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a&p 1 exam 3

a&p 1 exam 3


School: University of Wisconsin Green Bay
Department: OTHER
Course: Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory
Professor: Donald drewiske
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: anatomy and Physiology
Cost: 50
Name: A&P Lecture Exam 3
Description: Chapter 18, 19, 20, 21, and 23
Uploaded: 04/06/2017
17 Pages 141 Views 0 Unlocks

How does this structure influence the pituitary gland?

To what central nervous system structure is the pituitary gland connected?

Where is the pituitary gland located?

A&P Lecture Exam #3 – April 10th Chapter 18: Endocrine System 1. What is a hormone? Name the functions of hormones. 2. Define exocrine glands and endocrine glands. Which secretes hormones? Which secretes its  product into the bloodstream? 3. Describe the two types of hormones. Give exampleWe also discuss several other topics like cop 2220
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We also discuss several other topics like mgmt 200 purdue
Don't forget about the age old question of the fundamental building block for all matter, which is the smallest representative sample of a substance that maintains chemical identity, is called
We also discuss several other topics like if the terrestrial planets were formed by homogeneous accretion, then
s of each. Which can freely pass through  the plasma membrane? Which requires a second-messenger? Describe the mechanism by  which proteins alter the activity of the cell using each type of hormone. 4. Identify and describe the stimuli that activate cells within endocrine glands. 5. The secretion of hormones is regulated by feedback mechanisms. Be sure you remember the  difference between negative feedback and positive feedback. 6. Where is the pituitary gland located? To what central nervous system structure is the  pituitary gland connected? How does this structure influence the pituitary gland? 7. Name the two lobes of the pituitary. Which lobe produces and secretes hormones? Which  lobe does not produce hormones?  8. Identify and describe the function of the hormones that are produced and secreted by the  anterior pituitary gland. 9. What is a tropic hormone? Identify the tropic hormones. 10.What hormones are produced by the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary  gland? Where (what nuclei) in the hypothalamus are these hormones produced? What is the  name of the tract that carries these hormones to the posterior pituitary gland? Describe the  function of these hormones. Which of these hormones operates in a positive feedback  mechanism? 11.Where is the thyroid gland located? Describe the structure of the thyroid gland. What  hormones are secreted by the thyroid gland? Describe the process (including the structures)  by which T3 and T4 are produced. Describe the functions of these hormones. 12.What is a goiter? Why does it occur? 13.Describe the negative feedback loop that maintains blood levels of T3 and T4. 14.Where is the parathyroid gland located? What is the main cell type of the parathyroid gland?  What hormone does it secrete? 15.Describe the process of maintaining normal blood calcium levels. 16.Where are the adrenal glands located? Identify and describe the two main divisions of the  adrenal glands. Identify and describe the hormones produced and secreted by each zone of  the adrenal cortex. Identify and describe the main hormones produced and secreted by the  adrenal medulla. Which adrenal hormones are associated with the ‘fight or flight response’  and the sympathetic nervous system? 17.Describe the process of maintaining homeostasis of normal glucocorticoid levels in the blood. Chapter 19: Cardiovascular System – Blood 1. Describe the relationship between blood and interstitial fluid 2. Describe the functions of blood. 3. Describe the properties of blood (e.g., pH, volume). 4. Name the two major components of blood. Approximately, what percentage of your blood  does each of these components contribute? 5. Name the components of plasma. 6. Identify the three major plasma proteins. 7. What term refers to development of formed elements? What type of cell is the precursor to  all formed elements? Where are formed elements developed? 8. Identify the cells/cell fragments that make up the formed elements of blood. 9. What is another name for red blood cells? What are the generic functions of red blood cells?  Describe the structure of a red blood cell. 10.Approximately how long do red blood cells live?A&P Lecture Exam #3 – April 10th 11.What term refers to the development of red blood cells? 12.Define hematocrit. What are the average values of female and male hematocrits? Why do  they differ? 13.What organ is stimulated by reduced oxygen and releases erythropoietin? 14.What is erythropoietin? 15.What is hypoxia? Describe situations in which hypoxia is induced. 16.Describe the negative feedback loop that maintains homeostatic oxygen levels.  17.Describe the structure and function of hemoglobin. Which part of hemoglobin is a protein?  Which is a pigment? Where is the iron located?  18.Describe the formation and destruction of red blood cells, including the terms: globin, heme,  transferrin, ferriten, liver, bilirubin, iron, vitamin B12, and erythropoietin. 19.What is another name for white blood cells? What are the generic functions of white blood  cells? What is diapedesis? 20.Describe the difference between granulocytes and agranulocytes. Identify which cells are  classified into each of these categories. 21.What is a granule? 22.What are platelets? What cell do they develop from? What is the main function of platelets?  Approximately how long do platelets live? 23.How are blood types determined? 24.Be familiar with the four ABO blood types discussed in class. What antigen is found on the  surface of red blood cells in each type? What antibodies are found in the plasma of each  type? Understand what blood types can be received through a transfusion by a person with  each type. 25.What blood type is the universal donor? What blood type is the universal recipient? 26.What is agglutination? Why does it occur? 27.What factor determines if your blood type is positive or negative? 28.Describe how hemolytic disease occurs? Chapter 20: Cardiovascular System – Heart  1. Identify the borders, base, and apex of the heart. Is the majority of the heart’s mass located  left or right of the midline? 2. Identify and describe the structural coverings of the heart, including: all layers and sublayers  of the pericardium.  3. What is the pericardial cavity? Where is pericardial fluid located? What is the purpose of the  pericardial fluid? 4. Identify and describe the structure of the three heart wall layers. 5. Identify the four chambers of the heart. What structure separates the left and right chambers from each other? 6. Identify and describe the following structures: the auricles, pectinate muscles, and  trabeculae carneae. 7. Which chamber of the heart has the thickest wall? Why? 8. Identify the valves in the heart. Describe the difference in structure of atrioventricular valves  and semilunar valves. Where are they located? What are chordae tendineae and papillary  muscles? 9. Describe the route of blood flow from the right atrium to the quadriceps femoris and back to  the right atrium. At what point do red blood cells pick up oxygen? At what point do red blood cells become deoxygenated? 10.How is the heart supplied with oxygen and nutrients? What vessel is venous blood from the  heart drained into? 11.Describe the characteristics of cardiac muscle (i.e. how many nuclei per cell, what structure  connects fibers, how are action potentials conducted from cell to cell, etc.) 12.What are the two types of cells located within the heart?A&P Lecture Exam #3 – April 10th 13.Describe the specialized properties of autorhythmic fibers. Do autorhythmic fibers have a  resting membrane potential?  14.Identify and describe the components of the conduction system in the heart. What structure is known as the ‘pacemaker’ of the heart? 15.Describe how an electrical current is conducted across the heart to initiate atrial and  ventricular contraction. 16.Describe an action potential of a contractile cardiac muscle fiber. What is the approximate  resting membrane potential? What ions are involved and what direction do these ions flow  during depolarization, the plateau phase, and repolarization? 17.What is a refractory period? Why is the absolute refractory period in the heart longer than  that in a skeletal muscle? 18.What is electrocardiography? Identify and describe the three deflection waves we discussed  in class. Identify and describe the three intervals/segments discussed in class. What part of  an EKG corresponds to atrial contraction? What part of an EKG corresponds to ventricular  contraction? 19.Describe the relationship between electrical activity and physical activity of the heart.  20.Interpret Figure 20.13 in your text. 21.Define cardiac cycle, systole, and diastole. 22.Describe the phases of a cardiac cycle, including: atrial systole, ventricular systole, and  ventricular diastole. 23.Interpret Figure 20.14 in your text. 24.What events in the heart correspond to the two audible heart sounds? 25.What is cardiac output? 26.What is stroke volume? 27.Define end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume. 28.Two centers in the medulla control heart rate and strength of heart contraction. Identify the  division of the autonomic nervous system associated with each center. What  neurotransmitter is released by each division and what structure(s) of the heart does the  neurotransmitter affect?  Chapter 21: Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels  1. Describe the flow of blood from the heart to peripheral tissue and back to the heart. 2.Identify and describe the three layers of an artery. Compare the structure of an artery and a  vein. 3.What direction do arteries transport blood in relation to the heart? 4.Do arteries carry oxygenated or deoxygenated blood? 5.Identify and describe the two types of arteries. Which are referred to as conducting arteries  and why? Which are referred to as distribution vessels and why? Which have significant  sympathetic innervation and why? 6.Identify and describe arterioles. 7.What is the smallest blood vessel? Describe the structure of this vessel. Describe the main  function of this vessel. 8.Identify and describe the three types of capillaries. Where are they located? 9.What are capillary beds? Where are they located? 10.What is a metarteriole?  11.What is a thoroughfare channel? 12.Where is a precapillary sphincter located? How does a precapillary sphincter control blood  flow? 13.Identify and describe venules. 14.Identify and describe veins.  15.What direction do veins transport blood in relation to the heart?A&P Lecture Exam #3 – April 10th 16.Do veins carry oxygenated or deoxygenated blood? 17.What is the purpose of the valves located within veins? 18.What structures are considered to be the ‘blood reservoirs’? Approximately, what percentage  of blood is located in the veins/venules, heart, and arteries/arterioles? 19.Describe the relationship between velocity of blood flow and total cross-sectional area of  blood vessels. 20.Describe the difference between diffusion and bulk flow. 21.Define filtration and reabsorption. 22.The movement of substances between blood and interstitial fluid is partially due to bulk flow  (pressure). Describe the following pressures that lead to capillary exchange: blood hydrostatic  pressure, interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure, blood colloid osmotic pressure, and interstitial  fluid osmotic pressure. 23.What is net filtration pressure? What events happen on the arterial end and venule end of the capillary during net filtration pressure? 24.What happens to excess fluid that does not move back into the capillary? 25.What is blood pressure? 26.Define systolic and diastolic pressure. 27.Describe the pressure within the aorta, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, and  vena cava. Where is the pressure highest? Where is the pressure lowest? Where does the  greatest change in pressure occur? 28.How is blood returned to the heart from the veins?  29.What is mean arterial pressure? How do you calculate MAP? 30.Besides cardiac output, what other factor affects MAP? How does this factor change in  response to the size of the lumen, blood viscosity, and vessel length? 31.Where is the cardiovascular center located within the central nervous system? 32.What are the vasomotor nerves? What division of the autonomic nervous system do these  nerves belong to? 33.What are baroreceptors? Where are they located? How do they send information to the  central nervous system? 34.Describe how baroreceptors respond to low blood pressure. 35.Describe how baroreceptors respond to high blood pressure. 36.What are chemoreceptors? Where are they located? 37.Describe how chemoreceptors respond to decreased oxygen/increased carbon dioxide in the  blood. Chapter 23: Respiratory System  1.What components make up the upper respiratory system? 2.Identify and describe the structure and function of the external and internal nose. What role do mucus and cilia play within the nose? 3.Identify and describe the location and functions of the pharynx. 4.Identify the three main components of the pharynx from superior to inferior. 5.Identify the location of each of the specific tonsils within the pharynx. 6.What are the auditory tubes and where are they located? 7.What components make up the lower respiratory system? 8.Identify and describe the structure, location, and functions of the larynx. What is the larynx  also known as? 9.Identify and describe the structure, location, and function of the thyroid cartilage, artenoid  cartilages, and epiglottis. Which is also known as the ‘Adam’s apple’? 10.What is the entrance of the larynx called? 11.What are goblet cells and where are they located? 12.Where are the vocal cords located? Describe how your voice is produced.A&P Lecture Exam #3 – April 10th 13.Why can’t you breathe and swallow at the same time? 14.How do you make the pitch of your voice higher? 15.Identify and describe the structure, location, and functions of the trachea. What is the  trachea also known as? 16.Identify the layers of the trachea from deepto superficial. Which layer contains goblet cells?  Which layer is composed of connective tissue? 17.As air passes over the surface of the trachea, the pressure decreases and pulls on the  surface. What prevents the trachea from collapsing in this case? 18.What is the ‘bronchial tree’? 19.The conducting zone transports air from the trachea to the lungs. Identify and describe the  hollow structures that air passes through on the way to the lungs.  20.As air moves from the trachea to the alveoli, the anatomy of the hollow structures changes.  Describe the composition of each hollow structure in reference to hyaline cartilage, goblet cells,  and smooth muscle. 21.The respiratory zone accepts air from the conducting zone and transports it to the alveoli.  Identify and describe the structures that air passes through on the way to the alveoli. 22.What are alveoli? 23.Identify and describe the two main alveolar cells. Which plays a vital role in gas exchange? 24.What is surfactant? What role does surfactant play in the lungs? What cell produces  surfactant? 25.What role do alveolar macrophages play? 26.Describe the path of air as it travels from the atmosphere to pulmonary capillaries. 27.Where is the pleural cavity located? 28.Identify and describe the pleura membranes. 29.What is the purpose of pleura fluid and where is it located? 32.Identify and describe the three processes that play a part in respiration. Where does each  process take place? 33.Describe the following terms: alveolar pressure, intrapleural pressure, atmospheric pressure. 34.What is atmospheric pressure (give the units of measurement also)? 35.What is Boyle’s law? 36.Describe the active process of inspiration. In comparison to the atmospheric air, how does  the pressure in the lung change during inspiration? Describe the role of the diaphragm and  intercostal muscles during inspiration. 37.What nerves innervate the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles? 38.Describe the passive process of expiration. In comparison to the atmospheric air, how does  the pressure in the lung change during expiration? Describe the role of the diaphragm and  intercostal muscles during expiration. 39.What is partial pressure (i.e. PO2)? 40.What is Dalton’s law? 41.What is Henry’s law? 42.Where does external respiration occur? What influences oxygen and carbon dioxide transport at this site? 43.Where does internal respiration occur? What influences oxygen and carbon dioxide transport  at this site? 44.How is oxygen transported in the body? 45.Describe the structure of hemoglobin. 46.Hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen is dependent on a number of factors. Describe the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen with respect to: PO2, PCO2, H+, temperature, and 2,3  bisphosphoglycerate. As each of these factors increases, describe the shift of the curve on the  graph. 47.What is the Bohr effect?A&P Lecture Exam #3 – April 10th 48.What does it mean when a hemoglobin molecule is ‘partially saturated’? 49.Identify the three main ways that carbon dioxide is transported. 50.Describe how carbon dioxide is temporarily transported as a bicarbonate ion (including the  role of water, carbonic acid and hydrogen ions). 51.What is the Haldane effect? 52.Review Figure 23.24 in your text Answers: Chapter 18: Endocrine System Exocrine glands: secrete stuff through ducts to body cavity or surface of body Endocrine glands: secrete hormones into interstitial fluid which then diffuses into bloodstream  going to target cells (receptors) which restores homeostasis (most are negative feedback  systems) Classes of Hormones: Lipid-soluble: diffuse through membrane, bind to receptors inside target cell, then change  proteins, affecting the cell’s activity Water-soluble: bind to receptors on membrane, makes 2nd messenger inside cell, makes  lots of proteins inside cell which affects its activity Control of secretion: Neural: signal for nervous system Humoral: chemical changes in blood Hormonal: from tropic hormones and other hormones Glands Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis): Connected to hypothalamus by infundibulum  Anterior lobe: (glandular tissue) controlled by hypothalamus, can secrete both releasing  and inhibiting hormones, they go into hypophyseal portal system (bloodstream)  Hypoglycemia: low blood glucose – GHRH stimulates hGH (human growth hormone)  – glucose levels rise Hyperglycemia: high blood glucose – GHIH inhibits hGH – glucose levels go down Non-endocrine tissue: GH (growth hormone) – increase in cell size and production  rate PRL (prolactin) – stimulates mammary glands to produce milk during lactation Tropic Hormones: ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) – adrenal cortex’s synthesis  and secretion of glucocorticoids TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) – stimulates thyroid to release thyroid  hormones FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) – M: Sperm production F: Oocyte  production and estrogenA&P Lecture Exam #3 – April 10th  LH (luteinizing hormone) – M: Testosterone F: Triggers ovulation &  estrogen & progestogen Posterior lobe: (nervous tissue) store hormones produced by hypothalamus OT (oxytocin) – stimulates contradiction of smooth muscles in breasts (milk) and  uterus (childbirth)  ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) – decreases water loss in urine (returns water to blood) Thyroid Gland: lateral lobes connected by isthmus – follicles (sacs) with follicular cells that trap  iodide and produce thyroglobulin (together they produce T3 and T4) – parafollicular cells  (produce calcitonin) T3 (Triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine) – increase basal metabolic rate and stimulate  synthesis of proteins, use of glucose and fatty acids for ATP production, lipolysis (breakdown of  triglycerides)  Calcitonin – decrease blood calcium levels by inhibiting osteoclasts (calcium is in bone –  make less bone) Parathyroid Gland: embedded in thyroid gland (white dot) – Chief cells produce parathyroid  hormone PTH (parathyroid hormone) – increases blood calcium levels by stimulating osteoclasts  (make more bone) Adrenal Glands: on top of kidneys – outer cortex and inner medulla Cortex: Zona glomerulosa – Aldosterone – decreases Na and H2O loss in urine by retuning  to blood Zona fasciculate – Cortisol – cortisone – increases resistance to stress,  increases blood glucose levels, and decreases inflammation   Zona reticularis – Androgen – M: insignificant F: Increases sex drive Medulla: (Chromaffin cells) Epinephrine – promotes fight or flight response (adrenaline)  NE (norepinephrine) – promotes fight or flight response (adrenaline) Pancreas: Acini (exocrine) and Islets of Langerhans (endocrine)  Islet Cells: Alpha cells – glucagon – increase blood glucose levels by stimulating liver to  make more   Beta cells – insulin – decreases blood glucose levels by putting glucose into  body from blood Pineal Gland: pinealocytes  Melatonin – helps set biological clock (peak levels during sleep) Thymus Gland:  Thymosin – promotes maturation of T lymphocytes for immune response Thymopoietin – promotes maturation of T lymphocytes for immune response Thymic factor – promotes maturation of T lymphocytes for immune response Thymic humoral factor – promotes maturation of T lymphocytes for immune response GI Tract: Secretin – secretes pancreatic juice and bile CCK (cholecystokinin) – secretes pancreatic juice and regulates release of bile from  gallbladderA&P Lecture Exam #3 – April 10th Kidney: Renin – increases blood pressure by vasoconstriction and secretes aldosterone EPO (erythropoietin) – increases rate of red blood cell formation  Chapter 19: Cardiovascular System – Blood  Blood: Relationship between blood and interstitial fluid: Functions: Transportation: O2, CO2, nutrients, waste, heat Regulation: Homeostasis, pH (buffers), body temperature Protection: clotting and helping immune system Properties: pH 7.35 – 7.45 Components: Plasma = Females: 54-62% Males: 46-60% - contains water and solutes (proteins:  albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen)  Formed Elements (development of them is called hemopoiesis) = Females: 38-46%  Males: 40-54% - contains red bone marrow and hemocytoblasts (pluripotent stem cells) Erythrocytes: Red Blood Cells (RBCs) – Anatomy: Transport gases and carry O2 Biconcave discs – no nuclei and other organelles (can’t reproduce) – 120-day life span  Hematocrit: percent of total blood volume occupied by RBCs - Females: 38-46% Males:  40-54% (females have less because they loss blood during menstruation every month so overall  they have less)  Erythropoiesis: production of RBCs  stimulated by reduced O2 to kidneys then produces erythropoietin (hormone for  producing RBCs)  target tissue: red bone marrow Hypoxia: decrease in # RBCs (hemorrhage) – decrease in O2 (high altitudes) – increase  demands for O2 (aerobic exercise)  Negative feedback loop: Stimulus (disrupts homeostasis by decreasing) – controlled  condition oxygen delivery to kidneys (and other tissue) – receptors kidney cells – input (detect  low oxygen levels, increase erythropoietin secretion into blood) – control center proeythroblasts in red bone marrow mature more quickly into reticulocytes – output (more reticulocytes enter  circulating blood) – effectors larger number of RBCs in circulation – response increased O2 delivery to tissues - return to homeostasis when O2 delivery to kidneys increases to normal  Erythrocytes – Physiology: Hemoglobin (in spleen: heme: iron combines with transferrin, stored in liver as ferriten and bilirubin incorporated into bile, excreted as part of feces and urine (pigment) & globin protein:  recycled – 4 polypeptide chains)  Leukocytes: White Blood Cells (WBCs):A&P Lecture Exam #3 – April 10th Defend against disease – nucleated Diapedesis: go out of blood vessels into other places  WBCs move from circulation to interstitial fluid Granulocytes: absorb lots of stains - granule: small compact particle of substance  Neutrophil – neutral pH Eosinophil – ... pH  Basophil – basic pH Agranulocytes: do not absorb stains Lymphocytes Monocytes Platelets (thrombocytes): pieces of megakaryocytes – blood clotting – 8-day life span Blood Types: genetically determined & named by specific substances (antigens) found on the  surface of RBCs Antibodies are plasma proteins produced by immune cells  Each antibody (A, B, AB, O) is specific to one antigen (A, B, AB, O) Normally plasma does not have antibodies the same as the antigens on the RBCs ABO Blood Types Rh Blood Types Universal RBC or whole blood donor: O- : It does not have any antigens so it will not react with  blood Universal RBC or whole blood receiver: AB+ : It has all of the antigens so it can get any blood  (any antigen) Universal plasma donor: AB+ : Does not have any antibodies so it will not react with any other  plasma Universal plasma receiver: O- : It has all of the antibodies so it can get any plasma (any  antibody)  Agglutination (clumping): occurs when someone’s antibodies contact a foreign cell (anti-B  contacts Type B blood) Hemolytic disease: when the mother and baby (still inside – fetus) have blood types that  are incompatible with each other – when Rh+ mom has a Rh- baby sometimes the blood from  baby can mix into mom’s blood during child birth, they is no problem with this until the mom A&P Lecture Exam #3 – April 10th tries to have another baby in which then the mom’s Rh+ and Rh- blood goes into the baby during contraception  Chapter 20: Cardiovascular System – Heart Anatomy: Covering: Pericardium Fibrous Serous (secretes watery membrane) Parietal layer Visceral layer (epicardium) Pericardial cavity: filled with serous fluid Heart Wall: Epicardium (transparent) Myocardium (heart muscles = thick) Endocardium (lines heart chambers = blood comes in contact with it) Chambers: Atria Superior chambers Interatrial septum Auricles (look like dog ears) Pectinate muscle Ventricles (left ventricle wall is thicker – because it need to exert more force to pump blood to all parts of body) Inferior chambers Interventricular septum Trabeculae carneae (meaty shelf) – makes sure valves closes Valves:   Atrioventricular valves (AV) – 1st “lubb” sound you hear in heartbeat (when valve is  closing)  Tricuspid valve: (right side) between right atrium and right ventricle  Bicuspid valve: (left side) between left atrium and left ventricle   Semilunar valves (SV) – 2nd “dupp” sound you hear in heartbeat (when valve is closing)  Pulmonary: (right side – low in O2, high in CO2) between right ventricle and  pulmonary trunk (going to lungs)  Aortic: (left side – high in O2, low in CO2) between left ventricle and aorta  (going to systemic capillaries and rest of body) Circulation to Quads: 1. Right atrium – high CO2, low O2A&P Lecture Exam #3 – April 10th a. Through Tricuspid valve 2. Right ventricle a. Through pulmonary valve 3. Pulmonary trunk and pulmonary arteries 4. Lungs – after low CO2, high O2 5. Pulmonary veins  6. Left atrium a. Bicuspid valve 7. Left ventricle a. Aortic valve 8. Aorta and systemic arteries – high CO2, low  O2 9. Quadriceps femoris 10.Inferior vena cava 11.Right atrium – high CO2, low O2 Cardiac Muscle Tissue  Two different types of cells: cardiomyocyte and cardiac pacemaker cells gap junctions (when one goes all others go in a wave after it)  Once the SA node atomically starts depolarization goes through whole heart in wave –  depolarizing all cells in a pathway  Autorhythmic fibers Some cardiac muscle cells are self-excitable Initiate own depolarization and rest of heart Known as “nodes” – only in right atrium Act as pacemakers and form conduction system – both right and left sides Heart contracts as a whole unit (all or nothing) – without ANS sym and parasym it  would beat at 100 beats/min Long absolute refractory period – prevents tetanus which would inhibit pumping Conducting System Sinoatrial (SA) node Depolarization wave through atria Atrioventricular (AV) node Atrioventricular (AV) bundle: right and left Purkinje fibers Depolarization wave through ventricles Electrocardiography (EKG or ECG) – recording of electrical events Deflection waves P Wave: depolarization wave passing over atria QRS Complex: depolarization wave passing over ventricle – atria repolarization  (contraction) T Wave: ventricular repolarization (contraction) Cardiac Cycle: events associated with the blood flow through the heart during one heart beat 1. Depolarization of atrial contractile fibers – produces P wave (blood in atrium) 2. Atrial systole (contraction) (atrium contracts sending blood down heart) 3. Depolarization of ventricular contractile fibers produces QRS complex (blood down middle  and up sides of heart)A&P Lecture Exam #3 – April 10th 4. Ventricular systole (contraction) (blood fills ventricles) 5. Repolarization of ventricle contractile fibers – produces T wave 6. Ventricular diastole (relaxation)  Ventricular filling: Passive process – blood flows from atria to ventricles (AV valves open, SL  valves closed) Atrial Systole: Following P wave, atria contracts (30% of blood is forced into ventricles) –  ventricular pressure increases (AV valves close) Isovolumetric contraction: (split second) All valves are closed and blood volume in ventricles  in constant Ventricular ejection: Ventricular pressure rises (SL valves open) and most but not all blood  leaves heart Isovolumetric relaxation phase: ventricular pressure drops (all valves closed) Cardiac Output: amount of blood ejected from each ventricle per minuet  Determined by: Heart rate and Stroke volume (amount of blood pumped out by left  ventricle in one circulation) End diastolic volume (EDV): volume in ventricle at end of relaxation period End systolic volume (ESV): volume in ventricle at end of ventricular contraction Regulation of Heart Rate: controlled by centers in medulla Cardioaccelerator center (CAC): sympathetic neurons innervate SA and AV nodes –  Norepinephrine (NE) – increases heart rate and strength of contraction Cardioinhibitory center (CIC): parasympathetic neurons (Vagus nerve) innervates SA and  AV nodes – Acetylcholine – decreases heart rate and strength of contraction  Chapter 21: Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels  Blood Flow through blood vessels Heart – arteries – arterioles – capillaries – capillary bed – tissue – venules – veins – heart Layers Tunica Intima (interna): inner layer – endothelium – contacts blood Tunica Media: middle layer – smooth muscle and/or elastic fibers Tunica Externa: outer layer – elastic and collagen fibers Arteries: Transports oxygenated blood away from heart Elastic: largest  Conducting arteries: conduct blood from heart to muscular arteries Abundant elastic fivers in tunica media: walls stretch to accommodate surge of blood from ventricles  Muscular:  Distributing vessels: deliver blood to organs Abundant smooth muscle in tunica media Vasoconstriction: sympathetic division – adjust blood flow rate Arterioles: smallest arteries (microscopic) – resistance vessels – 2 or 3 layers Capillaries: A&P Lecture Exam #3 – April 10th Smallest – endothelium – lack tunica media and tunica externa – exchange vessels: 1st vessel  that stuff can pass through Function: exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and  tissue cells Types:  Continuous: intercellular clefts – most common – IN: skeletal and smooth muscle; lungs  Fenestrated (pores): intercellular clefts – fenestrations – absorption and filtration – IN:  kidneys, villi of small intestines; choroid plexuses  Sinusoid (huge holes RBCs can go through): intercellular clefts and fenestrations – IN: liver  and spleen  Capillary Beds: Network of vessels – make up microcirculation – flow of blood from arteriole to venule (in  between these all over body) Arteriole Metarteriole: empties into capillary beds  Precapillary sphincters: control blood flow into the true capillaries – cause blood to flow  directly from the metarteriole into the post capillary venule – open when the tissue needs  nutrients – closed when the tissues needs have been met  Thoroughfare channel: a vessel the provides a bypass for a capillary bed Post-capillary venule: drain the capillary bed  Muscular venule Veins: Transport deoxygenated blood to heart Thinner walls than arteries: poorly developed tunica media and tunica externa is thickest  65% of total blood volume is in veins and venules at one time = blood reservoirs Valves: cause venous blood flow to go in only one direction % blood in different regions:  64% = systemic veins & venules (blood reservoirs)  13% = systemic arteries & arterioles  9% = pulmonary vessels   7% = heart  7% = systemic capillaries Capillary Exchange Diffusion: high to low concentration – solute exchange – oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose,  amino acids, hormones... Bulk flow: large numbers on ions, particles, or molecules move in the same direction –  regulates blood volume and interstitial fluid volume  Blood Hydrostatic Pressure (BHP): capillary blood pressure – forces fluid out of capillary Interstitial Fluid Hydrostatic Pressure (IFHP): pressure of fluid in surrounding tissue –fluid  into Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure (BCOP): pressure in blood from solute concentration – fluid  into Interstitial Fluid Osmotic Pressure (IFOP): pressure in surround tissues from solute  concentration – fluid outA&P Lecture Exam #3 – April 10th Net Filtration Pressure (NFP): determines whether fluid enters or leaves capillaries Atrial End: Outward – fluid leaves capillaries – filtration – 20L/day Venule End: Inward – fluid enters capillaries – reabsorption – 17L/day  NFP = (BHP – IFOP) – (BCOP – IFHP)  Excess fluid goes into lymphatic system (15%) Overwhelming filtration (injury) Failure of lymphatic system: Occlusion of lymphatic vessels by infectious organism  (elephantiasis) – Removal of lymphatic vessels and nodes (breast cancer treatment) Blood Pressure Pressure blood vessel wall: greatest in aorta – steepest change in arterioles Systolic pressure (ventricular systole): highest (top) pressure in arteries during systole Diastolic pressure: lowest (bottom) pressure in arteries during diastole – more time is spent at this pressure Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP): Diastolic + 1/3 (systolic – diastolic) = MAP  ex. with average blood pressure in arteries: d=70 s=120 70 + 1/3 (120-70) = 86.6 Can’t just take simple average because diastole is longer than systole  Pressures in different blood vessels: (picture) Veins (blood goes back to heart): Low pressure: Valves (proximal and distal) – respiratory pump –  skeletal muscle pump  Factors that affect MAP: depends CO x R (Cardiac Output times Resistance) Cardiac output: heart rate and stroke volume Resistance: amount of friction encountered as blood passes through vessels: size of lumen – blood viscosity – total blood vessel length (the longer the blood vessels the greater resistance) Cardiovascular center (CV center) Controls heart rate (CAC and CIC) Controls blood vessel diameter Vasomotor nerves (sympathetic neurons) Innervate smooth muscle Vasoconstriction Baroreceptors  Pressure receptors, carotid and aortic sinuses, send impulses to  cardiovascular center via glossopharyngeal nerve (carotid) and vagus nerve (aorta)  When BP is low they stretch less which inputs a decrease ratio of nerve  impulses to the control center, then the output increases sympathetic NS and decreases  parasympathetic NS which effects the heart by increasing stroke volume and HR and vessels by  constriction them and increasing SVR this results in increased BP Chemoreceptors Low O2, high CO2, high H+ In aortic arch and carotid arteries Low O2, high CO2, high H+ then chemoreceptors send impulses to  cardiovascular system which then increases sympathetic stimulation the vasoconstriction  happens which increases BPA&P Lecture Exam #3 – April 10th Chapter 23: Respiratory System  Anatomy:  External nose w/ external nares (nostrils) Lined by muscle and mucous membrane Warming, filtering, and moistening air Internal nose Nasal cavity: olfactory receptors Internal nares: leads to pharynx Paranasal sinuses (next to the nasal) also lined with mucous membrane Pharynx Nasopharynx (above back of mouth) Auditory tube (mustation tubes) Pharyngeal tonsils (lymph nodes) Oropharynx (just below nasopharynx – immediately behind mouth) Palatine tonsils Lingual tonsils Laryngopharynx (below oropharynx – right about larynx) Larynx (voice box) Vocal cords Nine hyaline cartilages Thyroid cartilage  Arytenoid cartilages Influence changes in position and tension of vocal cords Epiglottis: covers glottis Cartilages lined Stratified squamous and ciliated pseudostratified epithelium Goblet cells  Trachea Mucosa: ciliated pseudostratified epithelium – goblet cells  Submucosa Hyaline cartilage: incomplete rings – trachealis muscle Adventitia: areolar connective tissue (on outside) Bronchial Tree Conducting zone (air) Primary bronchi Secondary bronchi Tertiary bronchi Bronchioles Terminal bronchioles Decrease in hyaline cartilage Transition of pseudostratified to simple cuboidal epithelium – no goblet cells Smooth muscle increases  Respiratory Zone Respiratory bronchioles Alveolar ducts Alveolar sacs Alveoli: microscopic air sacs  AlveoliA&P Lecture Exam #3 – April 10th Type I alveolar cells: simple squamous epithelium (thin flat cells) Type II alveolar cells (septal cells): produce surfactant = reduces surface tension  Alveolar macrophages: phagocytize debris and dust particles  Processes: Pulmonary ventilation: Breathing External respiration: Gas exchange between lungs and blood  Internal respiration: Gas exchange between blood and tissue (need to do this because of cell  respiration)  Anatomy:  Lungs Located in pleural cavity  Parietal and visceral pleura  Pleural fluid (between pleura layers) Mechanics of breathing: Alveolar pressure: negative or positive relative to atmosphere  Intrapleural pressure: usually negative relative to atmosphere Inspiration: Boyle’s Law: Pressure in closed container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container  Active process Phrenic nerve and intercostal nerves stimulated Diaphragm, external intercostal muscles contract  Thoracic cavity expands Alveolar pressure < atmospheric pressure Air enters  Expiration: Passive process Diaphragm, external intercostal muscles relax Elastic recoil of lungs Thoracic cavity decreases in size Alveolar pressure > atmospheric pressure Air moves out of lungs  External and internal Respiration: Dalton’s Law: each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if no other gases were  present – partial pressure Henry’s Law: quantity of a gas that dissolves in a liquid is proportional to partial pressure of the  gas and its solubility External: Depends on partial pressure difference across respiratory membrane – O2 from alveoli  to capillary blood – CO2 from capillary blood to alveoli Internal: Depends of partial pressure difference across systemic capillary walls – O2 from capillary blood to tissues – CO2 from tissues into capillary blood  O2 Transport:A&P Lecture Exam #3 – April 10th 1.5% plasma 98.5% hemoglobin (Hb): respiratory pigment in RBCs – Globin, heme, iron – each iron atom binds  to 1 O2 Hb affinity for O2 Conditions in active tissues reduce affinity - Affinity decreases with:  P=partial pressure Low PO2: Low partial pressures of O2 = not lots of hemoglobin holding O2   High partial pressures of O2 = lots of hemoglobin holding O2 Increase H+ (high acidity, low pH): – places where active tissues are doing work  Bohr Effect: Hb acts as a buffer for H+   H+ ions bind to amino acids in Hb = alters Hb structure, decrease  O2 carrying capacity Increase PCO2:   Graph: Low line (percent saturation of Hb) = high blood PCO2  middle line = normal blood PCO2   high line = low blood PCO2 all  over PO2 Increase temperature:   Graph: low line (percent saturation of Hb) = high temp   middle line = normal blood temperature  high line = low temperature all  over PO2 High metabolic rate: 2,3-biphosphoglcerate (BPG), produced by RBCs as glucose is  oxidized CO2 Transport: 7% in plasma 23% bound to hemoglobin  70% HCO3- in plasma  Reverse situation of oxygen  Internal Respiration: CO2 diffuses into blood, then ... CO2 diffuses into RBCs, then ... Some binds to Hb Some converted: H20 + CO2 – H2CO3 – H+ + HCO3-  Catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase H+ binds to Hb HCO3- diffuses into plasma in exchange for Cl- (chloride shift)  External Respiration:  Previous reactions reverse  Haldane Effect: CO2 that blood can hold influenced by % saturation of hemoglobin with O2 Lower oxyhemoglobin, higher CO2 carrying capacity of blood Deoxyhemoglobin binds to and transports more CO2 than Hb-O2 Deoxyhemoglobin buffers more H+ than does Hb-O2, removing H+ from  solution promoting conversion of CO2 to HCO3- catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase

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