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UT - GEOS 401 - Study Guide

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UT - GEOS 401 - Study Guide

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background image GEOLOGY 401 LAB MIDTERM 1 Tectonics Where do the boundaries differ for each diagram? Where are they the 
same? Which diagram would be more effective in explaining plate 
tectonics?
Boundaries differ with the crust and the lithosphere because the 
lithosphere is not the crust , however, they are similar because the 
upper part of the lithosphere includes oceanic and continental crust. 
The major chemical composition and the physical diagram are similar 
because asthenosphere and deep mantle are a part of the mantle and 
the outer and inner core are a part of the core shown in chemical 
composition diagram. The differences between the two are that they 
have changes in depth and density. The diagram of the major physical 
layers would be more effective in explaining plate tectonics because it 
includes the lithosphere where the continental and oceanic crust reside
Describe the Plate Tectonic Model
Earth’s lithosphere is broken into dozens of plates that move and 
interact with each other I ways that cause earthquakes and create 
major features of the continents and ocean basins. It describes three 
types of plate movements: divergent, convergent and transform 
boundaries which are moved through convection. 
Minerals What do amethyst, rose quartz, flint, and jasper have in common?
They are all quartz How can you distinguish plagioclase feldspar from orthoclase feldspar?
Orthoclase feldspar can be distinguished from plagioclase feldspar by 
its content of potassium
Both have two cleavage planes and came in a wide variety of colors, 
but only plagioclase has striations 
Explain why color is not reliable indicator for mineral identificaions
Many minerals have different color variations, so it would be unwise to 
use it as a reliable indicator for mineral identification
Igneous Rocks
background image Explain why divergent and convergent boundaries produce different types
of igneous rocks and give an example of a typical rock produced at a 
divergent and at convergent margin
Mafic rocks form at divergent boundaries due to partial melting 
beneath mid ocean ridges. When the magma cool along the mid ocean 
ridges it forms rock like Gabbro and Basalt.
Intermediate rocks from due to subduction in convergent boundaries. 
Water causes partial melting above the subduction plate and when that
cools it form rocks like Andesite
If granite is an intrusive roc, explain why it can be found at earth’s surface
Granite rocks were uplifted and the overlying sedimentary rocks 
eroded
Describe the circumstances under which a porphyritic rock came to have 
large mineral crystals in a fine-grained matrix
The large crystals are called phenocrysts, and the smaller more 
numerous crystals that surround them form the matrix
Porphyritic rocks generally indicate that a body of magma cooled 
slowly at first to form the larger crystals and more rapidly later to form 
he small crystals 
Sedimentary Rocks What is a sedimentary environment? Give examples of a clastic 
sedimentary environment, evaporite sedimentary environment, and a bio-
clastic sedimentary clastic
A sedimentary environment is a specific environment in which 
sediments are deposited
Clastic sedimentary environments include glaciers, dunes and beaches. Evaporite sedimentary environments include Travertine in caves and 
evaporating lagoons
Bio-clastic sedimentary environments include deep oceans Metamorphic Rocks Compare and contrast schist and gneiss in their mineralogy and their 
expressions of foliation 
Schist 
Mineralogy- muscovite, biotite, and talc with some quartz, feldspar  Quartz and feldspar are less abundant in schist than gneiss Foliation- coarser and wavy foliation defined by larger mineral 
crystals 

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School: University of Texas at Austin
Department: Geoscience
Course: Understanding the Earth
Professor: Jaime Barnes
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Name: THE GEO 401 - Understanding the Earth - Study Guide - Tectonics
Description: GEOLOGY 401 LAB MIDTERM 1 Tectonics  Where do the boundaries differ for each diagram? Where are they the same? Which diagram would be more effective in explaining plate tectonics?  Boundaries differ with the crust and the lithosphere because the lithosphere is not the crust , however, they are similar because the upper part of the lithosphere includes oceanic and continental crust
Uploaded: 04/05/2017
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