Popular in Music 162
Seong Yong Park
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Popular in Music
This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Seong Yong Park on Saturday April 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 162 at University of Washington taught by Dudley in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 209 views. For similar materials see Music 162 in Music at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 04/25/15
Chapter 1 The Boatman s dance 0 Dan Emmett 1843 The Early Minstrel Show Music Listening CD 3999 This modern recreation of a mid19th centurv minstrel performance illustrates some of the typical features of minstrel show music The instrumentation includes banjo an iconically 39negro39 instrument as well as bones and tambourine The lyrics are pronounced with a stylized accent eg 39de39 instead of 39the39 39sho39 instead of 39shore39 The verse and chorus form also may have been associated for some listeners with the responsorial singing practices of African Americans quotPea Patch Jiqquot The Early Minstrel Show Music Listening CD 3999 The mjg was associated with African American culture in the 19th centurv It derives historically from African lutes like the hatin that have a stretched membrane upon which the bridge sits and it was widely popularized in the US throuqh blackface minstrel shows This performance is a modern reconstruction based on the notations of Dan Emmett a famous mid19th centurv black face performer using an 18503 minstrel banjo The styles of professionals like Emmett were based to some extent on rural especially black banjo players the wide dissemination of new banjo styles and repertoire in traveling shows also influenced rural traditions in a complicated feedback loop Soldier s Jov Tommv Jarrell 1978 Immigrants from the British Isles and elsewhere brought fiddling traditions to the Americas This is a traditional fiddle tune played in a style that was developed for dances A loud sound produced by playing a 39drone39 tone on one string alonq with the melodv on the m The tune has a simple form that alternates between three different melodies called quotstrainsquot one in a low range another in a high range and a third that begins with a repeated note that he plays in the middle and at the end This type of form is associated with dances like sguare dancing and contra dancing where the dancers form figures rather than dancing in couples and a new strain signals a new figure Barbara Allen Jean Ritchie 1961 This is the most famous ballad in the AngloAmerican folk tradition and exemplifies the ballad genre generally The song tells a storv with each verse adding a new part The melody though simply repeats over and over This is called ballad form or strophic form variety and interest are created by the words and the unfolding story while the melody repeats without change Barbara Allen is one of manv American folk ballads that originated in the British Isles and were perpetuated by singers in Appalachian mountain communities with variations The traaedv of thisstorv as well asitssuaaestion of a happier resolution beyond the grave the intertwining of the brier and the rose are typical of many southern folk songs both secular and religious Sheep Sheep Don t Ya Know the Road Bessie Jonessonq leader recorded 1960 Southern Journey Vol6 Sheep Sheep Don tcha Know the Road Alan Lomax Collection Rounder CD 1706 MLLC CD3168 This is aSpiritual led bv Bessie Jones in the Georgia Sea Island communitv of St Simons Most folk spirituals like this one are not attributed to a particular composer Thev mav use biblical text or references the image of Jesus as a shepard and the congregation as his flock is evoked here but they have text and melodies that are distinctive to African American vernacular tradition Spirituals can be sung solo or in a group This one uses a call and response form with variation and improvisation bv the song leader to animate the performance and enhance its spirit Call and response improvisation is common to much African and African American mus both sacred and secular Chapter 2 Nobodv Bert Williams 1913 African American performers also worked in vaudeville often playinq roles derived from the 19th centurv minstrel show Bert Williams 18761922 was one of the most popular comedians during the first decade of the 20th century With his partner George Walker he began to work the vaudeville circuit in 1895 and later starred in allblack theatrical productionssuch Q Abvssinia 1906 Williams wrote many compositions the most popular of which was Nobody 1905 a wrv fatalistic sonCi of complaint Although Nobody is historically related to the racist coon songs initiallv papularized bv minstrel performers William s tragicomic performance lends human dignity to the character of the narrator While on the surface the song played to stereothes of black life held bv manv whites African American listeners interpreted the lvric on another level as a lament about the iniustices of a raciallv segregated societv Old Folks at Home Stephen Foster 1854 Stephen Collins Foster born in Pennsylvania in 1826 died in 1864 may have been the first person in the United States to make his living as a fulltime professional songwriter His repertoire included various popular song styles to which he was eXposed as a vounci man Italian light opera Irish and German songs and Ethiopian Minstrel sonqs Foster was a master at creating the simple but compellinq melodies and texts that later popular composers would refer to as hookS ie the basic idea or motif that hooks the listener s ear Although Foster was not the most financially successful popular song composer of the mid 19th century he was certainlv the most influential The songs of Stephen Foster have endured lonq bevond the minstrel show which served as their original performance context This song uses stylized black speech and references to the plantation and darkies and in that regard it is typical of minstrel songs and skits that portrayed the plantation nostalgically populated by happy black people and so served as a justification for Slavery But its European melodv and its theme of missinq home surely evoked personal nostalgia for many listeners in northern industrial cities who missed their ml homes some of them on the other side of the ocean The AABA form of this song is one of the most common forms in American pop song to thi The logic of the AABA form is basically to put a melody A into the listeners ear by repeating it then change to something different B for contrast and finally return to the familiar A In this case the final A is a shortened version of the original A melodv The AABA pattern here repeats three times The B section alwavs uses the same words All the world am sad and dreary which gives it the function of refrain or chorus quotJeanie with the Liqht Brown Hairquot Stephen Foster 1854 Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair is an example of Foster s sentimental Irish style without any obvious references to minstrel images or stereotypes It is a prototypical example of the AABA form that would become the dominant framework for popular song in the earlv 20th m After the Ball Charles Harris 1892 Charles K Harris was a selftauqht banio plaver from Wisconsin who could not write music and like manv songwriters of the late 19th centurv dictated his melodies to a professional musician who put them down on paper After the Ball popularized durinq the 18905 tourina lvric theatre companies and by John Philip Sousi s band was the fil St American popular song to surpass the fivemillion mark in sheetmusic sales Its success helped to stimulate the emergence of dozens of small music publishing firms around the turn of the century 20th Century After the Ball has three long verses and a refrain The verses which have an AABA form play a dramatic function establishing the narrative theme of the lyric The refrain in a faster tempo is a repeated phrase quotthe hookquot of the song This distinction between the dramatic verse and the sung refrain often regarded as the song became increasinqlv important in the earlv 20th centurv The refrain of After the Ball represents the last burst of pooularitv of the waltz song a form which had produced large sheetmusic sales in the 18908 and was a ple of the touring lvric them and vaudeville productions which succeeded minstrel shows as the most popular form of public entertainment in the late 19th century Maple Leaf Rad Scott lein 1897 This composition sparked a craze for piano ragtime music in the late 19th centurv Scott Joplin combined formal music training and familiarity with African American vernacular music and asoired to be a composer of a new kind of Opera His music gave dignity to a genre that was often more associated with silliness and racial stereotyping The syncopation offbeat accents of the right hand part contrasting with the steady pulse of the left hand that pervades this piece constituted a very different approach to composition compared to earlier minstrel songs that generally conformed to the stvle of Irish folk melodies This performance recorded on a paper piano roll is by Scott Joplin 18691917 the best known radtime compOS Maple Leaf Rag was recorded by the US Marine Band and m over a million copies in Sheet music The form of Maple Leaf Rag which presents a succession of new melodic and harmonic materials is related to march music and to the mh societv tradition of set dances dances that were done in coordinated figures with each new section of music corresponding to a new figure square dancing and contra dancing are folk versions of this tradition Form AABBACCDD 16 measures each Castle House Rad James Reese EurOpe James Reese Europe 18811919 organized the first band specializing in svncopated dance music in New York in 1910 He was hired as musical director by ballroom dance stars Irene and Vernon Castle in 1913 and signed a Victor recording contract in 1914 the year of this recording Europe was the first black bandleader to make recordings and the first to introduce syncopated dance music to France with his 369th Infantry Band Europe was popular enough to be greeted by a million people in New York upon his return from France Europe composed and arranged this ensemble rag The instrumentation includes cellos and violins as well as brass band instruments This performance is regarded as the earliest recorded example of collective orchestral ragtime extemporization Castle House Rag is both an East Coast parallel to New Orleans jazz style and a precursor of later developments in syncopated dance band music Chapter 3 Tiqer Rad Oriqinal Dixieland Jazz Band 1917 The Original Dixieland Jazz Band ODJB was the first iazz group to record the offer having been previously declined in 1915 bv New Orleans cornetist Freddie Keppard39s allblack iazz M because Keppard was afraid other players might steal his style through the recordings The ODJB were a 5 person stronq allwhite iazz band hailing from New Orleans but trying to make a name for themselves in the North They were not immediately popular and audiences had no idea how to understand their music They were led by cornetist Nic Larocca a son of a Sicilian immigrant to New Orleans a city known for its hatred of Italians and its vicious race riot against them in w The ODJB players were young kids the oldest being 28 eager to make a name for themselves and to get out of the grinding poverty of New Orleans Thev did not improvise as most New Orleans jazz bands did but rather worked off of arrangements thisounded similar to AfricanAmerican bands of the time None of them were great players but their energy and spirit were infectious and their recordings the first of which were made in 1917 were wildly popular In this recording of the ever popular Tiger Rag listen to the interplav between the instruments and listen for their use of quotstabtimequot Stop time occurs when the instrumentsstop their continual plavinci and move to plaving chODDV chords As ODJB does it and as King Oliver would as well this stop time served to emphasize SOiOS from one of the players After tourinq England the band broke up and Larocca had a nervous breakdown returning to the construction business and foresaking music He was to become famous in later years for his insistence that AfricanAmericans had nothinq to do with the creation of iazz which he insisted was achieved entirelv bv white marchinq bands and by the ODJB Dippermouth Blues Kinq Oliver s Creole Jazz Band 1923 The music that came to be known as iazz deveIOped in New Orleans around 1900 I drew upon a varietv of sources includina white and black popular song traditions ragtime brass band music black church hvmn and funeral dirqes field hollers and blues Since the activities of recording companies were larqelv confined to large cities in the North and Midwest before the late 1920s there is limited evidence as to what early New Orleans iazz sounded like The first recording with the term jazz on its label was made by the Original Dixieland Jazz Band a white group in 1917 The ODJB recordinq exemplfies the influence of AfricanAmerican musical sensibilities on white musicians and started a iazz craze among middleclass whites but it is not a good example of New Orleans stvle The first representative recordings Of iazz were made by the cornettist Kinq Joe Oliver 18851938 and his Creole Jazz Band in 1923 Like many other southern black musicians Oliver moved north after World War One in order to make a better living In 1923 he summoned the brilliant young musician Louis Armstrong 19011971 to Chicagp to play second cornet in the band which also included Honor Dutrey on trombone Johnny Dodds on clarinet Lil Hardin Armstrong on piano Baby Dodds on drums and on this cut Bill Johnson on banjo and vocals The Kind Oliver band was a collection of individuals who knew each other s plavinq so well that thev could perform a kind of polvnhonic droup improvisation In New Orleans style the trumpet or cornet states the melodv with embellishments the clarinet improvises a countermelodv above and around the trumpet and the trombone improvises a simpler melodv often hittinq the roots bass notes of the chords below the trumpet Solos were usually backed up by riffs repeated patterns played by the other instruments In the earliest recordings it is difficult to find a place where all of the instruments are not playing some role Form 12bar blues West End Blues Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five 1928 By 1925 Louis Armstrong had left King Oliver39s Creole Jazz Band in Chicago and Fletcher Henderson39s band in New York and was readv to strike out on his own His fierv w unbelievable use of the Upper reaches of the comet and trumpet were becoming known and he was achievincl stardom throuoh his plavinCl Okeh Records agreed to record him and anv band he had in 1925 and Armstrong assembled four of his friends Johnnv St Cvr on banio Lil Hardin on piano Johnnv Dodds on clarinet and Kid Orv on trombone to record the first of his Hot Five and Hot Seven recordings Absolutely seminal important in the history of jazz these recordings were a watershed in his career and a turning point for jazz in general Movinq bevond the aesthetic of quotcollective improvisationquot these recordinqs focused on Armstronq as a soloist Jazz was thus turned from a collective ensemble art to an art that focused on the abilitv of soloisis to improvise off of known melodies Armstrong also introduced scat singing to jazz and his gruff nun singing style and clever phrasing influenced many jazz singers that came after him The solo that opens quotWest End Bluesquot is a feat of great technical mastery and has stumped and discouraged many great musicians since This recording is from 1928 after the original members of his Hot Five had been replaced with new plavers Armstrong really comes out as the star soloist in this though other members of the band get solos as well After the introductory solo one would expect a blazing tune but Armstrong chooses to cool down the tempo while never laying off the rhythmic pressure The result is a slowburning song of great rhvthmic intensity despite the crawl that it moves at His scat singing can also be heard in the middle of the piece Side bv Side Paul Whiteman and his Orchestra 1927 Paul Whiteman brouqht iazztinged ballroom music into the musical mainstream during the so called Jazz Age Whiteman whose public relations title was The King of Jazz popularized a style of mildlv svnconated dance band mus When World War I began Whiteman secured a post as a musical director with the navy organizing a forty piece band that was the precursor of his later civilian groups His first recording for Victor was Whispering which SOld a phenomenal 1800000 copies in 1920 The rich arrangements played by the Whiteman band were widelv imitated bv both black and white bands Between 1920 and 1934 he had 28 1 hit records Side by Side is typical of Whiteman s sound during the late 1920s The vocal is by the Rhythm Bovs a trio which included Bina CrosbL The band plays in a two beat feel and the ensemble texture is smooth The cutesy vocal arrangement is also typical of the period The Paul Whiteman group included Bix Beiderbecke an Indiana born trumpeter generally arded as the first important White iazz musician trombonist Tommy and saxophonist Jimmy Dorsey and pioneer dance band arranger Bill Chalis Gene Austin NYC 1927 Mv Blue Heaven Whitinq and Donaldson Gene Austin 1900 1972 unlike Sophie Tucker or Al Jolson developed an intimate vocal technique depending upon on electrical recording and the microphone His career began in the mid19205 and he was one of the first singers to be called a crooner This song is tvpical Of Tin Pan Allev professional song writing in the 1920s and contrasts with iazz and blues in manv wavs It uses an AABA sonq form an intimate musical accompaniment that includes cello and portravs an idvllic middle class familv Mama s Got the Blues Bessie Smith 1920s Bessie Smith the Empress of the Blues was a star in her time and even appeared in one of the earliest sound pictures St Louis Blues The assertive and independent attitude of this song sh e has a man in everv citv appr0priating the sexual promiscuitv more often associated with traveling male musicians DAYUM is thical of the classic bluesisongs recorded by black women professional singers in the 1920s Stylistically this song includes several typical blues idioms the 12bar blues chord proqression an AAB text form repeat the first line then sing a contrastinq line the responsorial relation between voice and instrument blues melodic mode and vocal timbre and its theme of love disappointment Here is a diagram that can help you to hear the 12 bar blues chord progression Each phrase of the song lasts 4 bars or measures so the three phrases toqether add Up to 12 bag hence the 12 bar blues The melodic phrases are plavedsund over three chords Tonic I Subdominant IV and Dominant V The most distinctive moment harmonicallv is the beqinninq of the third phrase where the dominant chord creates a tension that vour ear wants to hear resolve to the tonic TONIC Some people say that the worried blues ain t bad 5 6 7 8 SUB DOM TONIC Some people say the worried blues ain t bad But it s the 9 10 11 12 DOMINANT TONIC worst old feeling I ve ever had St Louis Blues Bessie Smith 1925 The first appearance of the blues on gramophone records was the socalled classic blues stvle performed bv black female artists such as Ma Rainev and Bessie Smith was born in Chattanooaa Tenneessee and beaan recording in 1923 She was stylistically a blues singer even when performing novelty and vaudeville numbers and had a majestic voice and imposing presence Smith sold millions of records performed in New York stage shows and attained a celebritv comparable to modern popular sinqers she was the centerpiece of Columbia39s race record cataloq On this recording she is accompanied by New Orleans iazz virtuoso Louis Armstrong on cornet AfricanAmerican composer and music publisher WC Handy b Florence Alabama was larqelv reSponsible for pOpularizinq blues amonq middleclass white Americans during the 1910s and 20s Handy s blues were actually timeIike compositions with several themes and blues tinaes St Louis Blues his most successful piece is an excellent example of the incorporation of selected elements of southern blues styles by professional popular composers Although Handy complained about the monotony of rural blues cleanedup commercialized blues were actuallv often more predictable avoiding the irregularities of downhome performances Form Ragtimelike structure with three themes A a 12bar blues I hate to see Feelin39 tomorrow B 16bar section in minor key St Louis woman and C another 12bar blues I got those St Louis Blues I Believe I39ll Dust Mv Broom Robert Johnson 1936 San Antonio Robert Johnson b Hazelhurst Mississippi 19111938 is a crucial link in a line of bluesmen that includes Charley Patton and Muddy Waters He was said to have formed a pact with the Devil who met Johnson at a crossroads and tuned his guitar for him These stories indicate the depth of emotional intensitv that Johnson communicated through his performances and the sense of wonder he aroused in his audiences Unlike Patton and Jefferson Johnson didn39t record much but he traveled more extensively than either His vocal quality is lighter and more nasal than most Delta bluesmen and he was a guitar virtuoso llj making great use of the slide or bottleneck technique Johnson39s lyrics are poetic and haunting His repertoire is still performed by countless bluesmen Chicago bandleader Elmore James for example practicallv made a career out of Dust Mv Broom In 1938 he was served an ice course poisoned whiskey by a jealous husband and died at the age of twentyseven Form 12bar blues with AAB text On Columbia Records collection quotCross Road Bluesquot Robert Johnson San Antonio 19361 Robert Johnson39s quotCross Road Bluesquot is one of his bestknown songs It was famouslv covered bv Eric Clapton and Cream in 1969 and has been covered by other musicians as well This song speaks to the legend that Robert Johnson sold his soul to the devil to be able to play and sing as well as he did Johnson39s mentor Son House who knew Johnson when he was a kid recalls that Johnson originally played harmonica and that his guitar playing was quite poor Johnson left town at some point in his youth and disappeared for six months to a year When he returned he had become an amazing guitarist a feat that greatly surprised Son House What Johnson did in this mystery period of his life is anyone39s guess though the legend that he went down to a crossroad to sell his soul has become the most popular answer Johnson seems to play several parts at once keeping a bass line at the same time he plays chords and melody AND sinds His guitar technique includes the use of a sawed off bottleneck sometimes a metal cvlinder or a knife blade laid across all the strings so that he can swoop up and down the fret board playing full chords This technique is referred to as Slide guitarquot or bottleneck guitar and it is similar to the Hawaiian derived steel guitar technique indeed it mav be an African American adaptation of Hawaiian steel guitar The song follows a 12bar blues proqression and has an AAB text form and in this sense it is similar to the classic blues recordings of the 19203 Notice that Johnson s phrase lengths are irregular though not all the measures of the 12 bar blues have the same length This metrical irregularity is common in countrv bluesespecially when it is a solo performance and there is no need to coordinate between multiple musicians Stories about crossroads as magical or supernatural places are common in many cultures and these stories in African American culture may have some root in transplanted African religions such as Vodun It has even been suggested that Johnson was inducted into the Vodun priesthood during this mystery period it may also have been that Johnson simply left town and spent his time diligently practicing everything he39d absorbed from listening to Son House Johnson himself capitalized on his mystique writing songs like quotMe and the Devil Bluesquot and quotHellhounds on My Trailquot Whether he believed it himself or not the supernatural imagery of these songs together with his intensely emotional performances leave us with some of the most eery and powerful music ever recorded 1 I went to the crossroad fell down on my knees I went to the crossroad fell down on my knees Asked the Lord above quotHave Mercy now save poor Bob if you pleasequot 2 Yeeoo standin39 at the crossroad tried to flag a ride ooo ooee eeee I tried to flag a ride Didn39t nobody seem to know me babe everybody pass me by 3 Standin39 at the crossroad baby risin39 sun goinn39 down Standin39 at the crossroad baby eee eee eee risin39 sun goin39 down I believe to my soul now po39 Bob is sinkin39 down 4 And I went to the crossroad mama I looked east and west I went to the crossroad baby I looked east and west Lord I didn39t have no sweet woman oohwell babe in my distress quotBlack Snake Moanquot Blind Lemon Jefferson 1926 Blind Lemon Jefferson was the first southern country blues recording star and represents the TexasArkansas style Of blues Jefferson first recorded in 1926 and was one of the most influential blues performers his recordings being copied more or less exactly for several decades after their release Jefferson39s recordings were advertised as being old fashioned blues at the time contrastinq with the more modern recordings of quotclassicquot bluessinder Jefferson39s song quotThat Black Snake Moanquot is an example of the flexibilitv of the blues form It is a blues song because of its use of blue notes notes that do not fit into the Western scale and the form of the text AAB It does not have a heavy rhythmic pulse and it does not follow the 12 bar blues progression This is also an example of the use of sexual imagery in blues A very prevalent practice many blues songs use double entendres lljlj l ll ll l l seemingly unrelated images that can be seen as very sexual to portray graphic sexuality The blues singer Bo Carter practically made his career off of recordings of sexual blues like quotPlease Warm My Weinerquot and quotBanana in Your Fruit Basketquot In this case the black snake is clearly a metaphor for the penis as Jefferson sings Aay ain39t got no mama now Aay ain39t got no mama now She told me late last night quotYou don39t need no mama no howquot Mmmm black snake crawlin39 in my room Mmm black snake crawlin39 in my room And some pretty mama had better come an39 get this black snake soon Oow that must be the bedbug you know a chinch small insect can39t bite that hard Oow that must be the bedbug you know a chinch can39t bite that hard Ask my baby for fifty cents she say quotLemon ain39t a dime in the yardquot Mama that39s all right mama that39s all right for you Mama that39s all right mama that39s all right for you Say baby that39s all right most any ol39 way you do Mmm what39s the matter now Mmm what39s the matter now Tell me what39s the matter baby quotI don39t like no black snake no howquot Well wonder where is the black snake gone Well wonder where is the black snake gone Lord that black snake mama done run my darlin39 home quotDark was the Nightquot Blind Willie Johnson recorded 1927 The Blues A Smithsonian Collection of Classic Blues Singers v1 Washington DC Smithsonian Collection of Recordings p1993 Historicallv the blues are part of a continuum of vocal music amonq southern blacks that has included musically simple quothollersquotl39l393939ll and quotcriesquot that slaves and workers could sing alone The pained emotional qualities of the blues seem particularly similar to the mood of religious folk quotspiritualsquot Blues are sometimes distinguished from spirituals onlv bv the use of instrumental accompaniment and bv their secular texts Dark was the Night for example is a wordless Baptist chant sometimes referred to as a quotmoanquot from East Texas but the guitar accompaniment in this performance bv Blind Willie Johnson brings it into the blues tradition quotSallie Goodenquot Traditional AC quotEckquot Robertson and Henrv Gilliland NYC 1922 This is the first documented commercial recording of a Southern white folk performer The so called hillbilly music market a southern white parallel to the race record market aimed at blacks began in 1922 when AC quotEckquot Robertson of Amarillo Texas and Henry Gilliland of Virginia hopped a train to New York They showed up at Victor Records39 office one dressed in a Confederate uniform and the other in a cowboy suit carrying two fiddles and demanding to be recorded To get rid of them a Victor employee sat them down at an acoustic microphone and recorded their versions of quotSallie Goodenquot and quotThe Arkansas Travellerquot The record was issued and sold well enough in the South for Victor and other companies to begin sending talent scouts out in search of other hillbilly performers On this recording Eck Robertson plavs a series of variations on a simple AngloAmerican folk theme an ability he had honed in fiddle contests throughout the South Soldier s Jov Gid Tanner and his Skillet Lickers recorded in 1929 Classic Country Music A Smithsonian Collection Vol1 Smithsonian RD 0421 1990 This is another traditional British Isles fiddle tune rendered here by a string band consistinq of two fiddles plavinq the melodv banio strumming chords and guitar plavinq a bass linecounter melodv String bands like this in a variety of formats were popular at dances throughout the South in the earlv 20tl1 centurv The selfparody in the name and in the banter at the start of this recording reflects the hillbilly stereotypes that countrv musicians often exploited to entertain redional or national audiences in radio broadcas Can the Circle be Unbroken the Carter Familv Classic Country Music A Smithsonian Collection Vol1 Smithsonian RD 0421 1990 The Carter Family from the Clinch Mountains in Virginia consisted of AP Carter his wife Sara and sisterinIaw Maybelle Their songs of home and religion rendered in an intimate style are regarded as the clLssic roots of commercial countrv and western mus Mavbelle is also one of the few women to have been recoonized as an influential instrumentalist in countrv music This song includes a passage of her thumbbrush guitar technique whereby she plays a melody on the low strings with her thumb and strumms chords on the upper strings This song is another example of the theme of sorrow and longing for the afterlife so common in rural southern folk and religious mu Gospel Ship Carter Familv 1935 Born in the isolated foothills of the Clinch Mountains of Virginia the Carters were one of the most important groups in the history of country music AP quotDocquot Carter 18911960 collected and arranged the music and sang bass His wife Sara 18991979 sang lead and took the majority of vocal solos and sisterinlaw Maybelle 19091978 sang harmony played steel guitar and autoharp and developed an influential guitar style in which she piwed melodv on the bass strings and brushed the treble strings for rhvthm The trio rst recorded in Bristol Tennessi in 1927 the same week as country music pioneer Jimmie Rodgers example 13 quotGospel Shipquot a traditional song demonstrates the importance of sacred music in southern culture Religious songs were popular sellers among recordings of the time Waiting for a Train Jimmie Rodgers 1928 If the Carter Familv represented the stability of home family and traditional values Jimmie Rodgers 18971933 conveyed the image of the wanderer HHH a man who had seen the world and tasted its temptations These two images still continue to dominate country music lyrics The eX railroad brakeman from Meridian Mississippi celebrated the allure of the open road and chronicled the lives of men who forsook the benefits of a settled existence ramblers rounders hoboes gamblers convicts and footloose lovers Rodger s devil may care personality and his early death from tuberculosis contributed to his charismatic mystique a sort of white parallel to black bluesman Robert Johnsm He was country music39s first recording star His stvle was stronglv influenced bv AfroAmerican blues and field hollers as well as by AngloAmerican folk songs hillbillv music and sentimental popular ballads quotWaiting for a Trainquot is an adaptation of an old folk song It is a hobo song and its dour mood reinforced by Rodger s lonesome yodel seemed to listeners to presage III the Great Depression This was Rodger39s biggest hit He introduced manv new instruments and styles into country music on this recording we hear a Hawaiian steel guit a iazz band Jimmie39s famous train whistle imitation and LB unique quotblue vodelquot Chapter 4 Wrappin it up Fletcher Henderson 1934 Bandleader Fletcher Henderson and his arranger Don Redman were innovators in the development of the dance band Henderson came to New York in 1920 to begin a career in chemistry but eventually took a job as a song plugger with a music publishing company owned in part by WC Handy In 1921 he joined the first blackowned record company Black Swan In the early 20s iazz was only beginning to come into public COh CiOUM and Henderson s early bands played arrangements of ragtime and pOpular dance tunes The arrival of cornetist Louis Armstrong from New Orleans in 1924 moved the band toward a more iazzoriented sound By the end of the 1920s he plaved for packed dance floors at the Savov Ballroom in Harlem alternating on the bandstand with Chick Webb s band Arranger Don Redman grasped the basic principle that was to animate big band music that of dividing the orchestra into reed sax0phone and clarinet and mass trumpet and trombone sections and plaving them off against each other At the beginning of this performance for example the trumpets play an energetic riff and the saxophones answer Then the saxophones take over the lead and their phrases are punctuated by brief punches from the brass trumpets and trombones The performance is intricately arranged but still leaves some space for improvised soloists the first of which is taken by the tenor saxophone quotThe New East St Louis ToodleOquot Music and arrangement Edward Kennedv Ellington Duke Ellington and his Famous Orchestra 1937 Edward Kennedy Ellington 1899 1974 was a maior force in twentieth century American music Born in Washington DC he came from a urban middle class background His first band the Washingtonians played svnc0pated dance music in New York in the earlv 1920s His band held engagements at a number of New York clubs most notablv the Cotton Club in Harlem 1927 w Ellington39s highly individualistic approach to writing for big band included the creation of rich tone colors often bv writing for unusual combinations of instruments or putting instruments in extreme registers and dissonant chord voicinqs This kind of intricate arrangement required written parts and musicians that could read music Another hallmark of the Ellington style was his practice of writing to emphasize the strengths of particular members of his band some of whom were with him for half a century The plunger muted trumpet solo is by Cootie Williams Notice Ellinqton39s creative use of instrumental tones including the plunger respons bv the trumpet section during the first bridqe B section and rnev Biqard39s liquid clarinet reSponses to the tromboneled va tions in the second chorus followed bv his domination of the bridqe quotThe New East St Louis Toodle Oquot has an AABA form played twice through quotOne O39Clock Jumpquot Music bv Count Basie Count Basie and his Orchestra 1937 Kansas City a frontier town which served as an entertainment center for cattlemen farmers and railroad men was the crucible for a big band style based primarilv upon riffs Influenced bv recordings of New Orleans iazz and New York bands such as Fletcher Henderson black musicians in Kansas City began in the 19203 to develop a distinctive stvle of dance musicmed upon blues and the boogiewoogie piano tradition The band of William quotCountquot Basie firmly in the Kansas City tradition developed the use of the quothead riffquot in callandresponse format between reeds and brass sections into a fine art Arrangements were often worked out in an ad hoc fashion with individual players suggesting riff patterns which were then picked up and harmonized by other players in a section The compelling swing of this recording is generated by Walter Page39s quotwalkingquot bass the drumming of Jo Jones and the 4 beat pulse of Freddie Green39s guitar The tenor saxophone solo is played by Lester Young whose cool style was to influence a later generation of jazz musicians On this recording listen for Basie39s carefullv considered piano introduction followed by a series of short horn riffs The technique of riffing in effect turns the whole band into a rhythm section and generates a great deal of momentum quotKing Porterquot Bennv Goodman and his Orchestra 1935Music Ferdinand quotJelly Rollquot Morton arranger Fletcher Henderson quot Benny Goodman was born in a Chicago ghetto in 1909 the son of a Russian immigrant He made his first records under his own name in 1927 and worked as a free lance musician during the Depression years Goodman39s career as a bandleader was boosted bv wealthv promoter John Hammond who also helped Bessie Smith Billie Holiday Count Basie and Bruce Springsteen Hammond arranged the Goodman band39s first recording dates and set up the purchase of a group of Fletcher Henderson39s best arrangements Although initial audience reaction was not enthusiastic the band went on a national tour in 1935 culminating in spectacular successes in California The Goodman band had appeared regularly on a national live radio show called quotLet39s Dancequot because thev alwavs played last more West coasters were up to hear them and the band had become verv pooular This band started the swing craze and Goodman became known as the quotKing of Swingquot Goodman39s band was the first to give current Tin Pan Allev hits a iazzv treatment It was also the first white band to include black musicians beginning with pianist Teddy Wilson quotKing Porterquot was first recorded by Fletcher Henderson39s band in 1932 as the quotNew King Porter Stompquot Goodman39s success was in part based upon emulation of the arranging techniques and swinging pulse of black dance bands The riffs and callandresponse patterns between reeds and brass are wellrehearsed and the rhythm section plays a steady 4beat M with emphasis on the second and fourth beats Goodman plavs the clarinet solo Bunnv Berigan the trumpet solo Gene Krunais the drummer Taking a Chance on Love Vernon Duke Bennv Goodman Helen Forrest 1 9401 quotTaking A Chance on Lovequot is based on an arrangement bv Fletcher Henderson When Goodman was forming his first band he had purchased a number of arrangements from the influential swing band leader Fletcher Henderson Henderson39s arrangements had given Goodman a unique sound and by the time of this recording Henderson himself had joined Benny Goodman39s orchestra quotTaking A Chance On Lovequot was written bv Vernon Duke a Tin Pan Allev songsmith Tin Pan Allev songs were an important part of the repertoire of manv swing bands who arranged them into highlv rhvthmic swing tunes This song has an AABA form tVDical to the songs of Tin Pan Alley The inclusion of a male or female crooner l ll ll ll l l ll ll ll ll ll l is also an important aSpect of swing In this case the crooner is Helen Forrest a popular female vocalist of the time quotIn the Moodquot Music Joe Garlan lvrics Andv Razaf Arranged bv Glenn Miller et al based on an Eddie Durham arrangement Glenn Miller and his Orchestra 1939 From 1939 until its leader joined the Army in 1942 The Glenn Miller Orchestra was the mos bonular dance band in the world The Miller band broke records for record sales and concert attendance and has become the quintessential svmbol of the Swing Era for manv listeners Born in Iowa in 1904 Miller had worked as a trombonist on numerous recordings before launching his own band in 1937 Like other bandleaders his papularitv was boosted bv live radio broadcas from hotels and dance halls Glenn Miller developed a style that appealed not onlv to urban audiences but smalltown midwestern audiences as well Though he died during World War Two several versions of the Miller band are still touring the country staffed by young players and performing at big band revival concerts and dance halls quotIn the Moodquot perhaps the best known arrangement from the Swing Era is a 12bar blues With a 16bar bridge The blues phrase is based on a simple riff that had been used by many previous arrangers Miller left room for some improvised solos in the middle and added the famous fadeawav surprise endinq A Tisket a Tasket Ella Fitzqeral with the Chick Webb Orchestra late 19305 Ella Fitzgerald is known as the Queen of Jazz and the First Ladv of Sonq She got her professional start with the Chick Webb orchestra in 1935 and went on to lead the band briefly after his death The fact that she became a bandleader testifies to her extraordinary musicianship something not usually expected from a singer Fitzgerald was especially known for her scatting singing with nonverbal vocables and improvisinq the wav a saxophone or trumpet miqht This is a jazz arrangement of a nursery rhyme with the melody arranged in an AABA form in the traditional of Tin Pan Alley Listen to how the band renders the form the second time around with m and response patterns to liven it Up Jazz musicians often took pop songs and made iazz style arrangements of them which is whv pe0ple sav iazz is a stvle not repertoire of particular songs New San Antonio Rose Bob Wills and his Texas Plavbovs 1940 Western Swing another style of country music which reached its peak during the Deprew was a dancehall music which combined cowbov ballads hillbillv music blues and iazz with touches of Mexican and Caiun music Bob Wills b 1905 in west Texas is regarded as the father of the style His first bands were named after radio sponsors the Light Crust Doughboys During an 8 year stay in Tulsa Wills established and refined his sound drawing heavily upon the peripatetic quotterritoryquot swing bands of the southwest The core of the band is fiddle guitar steel guitar banjo drums and string bass from the bid swinq bands he incorporated piano sax0phones and Clarinets and trumpets This song became an even bigger hit when crooner Bing Crosby recorded it in 1941 Note the electric pedal steel quitar a modern version of the bottleneck guitar style pioneered by AfroAmerican and Hawaiian musicians Cool Water B Nolan Sons of the Pioneers lChicaqo 1941i Taken only loosely from history and melded with images from dime novels ll DD Tom Mix films and Wild West shows the singing cowbov aenre became papular thouqhout the US and the world during the DepressiJ Stars such as Gene Autry Roy Rogers and Tex Ritter were important figures in the establishment of the western aspect of country and western music This group the Sons of the Pioneers was formed in 1933 when Len Slye later known as Roy Rogers coerced two fellow southern California musicians back into the music business they had left during the depths of the Depression By the time of this recording thev had appeared in numerous cowbov m and Roy Rogers had left the group to develop a solo career Their style which was widely influential featured trio singing and yodelling 0phi ticated harmonie and a smooth polished style Bill Monroe and his Blue Grass Bovs lNa hViIIe 1947 quotIt39s Miqhtv Dark to Travelquot B Monroe Bill Monroe b 1911 in the quotbluegrassquot region of Kentucky is known as the father of bluegrass music He was influenced early by his uncle a fiddler and a black guitarist fiddler and railroad worker named Arnold Schulz who gave Monroe39s music a distinctive bluesy quality This recording is from a period when bluegrass was coalescing into the sound we know today characterized bv rapid tempos and virtuoso interplav amonq quitar banio and mandolin This particular group which included stars Lester Flatt and Earl Scruaas is generally regarded as the archetypical ljbluearass band setting a style and standard of performance for subsequent groups to follow quotYour Cheatinq Heartquot Hank Williams lNashville 1952 Honkvtonk music sometimes called quothard countryquot or quotbeerdrinking mus quot conveys the sound and ethos of the social arena that spawned it the roadside beer joint Postwar honkvtonk music reflected changes in the experience of the southern audience that had patronized hillbillv music durinq the 19203 and 303 including increased ruralurban miqration the emergence of a southern white workingclass in cities such as Atlanta and Nashville and the increased instabilitv of malefemale relations g The typical band was small including a fiddle a steel guitar and quottakeoffquot or lead guitar both amplified string bass and piano but rarely a drummer Hank Williams b 1923 in Alabama was the quintessential honkytonk singer His recordings mark the emergence of modern countrv music a style appealing to a wider mainstream audience When musicians today talk about returning to quotqood old countrv musicquot thev usuallv mean the honkv tonk stvle not quothillbillvquot nor Editiongl mountain music Williams39 success peaked in the late 19403 and early 503 he died at the age of 29 a tragic hero in the pattern of Jimmie Rodgers quotThe Wild Side of Lifequot Hank Thompson and his Brazos Vallev Bovs lHollvwood 1951 Hank Thompson b in Waco Texas 1925 mixed the stvles of Western swing and honkvtonk music This song based upon composer William Warren39s personal experiences with a quothonky tonk angelquot who found the quotglitter of the gay night lifequot too hard to resist reflects a major theme of honkytonk the dislocations of urban workinqclass life and the transience of malefemale relationships The melody of quotThe Wild Sidequot has a long history having previously been used in quotThe Great Speckled Birdquot and other songs quotIt Wasn39t God Who Made Honkv Tonk Anaelsquot Kittv Wells Nashville 19521 Kittv Wells b Nashville Tennessee was the female response to male domination of urban beer hall culture in which the unattached llj quothonkytonk angelquot was both a lure DD and a threat Interestingly the song was written by a commerciallv astute male composer as a response to quotThe Wild Side of Lifequot bv Hank Thompson Wells reserved soulful style emphasizes the lyric content of the song She set a paradigm for female countrv superstars and was a major force in the emergence of Nashville as a recording center El Manicero Don A2piazu and his Havana Casino Orchestra 1930 Music played by Latin bands like Xavier Cuaat39s Waldorf Astoria Orchestra and Don Azpiazu39s Havana Casino Orchestra was intended mainly to accompanv ballroom adaptations of Latin American dances quotEl Maniceroquot was composed by Moises Simon a Cuban pianist as a rumba Though rumbas are traditionally dances associated with complex African drumming systems involving intricate interactions between drummer and dancer the name rumba has become attached to the kind of Cuban music that was popularized in America in the 1920s and 30s Much of this music would be more accurately referred to as 0 American rumbas were intended to present Cuban music as exotic in tourist shows and in American clubs and movies In quotEl Maniceroquot each percussion instrument plays a rhythmic pattern that is carefully arranged to interlock with the rhythmic patterns of the other percussion instruments The percussion is led by the rhythm of the claves which can be heard in the opening of this track Claves are two sticks of dense wood that make a loud quotclackquot when struck together This style of rhythm in which various instruments interlock rhvthmicallv and are led by one loud high pitched percussion instrument is verv common in African drumminq from the West Coast of Africa and in African music somewhat qenerallv quotMayeyaquot Septeto Habanero Cuban son 19303 Cuban Counterpoint History of the Son Montuno Rounder CD 1078 In the early 1900s son emerged as an urban mus that was a popular alternative to the elite orauesta tipica and charanga ensembles that plaved mainlvdanzon The instrumentation of early son sextets was guitar tres a Cuban guitartype instrument with three sets of double strings tuned in octaves bass or marimbula an African lamellophone bongos maracas and claves The basic form of the son is an instrumental intro a pre composed section and an improvised call amp re8ponse coro or montuno section Son montuno is actually the most accurate description for this type of performance early sones did not have the call amp response section Mambo Gozon Tito Puente 1950s The Essential Tito Puente This is a New York stvle mambo The mambo was first bv coniuntos in Cuba the coniunto was an expansion of the septet seven intruments including piano conqas and multiple trumpets Mambo was popularized internationally by bandleader Perez Prado a Cuban who relocated to Mexico Citv and made influential recordings But at the Palladium Ballroom in New York in the 1950s the mambo took a harder edge including jazz harmonies and instrumentation The polyrhythmic texture Of the mambo is rooted in the rhythm section of the Cuban son with piano bass conaas and other percussion instruments all plavinq fixed rhvthmic patterns that are linked to the guiding rhvthm of the claie not heard here but implicit in the rhythmic structure of the other parts The call and response improvisations of the singer exciting breaks changing horn lines and solos provide variety One of Tito Puente s important innovations was to foreground the percussion especially the timbales on which he plays brief solo near the end What d I sav Rav Charles 1959 This song shows some influences from Latin music particularlv the mambo which became widely popular in the 1950s The drumset is playing the rhvthm of the conga tumbao rhvthm and the keyboard has a pattern that is sort of similar to a montuno You can also hear the fast repeated rhythm on the cymbal as similar to the scara an elaborated version of the clave that is plaved with the stick on the side of the timbales drums in mambo quotChoo Choo Ch39Booaiequot Louis Jordan and the Tvmpanv Five 1946 Jordan was the most successful black recording artist of the postWar period with a string of hit rhythm amp blues records This is a classic iump band consisting of a three horn front line alto sax tenor sax and trumpet and rhvthm section piano quitwss and drums Jordan who sang and plaved alto sax wasa polished entertainer and his upbegt lvrics and smooth voca gualitv provided urban black audiences with aalterna1tive to the Deltabased Chicago blues stvle of Muddv waters Sonnv Bov Williamson etc This recording was his first millionseller a wover hit with both black and white audiences Producer Milt Gabler was later involved in the production of Bill Halev and the Comets a rock 39n39and roll band which drew upon the iump w quotHoochieCoochie Manquot Willie Dixon Muddv Waters 1953 Chicaaol Muddy Waters b Rolling Fork Mississippi was quotdiscoveredquot in the Mississippi Delta bv folk sond collectors John and Alan Lomax who recorded him for the Librarv of Congress Two years later in 1943 he left for Chicago part of a massive movement of blacks from the South In 1948 Muddv recorded for the Chess label playing electric guitar with bass accompaniment bv Bid Crawford Though still clearly rooted in Delta blues style Muddy39s early Chess recordings marked the beginning of electric blues in Chicado Sold at first through record stores groceries and barbershops in South Chicago records became pOpular both in the citv and in the South and launched Muddy39s career The evolution of Muddv39s band during the late 1940s and early 50 reflects chanqes in the Chicaqo electric blues band stvle On this cut one of Muddy39s signature tunes the band includes two electric guitars piano bass drums and amplified harmonica pioneered bv Muddv39ssideman Little Walter Muddy along with other southern migrants such as Howlin39 Wolf set the standard for Chicado urban blues durind the postWar period The electrification and expansion of blues ensembles helped musicians plav dance music in noisv urban bars In this song Muddy continues an old blues tradition the bold assertion of personal power in the face of adverse circumstances quotI got a black cat bone I got a mojo too I got a Johnnie Conkaroo I39m gonna mess wit39 you I39m gonna make you girls lead me by my hand Then the world know I39m a hoochie coochie manquot Form 16bar blues 8 bars of quotstop timequot then 8 bars to finish quotSmokestack Liqhtninquot Howlin39 Wolf recorded 1956 The Blues A Smithsonian Collection of Classic Blues Singers v4 Washington DC Smithsonian Collection of Recordings p1993 Howlin39 Wolf was one of the most famous of the Delta bluesmen who moved to Chicago and developed an urban blues tradition there another was Muddy Waters Note the typical Chicaqo bluesinstrumentation of bass drums piano and electric guitar The harmonica often called quotharpquot in blues parlance common in rural blues is also featured Despite the changes in instrumentation and amplification the Chicano bluesmen tended to retain the quotheavyquot denss Delta sound Howlin39 Wolf39s vocal style eXploits a huqe variety of timbres moans and speech type qualities The form of this song is cyclical built on a distinctive guitar ostinato repeated melodic pattern instead of an extended chord progression quotMama He Treats Your Dauahter Meanquot Wallace Lance Sinqleton Ruth Brown 1953 Ruth Brown was Atlantic Record39s first maior R and B star beginning in 1949 Her father was a preacher and she sang Spirituals as a child Her recordings were sung with inflections that came from the church and the blues and were in part aimed at the expanding white audience for R and B Note Brown39s use of upward vocal alides and the prominence of the tambourine associated with revivalist church meetinqs This song is a 16bar blues like a 12bar blues but AAAB quotI39ve Got A Womanquot Rav Charles Rav Charles Miami 1954 Ray Charles is a seminal force in American popular music Starting out as an RampB sinqer and iazz crooner moving into Rock 39n39 Roll in the 1950s and then into soul music in the 1960s his presence has been felt by countless artists and fans throughout the years Born in the Deep South durinq the Great Depression Charles was blinded at aqe six and orphaned bv the time he was sixteen From an early age Charles was musically omnivorous absorbinq stvles as diverse as iazz blues qospel countrv classical piano and booqiewooqie m Charles got his start in Seattle in the late 1940s recording jazzy crooning numbers After he left Seattle in 1950 he formed a band of his own and beqan sinqinq harddriving RampB sonqsi well as deeplv soulful sonqs adapted from the gospel tradition Charles pioneered the combination of secular Gospel and RampB that was to become soul music The song quotI Got A Womanquot written by Charles was his first 1 hit on the RampB charts It is basically a remake with secular words of the gospel song It Must be Jesus by the Southern Tones Charles was criticized for combining sacred and secular music like this but he stood by his sound and by his belief that he should be able to play all different kinds of music Powerful gospel inflections can be heard in Charles voice The use of saxophone riffs and the repeated vocal phrase in each verse similar to aab text form are stvlistic features of the blues The series of breaks or stOp time toward the end of the sonq is an old iazz technique also related to the use of call and reSponse improvisation in church music Midterm 1 Study Guide Music 162 Spring 2015 Songs Sheep Sheep Don t You Know the Way The Boatman s Dance Old Folks at Home Nobody quotJeanie with the Light Brown Hairquot After the Ball Maple Leaf Rag Castle House Rag Tiger Rag Dippermouth Blues My Blue Heaven Side by Side Mama s Got the Blues West End Blues St Louis Blues Dark was the night Artistscomposersgroups Stephen Foster Bert Williams Scott Joplin Charles Harris WC Handy Irving Berlin James Reese Europe Irene and Vernon Castle Al Jolson Bessie Smith Louis Armstrong King Oliver Ella Fitzgerald FiXin to Die Blues Cross Road Blues Soldier s Joy solo fiddle and string band Can the circle be unbroken Waiting for a train Wrappin it up New East St Louis Toodle oo One O Clock Jump King Porter Stomp A Tisket a Tasket New San Antonio Rose Cool Water It s Mighty Dark to Travel Manicero Mayeya Mambo Gozon Original Dixieland Jazz Band Duke Ellington Count Basie Fletcher Henderson Carter family Jimmie Rodgers Robert Johnson Bob Wills Bill Monroe Don Aspiazu Tito Puente Muddy Waters Ray Charles Ruth Brown GenresDancesEnsembles ballad fiddle tune hymn spiritual string band ragtime parlor music waltz cakewalk Charleston lindy hopjitterbug rumba syncopated orchestra jazz Instruments Banjo Bones Tambourine FiddleViolin Piano Trumpet Saxophone clarinet Guitar steel guitar slide guitar electric Other ideas concepts facts developments African conceptual approaches to music making Syncopation Phonograph Gramophone Radio Talking pictures Musical theater Pleasure gardens Minstrel Show Vaudeville Tin Pan Alley hillbilly bluegrass blues classic and country rumba son muntuno mambo cha cha cha race records rhythm and blues jump band big band western swing country and western string band Trombone Drumset Conga Bongos Clave Guiro Maracas Bass GuestsMovies One exam question for each Ethnic Notions The Jazz Singer Oliver Wang Filipino DJ s Satchmo Evan Flory Barnes j azz bass
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