - structural problems treated as personal issues - Altemutive clonomic arrangements aren't considered Politics us Institution The sociology of power Power, politics, the state abo) First, second, t Third Dimension Power Consen atives Us. Liberals dy Sour LEA - Right Eliberal Denach per Ideological Spectrum e Repubü can a conservative 3/9/17 Structure of us political system - Winner Takes All w scandidate who wins Pluralitu (most) of votes cast in a district wins election 4 losing candidates at their supporters)... Get nothing 4 Candidate or Party never needs more than 50% tl of How Rules of Political Game Matters votes to rute. - Consequences of Winner-take- All system 4 Namows political spectrum 4 ln-representative 4 Diminish viability of "Third parties (ex. Green, Reform, Libertarian, socialist) 3/21/17 What is more important when choosing who to vote for? |- Candidates character *candidates political party* party matters Party *OR In sickness & in wealth video - Introducing stratification t inequality 1- The role society plays on your heauth 4 your social class greatly effects your health - Dur life expectancy is #30 on the list w/ other countries - A poor person smoking has a higher risk of death than a wealthy person smoking to sanno 1- The less & you make the more prone you are to disease |- Research shows college graduates live 2 years loncer than high school graduates |- Stress is a factor in health - The more education & income a person has the ress cortosol is released 3121117 -economic policy is health policy 3123/17 Does inequality make us sick? t. How cloes our health care system compare to those in other countries? To ours in the past? 12. How is one's health related to one's income? 3. What are the key factors impacting clifference in health across social classes? - Food cleserts - Agence + tre cibility to control your situation impacts our bodiesi stressi health How do we decide things litte who goes to college or not, who gets a corner office & Who cleans it, who gets medical treatment & who doesn't, etc. Social Stratification - definitions found in conley & Newman - Societies are stratified, sorted out - systematic inequalities - social processes -systems of stratification Gislavery, custe, class (SES: socioeconomic status Social Classigroup of people who share sinular Socialt economic position in society - measuring it thini SES Cincome, wewith, olcupcationcel prestige, educational cittainment, geography ار 3123117 Class inequality & Life Chances - Woming class ť poor people are 4 less likely to go to college 4 more likely to get arrested receive to death penalty 4 more littely to experienc excess death Income inequality in us - Income definition in text - TOP 10% of households received approx. 20% of all income generated in the us. - Bottom 40° to received 120% of income. - us is more unequal than most industrialized societies - us income distribution a 4 Equality everyone gets 20° 4 Reality the top 20% gets more than the rest of the pop. combined (51,106) nor the top 20° has risen in time while the others nawe slightly decrease - we were more equal in 1970 nicher Get nicher, pooreleget porer 4 productivity thour in correlation to median income Wages heue slowly declined as productivity has risen - Reagan's policyl tickle-clown luonomis / Neo-liberalism - the more union density, the lower the income inequality CEO US worker Pay - CEO earns 364 more times more $ - nealth is concentrated S 3123117 Health & Wealth inequality - Wealth definition in text * - wealthiest 20% of us households own 85% of Ination's wealth in the us - bottom 40°6 of us households own 0.206 of net health - top jolo owns B of national wealth - belens the top low owns more than the bottom 90% Should we continue to allow accumulated wealth to be passed on to heirs? - can't hawe inhentuncet an equal opportunity society 3128117 Facts on Inheritance. |- $200 Billion $ is inherited year to |- 112 of ↑ comes from the top 70% of estates - in 2004 the medicin inhentance was $29,000 I only 2.7% of Americans inherit more than $50,000 The Sullivan Plan What is the culternative? |-6200 billion inherited amually clistbuted equally to all 300 million men, women & children living in the us Linclucling undocumented 4 $667 years - By the time a child tums 18 they would have Linherited" $12,000 not including interest ($27,855 ut 18° annual return - By the time you're 65 you will have inheritect more than $43,000 ($1.5 million at 806) Racial inequality 3/30/17 Reverse racism can't exist in a racial society Stud I How can racism ecast today if nobody is 'racist"? Race: socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmutted treats that members of a society consider inuportant Race A social construct - racial categories are not naturcel, biological facts, they are created, inhabited, applied & transformed by people - more genetic uanation between people in same racial category than in people of different rules - there is no "race" gene. Race is not biologically significant, but socially significant Racical composition of us 1-62°t white - 18°C Hispanic s |- 13o Black |- 6°to Asian - in a non racist society, power positions would mimick! Evidence of Race Inequality in us - portion of congress, unenuplovec, poor, CEOS, etc. Household income by Race by Rank 1. Asians 12. tells white -Whites also have far more 3. Hispanics wealth than hispanics & blacks 4. Blacks 3130/17 Poverty Rates by Race by Rank 11. Blacks 2. Hispanics 13. Asians 4. Whites 1 Yada St St