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arete basewear

arete basewear

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How they create and change over time?




Field capacity: how much capillary water can soil hold?




-chemical stability: how easily I a mineral altered?



Physical Geography Review Exam 3 Rocks and Weathering Intrusive vs Extrusive: Intrusive has larger crystals Sedimentary Clastic Rock: -Skeleton/shells of living things  -Coral Reefs (Ex: Guadalupe mountains) -Chalk (microscopic organisms) Chemical Sedimentary Rocks: -material dissolved in water becomes solid (precipWe also discuss several other topics like biol1007
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itates) accumulates and  forms rock -Most limestone is CaCO3 that precipitated out of water -Evaporites: become solid when water evaporates (rock, salt, gypsum) Organic Sedimentary: -Formerly living tissue -Coal: plant remains buried in swamp and modified over time Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rock: one rock changed into another by heat and or pressure -new minerals -two ways it can change into another…1.) Regional Metamorphism: deeply buried rock under high  pressure and heat 2.) Contact Metamorphism: contact with magma Examples: Graniteignite SandstoneQuartzite Rock Cycle: Chemical Weathering: -Alternation of minerals -chemical stability: how easily I a mineral altered? Ex: Quarts very stable / Olivine relatively unstable Water palys an important role in chemical weathering -wetter environments typically have more weathering than dry ones Types of Chemical Weathering: Solution: minerals dissolved in acidic water (limestone most common) Hydrolysis: water broken up, hydrogen ions replace metals in minerals Oxidation: modifies iron and aluminum to produce oxides (like rust). Red  soils due to oxidation.End products of chemical weathering: -stable minerals -oxides -clay minerals  -soluble ions  -soluble ions leave, others remain as parent matter of soils Frost Action:  -water freezes in cracks, exerts force in rock -number of freeze/thaw cycles important  Salt Crystal Growth: -when salty water evaporates (Ex: tree roots) Hydrology Budget: 97% oceans and 2% ice sheets Falling Rain or Snow can: -fall directly to surface -be intercepted At surface… Infiltration: seeps below surface  Run off: flows downhill Evaporation:Depends on relative humidity, wind, temp Transpiration: Soil water taken up by plants and evaporated from surface  of leaves Evapotranspiration: evaporation + transpiration Soil Moisture: Infiltration depends on… Porosity: amount of open space between soil particles Permeability: ease which water moves through soil Capillary water: Temporarily attached available for plants to use;  attraction decreases as more water attached Gravity water: not attached, gravity pulls it down Field capacity: how much capillary water can soil hold? Wilting point: most capillary water gone; plants can’t get enough to stay healthy Groundwater:  -some gravity water becomes capillary water -some continues dropping  Aquifer: whatever is below surface holding water Aquiclude: surface material with low permeability  Water table: upper limit of groundwater Artesian well: water table higher than top of well, so water flows freely -Depends on surface of rock layers Overland flow:  Sheetflow: flows in uniform sheet over surface  Rill: small concentrated flow Gully: moderate concentrated flow Stream: larger “generic term” for any concentrated flow Effluent Stream: Water table higher then bed; stream is “perennial” Influent streams: water table below bed; stream is “ephemeral” Intermittent streams: Flows part part of year because seasonally fluent Fluvial Geomorphology Fluvial Geomorphology: How streams act or shape on landscape Geomorphology: study of landforms. How they create and change over  time? Powell:  -John Wesley Powell explored Grand Canyon 1869 -Led US Geological Survey -He was a geographer, geologist, anthrophony * Introduce idea of base level Base level: Streams can only erode to a certain level -sea level is ultimate levelGilbert: -Grove Karl Gilbert worked with Powell in USGS  *Theory of Graded River Graded river theory: -stream adjust its slope to be able to transport available sediments with  no extra energy -energy of stream based on discharge and slope Davis: -Williams M Davis – Geologist and geographer -studied landscape change over millions of years *Evolution of landscapes: cycle of erosions  Cycle of erosion: - Simple version here for humid environments  - Flat base surface at base level (peneplain) undergoes rapid uplift - Takes millions of years  Q = A V -Discharge defined as cross sectional area times average velocity  -change are variable, others will adjust Ex: If discharge = 12 and cross section: 6 and Velocity: 4 answer: 2 Laminar Flow: slow water may move in straight line Turbulent flow: more chaotic flow, typical in streams, eddies in flow Positive & negative relationships:-Roughness of channel  more friction Variables (+) related if they both change in some direction Variables (-) related if change in opposite change  Flood Plain: streams next to channel that occasional floods Meandering: faster moving water tends to spiral down to channel Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology Glacier: accumulation of ice affected by past or present  movement Continental/alpine glaciers: cover large areas like Antarctica  and Greenland Accumulation & ablation: Accumulation: part of glacier where accumulation greater than  ablation Ablation: part of glacier where ablation exceeds accumulation Plucking: Ice melts at base, liquid water gets in cracks in bedrock and  refreezes, rock breaks and gets carried away by ice Scour/abrasion: -rock particles at base wear away bedrock surface Cirque: at upper part of alpine glacier, plucking erodes the  headwall, forming cirquesArête: -Adjacent cirques may form sharp ridge  Horn: -3 or 4 cirques may form sharp peak Moraines: -Top of alpine glacier gets sediment dumped of it from hillslopes  above -Lateral moraine: on slide -Medial moraine: in middle  Drumlins: Stream lined hill formed beneath glacier, often found  in groups Kettles: block of ice buried by sediment; when ice melts,  depression remains Erratics: boulders deposited far from their bedrock source Periglacial: very cold but not covered in ice Permafrost: permanently frozen ground; most soil Patterned ground: polygons (lines of bigger rocks) develop on  ground surface

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