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TTU / Political Science / POLS 3371 / What are the two approaches to study international politics?

What are the two approaches to study international politics?

What are the two approaches to study international politics?

Description

School: Texas Tech University
Department: Political Science
Course: Comparative Politics
Professor: Siva palani
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: comparative and Politics
Cost: 50
Name: Comparative Politics Exam 3 Review
Description: These notes contain the specific information asked for in the review.
Uploaded: 04/04/2017
26 Pages 58 Views 3 Unlocks
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Comparative Politics Exam 2 Review


What are the two approaches to study international politics?



Authoritarian Regimes: 

Def: Characterized by their reliance in unelected or non-competitively  leaders

-Authoritarianism “Not democracy”

-There are Varieties of Authoritarian Systems

*Not all are the same

 2 approaches to thinking about the regime:

Typologylooks at supporting coalition

The selectoratelooks at selectorate and winning coalition Do they lead to different outcomes?

-Yes huge variation economically

Typology approach:

Differences said to be meaningful for outcomes

Evidence is mixed

 


What is it called when military takes over government?



Don't forget about the age old question of What impact does culture have on intimacy?

Monarchy: autocracy in which the executive comes to and maintains power  on the basis of family and kin networks

(Ex: Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Swaziland)

Military Regimes: A military dictatorship is an autocracy in which the  executive relies on the armed forces to come and stay in power Don't forget about the age old question of Are beta blockers agonists or antagonists?

Characterized by military control of the government, overseeing all functions -threat of military intervention directly enforces rules

-a small core group of officers, a junta

(Ex: Egypt, Chile under Pinochet, Pakistan)

Civilian Dictatorships

All other regimes are civilian dictatorships

Executives are not kings or military personnel

Two types:

-personalistic dictatorship


Who has the power to regulate elections?



-Dominant-party dictatorship

Selectorate Model

Characterizes all governments by their location in a two -dimensional space selectorate size and wining coalition

-What does this solve?

-general explanations Don't forget about the age old question of How did imperialism affect india?

-avoids arbitrary typology

-includes autocracies and democracies

*Theory says one of the two ways regimes differ is that the Selectorate Definition:

The set of individuals who could play a role in selecting the leader

Selectorate varies - democracy (all voters) vs. military regime (military  officers)

Selectorate subset of the disenfranchised

Definition:

The disenfranchised are residents who have no legal right or power to  participate in selection a government

Disenfranchised are residents who have no legal right or power to  participate in selection of a government  

Wining coalition:

Includes people necessary to ensure the government’s survival -winning coalition of a subset of selectors

Distinguishing Regime Types: 

-winning coalition size generally separates democracies and non democracies

-Selectorate separates authoritarian from others

-main splits in regime types

-large selectorate (S) and large winning coalition (W) Democracies  Large S and small W – single party dictatorships  

Small S and small W – monarchy, military regimes If you want to learn more check out What is the role of a public relations practitioner when it comes to motivation?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the key patterns and issues of politics today?

What happens to outcomes? 

Chances of being in wining coalition (w/s) – also loyalty norm Size of the winning coalition

Theoretical arguments focus on three factors

1.) Property Rights

2.)Consumption Incentives

3.)Autonomy from special interests

4.)

Property Rights

Stable Property Rights → Better Economic Outcomes We also discuss several other topics like What refers to the process where a cell duplicates itself to form two identical cells?

Democracies → Rule of Law → Stable property rights (Barro, 2000)

-Government in democracies is more limited and are less likely to  expropriate

-More investment and higher economic growth

Implication - Democracies can do better in economic growth DemocracyRule of LawStable Property RightsInvestmentGrowth

∙ Stable Property Rights → Better Economic Outcomes Democracies → Rule of Law → Stable property rights (Barro, 2000)

-Government in democracies is more limited and are less likely to  expropriate

-More investment and higher economic growth

-Implication - Democracies can do better in economic growth ∙ Counter Argument

-Meltzer-Richard Mode

Meltzer-Richard Model

Democracy does not support economic growth

Because, Democracy might fail to protect property rights The empowered poor demand more redistribution from government ∙ The Story

Tax System

Net contributors (rich) prefer low tax, Net beneficiaries (poor) prefer  high tax

In democracies, poor majority will be given more representation

More consumption rather than investment by rich → Economic  slowdown

∙ Implication - dictatorships can do better in economic growth

Autonomy from special interests

∙ Democratic leaders are heavily influenced by special interests – easily  voted out of office

Dictators are not subjected to pressure from special interests

∙ Dictators are free → No inefficient spending, can take short term  growth decisions → higher growth

∙ Implication - Better economic performance in dictatorships ∙ Counter Argument

Dictators are autonomous and no pressure from interest groups  →predatory actions → exploitation → low investment → lower growth

Consumption versus Investment

Basic assumptions

Economic growth is primarily driven by capital investment Poor have higher propensity to consume than rich

Poor (workers) can form political parties & trade unions in democracies

Wages go up, reduction in profit for rich and no investment → Lower  economic growth

Not possible in autocracies

Cycling Example:

Agenda Setting:

Majority rule with Agenda setter

What if one of the actors had the power to decide the order in which votes  would occur?  

What if one can has the power to decide the choices given for voting? It is important for two reasons:

1.)Increase legislative productivity

2.) For political parties - Helps with reelection

Who agenda set and how?

Agenda setting offices - Majority party selects

Committee chairs, Speakers, Rules Committee

Agenda setters floor only bills that are favorable

Delay other bills

Non-controversial are not delayed

Median voter

Definition: Median voter is the individual who has at least half of all the  voters to his right and at least half of all the voters to his left

Median Voter Theory (MVT)

Definition: MVT states that no alternative can beat the one preferred by the  median voter in pair-wise majority-rule elections if the number of voters is  odd, voter preferences are sin

Differentiating Government Types:

Parliamentary - Government depends on a legislative majority to exist and  the head of state is not popularly elected for a fixed term

Semi-presidential - Government depends on a legislative majority to exist  and independent president to exist

Presidential - Government does not depend on a legislative majority to exist  and has president

Office Seeking vs. Policy Seeking

Office Seeking 

-Politicians seek office for the intrinsic benefits of the office -In this case, cabinet posts

-So parties want the maximum number of cabinet posts for their party -Leads to Minimum Winning Coalitions

Definition: A coalition of parties in which there no parties included that are  not required to control a legislative majority

Policy Seeking 

-Politicians want to make policy as close to their preferences as possible -Parties want policy like theirs made/overseen in the cabinet -Their own party would obviously do this best for cabinet positions

-In lieu of that, parties close to their ideology or preferences would be the  best

-Seeking connected coalitions

Retrospective voting

Definition: It occurs when voters look at the past performance of incumbent  parties to decide how to vote in the current election

Prospective voting

Definition: It occurs when voters base how they will vote in the current  election on the expected performance of incumbents and challengers

-Shape government formation

-Influence future policy

Electoral System

Definition: An electoral system is a set of laws that regulate electoral  competition between candidates or parties or both

Electoral Formula

Definition: An electoral formula determines how votes are translated into  seats

Ballot Structure

Definition: Ballot structure is how electoral choices are presented on the  ballot paper

District Magnitude

Definition: District magnitude is the number of representatives elected in a  district

What is a majoritarian system?

Definition: A majoritarian electoral system is one in which the candidates or  parties that receive the most votes win

Three Important types:

Single-member district plurality (SMDP)

Alternative vote

Two-round system

Plurality

Plurality - winning candidates or parties obtain more votes than anyone else

Def: In SMDP systems, individuals cast a single vote for a candidate in a  single-member district. The candidate with the most votes is elected

No majority is needed! But more votes than anyone else!

(Examples - United States, UK, Canada, Nepal, Nigeria, India)

Advantages of SMDP

-Simple for voters

-Easy to administer, relatively low in cost

-Clear attribution to a single representative

-High levels of service by representatives

-Leads to single party majority governments

Disadvantages of SMDP

-Extremely unrepresentative outcomes

-Aggregated also very unrepresentative (SDP and LP in Britain w/25.4% votes and 3.5% seats)

-Wasted votes lead to strategic voting

Alternative Vote

Alternative vote system - A form of preferential voting

Definition: Preferential voting involves voters ranking one or more candidates in order of preference

What happens in AV system? 

-Voters are required to rank (or order) at least one candidate in order of  preference

-Candidates should get absolute majority

-Knock out least votes, recount

(Example - Australia, Fiji, Ireland, Papua New Guinea)

Advantages:

-Easy attribution to a single representative

-Results in high levels of constituency service and strong bonds -Voters can convey more information about their preferences -Less incentives for strategic voting

-Parties should look for broad support in addition to the core support -AV also allows candidates to win who do not obtain majority support Disadvantages of AV system

Complicated for the voters - requires a reasonable degree of literacy and  numeracy

Costly for the authorities - Counting process can be costly and time  consuming

PR system:

Each party presents a list of candidates for a multimember district. Parties  receive seats in proportion to their overall share of the votes

* Primary goal is to maximize proportionality

Open Party Lists

Voters can vote for the party or they can vote for specific candidates from  the party on the list

Individuals on list with highest personal total + party total go into legislature  first

Forces individuals to cultivate a personal vote

Takes power away from parties

Generates internal conflict within parties

Closed Party Lists

-Candidates chosen by parties, in order chosen by parties. Voters vote for  parties, not candidates (list is closed)

-Gives parties tremendous power over their members-high discipline

-Some candidates have no realistic chance of winning but start low, other  important leaders are at top and virtually automatic to get elected

-Over time, parties more promising candidates up and bad candidates down

A mixed electoral system is one in which voters elect representatives  through two different systems, one majoritarian and one proportional

Often have more than one electoral tier

Definition: Level at which votes are translated into seats

Veto player theory argues that important characteristics of any country’s  institutional structure are determined by its configuration of veto players

Veto player - is an individual or a collective actor whose agreement is  necessary for a change in the political status quo

Institutional veto player - Generated by a constitution (Presidency, Congress,  Senate)

Partisan veto player - Generated by political competition (Political parties)

Winset:

The set of policy alternatives that would defeat the status quo in a pair-wise  contest under whatever voting rules are being employed

Types of Bicameralism

Congruent bicameralism 

Definition: Occurs when two chambers have similar political composition 27.  Malapportionment

Symmetry 

Definition: The amount of power given to the 2nd chamber compared to the  first

-Symmetric bicameralism - 2nd chambers have similar amounts of power -  common with direct elections

Federal State:

Definition: Sovereignty is constitutionally split between at least two territorial levels so that independent governmental units at each level final authority in at least one policy realm

Types of federalism

Congruency Congruent federalism Exists when the territorial units of a  federal state share a similar demographic makeup with one another and the  country as a whole (United States, Brazil) demographic - ethnic, cultural,  religious and so on  

Incongruent federalism Exists when the demographic makeup of territorial  units differs among the units and the country as a whole (Belgium,  Switzerland)

Symmetry Symmetric Federalism Exists when the territorial units of a federal state possess equal powers relative to the central government United States

Asymmetric Federalism Exists when some territorial units enjoy more  extensive powers than others relative to the central government Belgium,  Canada, Malaysia, Russia, Switzerland

Decentralization

The extent to which actual policymaking power lies with the central or  regional governments in a country

Comparative Politics Exam 2 Review

Authoritarian Regimes: 

Def: Characterized by their reliance in unelected or non-competitively  leaders

-Authoritarianism “Not democracy”

-There are Varieties of Authoritarian Systems

*Not all are the same

 2 approaches to thinking about the regime:

Typologylooks at supporting coalition

The selectoratelooks at selectorate and winning coalition Do they lead to different outcomes?

-Yes huge variation economically

Typology approach:

Differences said to be meaningful for outcomes

Evidence is mixed

 

Monarchy: autocracy in which the executive comes to and maintains power  on the basis of family and kin networks

(Ex: Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Swaziland)

Military Regimes: A military dictatorship is an autocracy in which the  executive relies on the armed forces to come and stay in power

Characterized by military control of the government, overseeing all functions -threat of military intervention directly enforces rules

-a small core group of officers, a junta

(Ex: Egypt, Chile under Pinochet, Pakistan)

Civilian Dictatorships

All other regimes are civilian dictatorships

Executives are not kings or military personnel

Two types:

-personalistic dictatorship

-Dominant-party dictatorship

Selectorate Model

Characterizes all governments by their location in a two -dimensional space selectorate size and wining coalition

-What does this solve?

-general explanations

-avoids arbitrary typology

-includes autocracies and democracies

*Theory says one of the two ways regimes differ is that the Selectorate Definition:

The set of individuals who could play a role in selecting the leader

Selectorate varies - democracy (all voters) vs. military regime (military  officers)

Selectorate subset of the disenfranchised

Definition:

The disenfranchised are residents who have no legal right or power to  participate in selection a government

Disenfranchised are residents who have no legal right or power to  participate in selection of a government  

Wining coalition:

Includes people necessary to ensure the government’s survival -winning coalition of a subset of selectors

Distinguishing Regime Types: 

-winning coalition size generally separates democracies and non democracies

-Selectorate separates authoritarian from others

-main splits in regime types

-large selectorate (S) and large winning coalition (W) Democracies  Large S and small W – single party dictatorships  

Small S and small W – monarchy, military regimes

What happens to outcomes? 

Chances of being in wining coalition (w/s) – also loyalty norm Size of the winning coalition

Theoretical arguments focus on three factors

1.) Property Rights

2.)Consumption Incentives

3.)Autonomy from special interests

4.)

Property Rights

Stable Property Rights → Better Economic Outcomes

Democracies → Rule of Law → Stable property rights (Barro, 2000)

-Government in democracies is more limited and are less likely to  expropriate

-More investment and higher economic growth

Implication - Democracies can do better in economic growth DemocracyRule of LawStable Property RightsInvestmentGrowth

∙ Stable Property Rights → Better Economic Outcomes Democracies → Rule of Law → Stable property rights (Barro, 2000)

-Government in democracies is more limited and are less likely to  expropriate

-More investment and higher economic growth

-Implication - Democracies can do better in economic growth ∙ Counter Argument

-Meltzer-Richard Mode

Meltzer-Richard Model

Democracy does not support economic growth

Because, Democracy might fail to protect property rights The empowered poor demand more redistribution from government ∙ The Story

Tax System

Net contributors (rich) prefer low tax, Net beneficiaries (poor) prefer  high tax

In democracies, poor majority will be given more representation

More consumption rather than investment by rich → Economic  slowdown

∙ Implication - dictatorships can do better in economic growth

Autonomy from special interests

∙ Democratic leaders are heavily influenced by special interests – easily  voted out of office

Dictators are not subjected to pressure from special interests

∙ Dictators are free → No inefficient spending, can take short term  growth decisions → higher growth

∙ Implication - Better economic performance in dictatorships ∙ Counter Argument

Dictators are autonomous and no pressure from interest groups  →predatory actions → exploitation → low investment → lower growth

Consumption versus Investment

Basic assumptions

Economic growth is primarily driven by capital investment Poor have higher propensity to consume than rich

Poor (workers) can form political parties & trade unions in democracies

Wages go up, reduction in profit for rich and no investment → Lower  economic growth

Not possible in autocracies

Cycling Example:

Agenda Setting:

Majority rule with Agenda setter

What if one of the actors had the power to decide the order in which votes  would occur?  

What if one can has the power to decide the choices given for voting? It is important for two reasons:

1.)Increase legislative productivity

2.) For political parties - Helps with reelection

Who agenda set and how?

Agenda setting offices - Majority party selects

Committee chairs, Speakers, Rules Committee

Agenda setters floor only bills that are favorable

Delay other bills

Non-controversial are not delayed

Median voter

Definition: Median voter is the individual who has at least half of all the  voters to his right and at least half of all the voters to his left

Median Voter Theory (MVT)

Definition: MVT states that no alternative can beat the one preferred by the  median voter in pair-wise majority-rule elections if the number of voters is  odd, voter preferences are sin

Differentiating Government Types:

Parliamentary - Government depends on a legislative majority to exist and  the head of state is not popularly elected for a fixed term

Semi-presidential - Government depends on a legislative majority to exist  and independent president to exist

Presidential - Government does not depend on a legislative majority to exist  and has president

Office Seeking vs. Policy Seeking

Office Seeking 

-Politicians seek office for the intrinsic benefits of the office -In this case, cabinet posts

-So parties want the maximum number of cabinet posts for their party -Leads to Minimum Winning Coalitions

Definition: A coalition of parties in which there no parties included that are  not required to control a legislative majority

Policy Seeking 

-Politicians want to make policy as close to their preferences as possible -Parties want policy like theirs made/overseen in the cabinet -Their own party would obviously do this best for cabinet positions

-In lieu of that, parties close to their ideology or preferences would be the  best

-Seeking connected coalitions

Retrospective voting

Definition: It occurs when voters look at the past performance of incumbent  parties to decide how to vote in the current election

Prospective voting

Definition: It occurs when voters base how they will vote in the current  election on the expected performance of incumbents and challengers

-Shape government formation

-Influence future policy

Electoral System

Definition: An electoral system is a set of laws that regulate electoral  competition between candidates or parties or both

Electoral Formula

Definition: An electoral formula determines how votes are translated into  seats

Ballot Structure

Definition: Ballot structure is how electoral choices are presented on the  ballot paper

District Magnitude

Definition: District magnitude is the number of representatives elected in a  district

What is a majoritarian system?

Definition: A majoritarian electoral system is one in which the candidates or  parties that receive the most votes win

Three Important types:

Single-member district plurality (SMDP)

Alternative vote

Two-round system

Plurality

Plurality - winning candidates or parties obtain more votes than anyone else

Def: In SMDP systems, individuals cast a single vote for a candidate in a  single-member district. The candidate with the most votes is elected

No majority is needed! But more votes than anyone else!

(Examples - United States, UK, Canada, Nepal, Nigeria, India)

Advantages of SMDP

-Simple for voters

-Easy to administer, relatively low in cost

-Clear attribution to a single representative

-High levels of service by representatives

-Leads to single party majority governments

Disadvantages of SMDP

-Extremely unrepresentative outcomes

-Aggregated also very unrepresentative (SDP and LP in Britain w/25.4% votes and 3.5% seats)

-Wasted votes lead to strategic voting

Alternative Vote

Alternative vote system - A form of preferential voting

Definition: Preferential voting involves voters ranking one or more candidates in order of preference

What happens in AV system? 

-Voters are required to rank (or order) at least one candidate in order of  preference

-Candidates should get absolute majority

-Knock out least votes, recount

(Example - Australia, Fiji, Ireland, Papua New Guinea)

Advantages:

-Easy attribution to a single representative

-Results in high levels of constituency service and strong bonds -Voters can convey more information about their preferences -Less incentives for strategic voting

-Parties should look for broad support in addition to the core support -AV also allows candidates to win who do not obtain majority support Disadvantages of AV system

Complicated for the voters - requires a reasonable degree of literacy and  numeracy

Costly for the authorities - Counting process can be costly and time  consuming

PR system:

Each party presents a list of candidates for a multimember district. Parties  receive seats in proportion to their overall share of the votes

* Primary goal is to maximize proportionality

Open Party Lists

Voters can vote for the party or they can vote for specific candidates from  the party on the list

Individuals on list with highest personal total + party total go into legislature  first

Forces individuals to cultivate a personal vote

Takes power away from parties

Generates internal conflict within parties

Closed Party Lists

-Candidates chosen by parties, in order chosen by parties. Voters vote for  parties, not candidates (list is closed)

-Gives parties tremendous power over their members-high discipline

-Some candidates have no realistic chance of winning but start low, other  important leaders are at top and virtually automatic to get elected

-Over time, parties more promising candidates up and bad candidates down

A mixed electoral system is one in which voters elect representatives  through two different systems, one majoritarian and one proportional

Often have more than one electoral tier

Definition: Level at which votes are translated into seats

Veto player theory argues that important characteristics of any country’s  institutional structure are determined by its configuration of veto players

Veto player - is an individual or a collective actor whose agreement is  necessary for a change in the political status quo

Institutional veto player - Generated by a constitution (Presidency, Congress,  Senate)

Partisan veto player - Generated by political competition (Political parties)

Winset:

The set of policy alternatives that would defeat the status quo in a pair-wise  contest under whatever voting rules are being employed

Types of Bicameralism

Congruent bicameralism 

Definition: Occurs when two chambers have similar political composition 27.  Malapportionment

Symmetry 

Definition: The amount of power given to the 2nd chamber compared to the  first

-Symmetric bicameralism - 2nd chambers have similar amounts of power -  common with direct elections

Federal State:

Definition: Sovereignty is constitutionally split between at least two territorial levels so that independent governmental units at each level final authority in at least one policy realm

Types of federalism

Congruency Congruent federalism Exists when the territorial units of a  federal state share a similar demographic makeup with one another and the  country as a whole (United States, Brazil) demographic - ethnic, cultural,  religious and so on  

Incongruent federalism Exists when the demographic makeup of territorial  units differs among the units and the country as a whole (Belgium,  Switzerland)

Symmetry Symmetric Federalism Exists when the territorial units of a federal state possess equal powers relative to the central government United States

Asymmetric Federalism Exists when some territorial units enjoy more  extensive powers than others relative to the central government Belgium,  Canada, Malaysia, Russia, Switzerland

Decentralization

The extent to which actual policymaking power lies with the central or  regional governments in a country

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