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Long Beach State - POSC 100 - POSC 100 Exam 2 Study Guide - Study

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Schools > California State University Long Beach > Political Science > POSC 100 > Long Beach State - POSC 100 - POSC 100 Exam 2 Study Guide - Study

Long Beach State - POSC 100 - POSC 100 Exam 2 Study Guide - Study

School: California State University Long Beach
Department: Political Science
Course: Intro to American Government
Professor: L. Ringel
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Posc, posc100, exam, exam2, and Studyguide
Name: POSC 100 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This is my study guide for the second exam. It includes everything from lecture notes, readings, things she mentioned at the end of lectures, and from the review session.
Uploaded: 04/07/2017
0 5 3 49 Reviews
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background image POSC 100 Exam 2 Study Guide (Ch 10-13) 
Week 6: 
● Government and Policy:  ○ Government : means to promote general welfare and avoid what could otherwise be chaotic  relations between individuals and groups  ○ Policy:  (laws) governmental responses to specific social problems  ■ Can be action, inaction, or somewhere in between, and sometimes symbolic  ○ How and why do we get the policies we do?  What the people wish / Elites’ decision  Institutional rules of the game  Competition among citizen interest & advocacy  groups  Societal power structures     ● Politics today: Key Patterns and Issues?  ○ Polarized → people on different sides of the pole  
○ Messy, confusing, scary → speed at which it’s moving makes is complicated to keep 
  ● Perspectives on Government:  ○ Conservatism  → sees gov as disruptor  ■ Market is a more fair and moral entity 
■ Intrudes on individual liberties (negative liberties) (choosing who to marry) 
○ Progressivism:  → sees gov as protector  ■ Problem solver / Source of empowerment for citizens    ● Dysfunction or Checks and Balances:  ○ “Checks and Balances”  design seeks →   ■ Avoid concentration of power and corruption  
■ Put roadblocks in the way of unpredictable majorities  
■ Share power between states and national government 
○ Governmental institutions have also changed  →   ■ Each institution has shifted from framer’s designs  
■ Design and changes are not neutral → help or hinder democracy and affect the policies 
produced  ○ Nation holds increasingly democratic expectations  →   ■ People have asked gov to do more and be more responsive  
■ Made themselves more involved in gov 
■ People are dissatisfied with gov dysfunction  
 
Week 7: 
Bureaucracy  ● Congress in the Constitution:  ○ Consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives / Center of policymaking 
○ Some important powers: 
■ Financial  → taxes, borrowing, regulate trade  ■ Legal  → establish citizenship laws, issue money, pass laws w/ pres. Approval  ■ Institutional  → organize judicial / executive branches, postal system, admit new states  ■ National Defense  → declare war, raise and fund military   
background image ○ Some constraints:   ■ Separation of powers, checks and balances, bicameralism,  
■ no
 ex post facto laws  (Can’t pass law that makes something illegal then punish  individual after law was passed can only punish people in the future)    ● Our Representatives:   ○ Kamala D. Harris / Dianne Feinstein (California Senators, each state has 2)  
○ Alan Lowenthal (Long Beach Congressman) 
● How is Congress doing?  ○ 113th Congress (115th now)  → historically good at not passing bills  
○ 18% → approve of congress 
○ Members of congress say their job sucked and disapproved  
  ● Why is it hard for congress to get anything done?  ○ Difficult for a bill to become a law:  (pg. 351)  ■ In the House → bill introduced, referred to committee, referred to subcommittee for  hearings and markup, committee action, floor action   ■ In the Senate → (diagram on BB)  ○ The problem of the constituency:  ■ Malapportionment in the senate   ● Wyoming pop: 576,000 / California pop: > 38 million 
● Different pops yet both get only two senators  
● 51 senators from 26 of the smallest states only make up for 18% of population  
■ Gerrymandering ​ in the house (BB video)  ● Able to get an advantage for your party in the state 
● Redistricting occurs after each census 
● Packing
 → cramming supporters into your district to be overwhelming   ● Cracking  → breaking up districts   ● Delegate:  representative tries to mirror perfectly the views of their constituents  ● Trustee:  representative acts independently, using their own judgement as to how  to best serve the people  ○ Increased partisanship:  ■ How tightly do you act with the people and political group you side with 
■ Has been increasing, due to →  
● Regional concentration of parties 
● Gerrymandering of congressional districts 
● Larger partisan conflict nationally (polarized)  
● Parties are becoming more ideological 
■ Leadership & “herding cats” (impossible)  ● Party Conference / Caucus: leadership, committee assignments, objectives 
● Majority party in the house selects
 → Speaker of the House  ● Majority party in the Senate selects  → majority leader  ● Minority party  → select their internal leaders    ○ Incumbency:  current person in power whose running again  ■ Time, casework, earmarks, and campaign money (re-election)   
 
background image ○ Representation:  ■ *Descriptive Representation:  whether the composition of a body reflect the  demographics of the population it serves  ■ Substantive Representation:  whether the decision of a body match the interests of the  population it serves   
Week 8: Presidency 
● The Presidency: has it become too powerful?  (basics)  ○ A single executive / Selected by electoral college 
○ Length of term → 4 years / 22nd Amend. → 2 terms 
○ Natural-born citizen, 35 years old, lived in US for 14 years 
● Powers:   ○ Expressed:  explicit authorities, usually balanced by Congress  ○ Delegated:  after Congressional legislation, puts in effect  ○ Inherent:  during crises or war  ● Official Roles:  (In Constitution)  ○ Head of State 
○ Commander in Chief 
○ Top Diplomat 
○ Chief Bureaucrat 
● Roles in Practice:  ○ First Legislator:  ■ Person who can initiates legislation  ○ Economist in Chief:  ■ Responsible for health of economy  ○ Party Leader:  ■ Leader of the party, sets the agenda  ● Imperial Presidency:  ○ Shift in the constitutional balance of power away from Congress and toward the presidency  ■ Ex: President Johnson’s mastery of domestic policymaking 
■ Ex: President’s Bush’s unitary executive 
○ Presidency’s extreme power, prestige, and authority  ■ Ex: President Washington’s tour of the nation 
■ Ex: President Bush’s visit to England 
○ The use of executive orders  ■ Formal directives to executive branch departments and agencies that have the force of  the law  ● Ex: DACA, DAPA, Obama Care, Louisiana Purchase  ● Why the presidency has grown stronger?  ○ Our expectations:   ■ Our only national office / Media & public demands scope of office / President' promises  ○ The presidency’s changing relationship with the people  ■ Framers’ vision:  an elite leader, relatively distant from public  ■ Pre-Civil War:  most exercised few powers b/c national gov responsibilities were limited  ■ 19th and early 20th Centuries:  swings b/w strong / weak presidents and b/w  presidential and congressional supremacy  ■ 20th Century:  began to speak directly to the public and respond to public opinion as the  base of suffrage broadened 

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School: California State University Long Beach
Department: Political Science
Course: Intro to American Government
Professor: L. Ringel
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Posc, posc100, exam, exam2, and Studyguide
Name: POSC 100 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This is my study guide for the second exam. It includes everything from lecture notes, readings, things she mentioned at the end of lectures, and from the review session.
Uploaded: 04/07/2017
8 Pages 110 Views 88 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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