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Test #3 notes- final review for cozza 11 am

by: Maria Sabando

Test #3 notes- final review for cozza 11 am BSC 1011

Marketplace > Florida International University > BSC 1011 > Test 3 notes final review for cozza 11 am
Maria Sabando
GPA 3.91
General Biology II
John Cozza

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This is all the notes (typed) for test #3- all the notes were copied straight from voice recordings of the class, useful for studying for the final! Includes all the notes for the powerpoint used ...
General Biology II
John Cozza
Study Guide
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maria Sabando on Sunday April 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 1011 at Florida International University taught by John Cozza in . Since its upload, it has received 920 views.


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Date Created: 04/26/15
Test Review Ch 35 Deuterstome animals Phylogeny gt Bilaterian 3 layers bilateral symmetry gt Gastrula dented in portion gt Blastopore actual dent Deuterostomes gt Echinoderms gt Chordate gt Radial cleavage derived trait Echinoderm spiny skin No head brain simple organ system gt Pentaradial symmetry I Larva had bilateral symmetry Endoskeleton Water vascular system Habitat all marine I All of these are diagnostic features synapomorphies Calcarous plate structure shown after it dies skeleton On top is the epidermis spiny pendicillana little claws for parasites sometimes poisonous Tube foot main means of locomotion Gut stomach w digestive system simple anatomy w unique water vascular system I Pumps water through canals into tube feet for movement food gas transport and protection I No circulatory system 5 major clades of Echinoderms gt Sea lilies crinoids Asteroids sea stars Ophiroids brittle stars echinoids sea urchins sand dollar holothroids sea cucumbers Sea star asteroids star fishquot gt Predators in the slow lane eat bivalve mollusk by applying pressure to open them they turn stomach inside out evert stomach to digest gt Crown of thorns starfish asteroida eats coral and vacuums poisonous spines live in the great barrier reef I Triton s trumpet snail predator of crown of thorns uses radula to scrape hole in crown of thorns and suck them out I Have beautiful shell and is over fished so it can t control crown of thorn population and used for ashtrays not eaten Echinoids sea urchins gt No arms solid endoskeleton movable spines shell quottestquot omnivorous mouth on bottom to scrape algae coral etc gt Some are predators most are grazers Holothoroids sea cucumbersquot gt Soft oral aboral axis mouth anus stretched out and lying on their side so they have bilateral symmetry I Oral end bottom of starfish and sea urchin anterior end VV VV VVV because they have an ancestor with radial symmetry and still have anatomical radial symmetry 5 rows of tube feet 5 digestive glands etc gt Filter feedings have nasty tasting toxic defense mechanism since hey have no shell Sea pig feed on detritus live in abyss travel in big hers great sense of smell elongated tube feet to walk Chordates gt Notochord gt Dorsal hollow nerve cord gt Postanal tail I Some features only present in embryo Lancelet basal clade have pharyngeal slits notochord dorsal h n cord post anal tail is a cephalochordate so is easy to see all the traits of chordates Notochord exible tough runs the length of organism on its back gt Collagen muscles attached to it gt Used for movement gt In some clades may be replaced by bone derived state Lancelets retain notochord throughout life Sturgeon ray finned bone deposited around notochord but still retains throughout life Marlin ray finned notochord completely replaced in each vertebrae by bone derived Dorsal hollow nerve cord above notochord every chordate gt Back sidequot of embryo in early development little groove forms and becomes pocket then pocket pinches off to become a neural tube w neural crest cells hollow tube just under skin on back nervous system I Little hole in middle of spinal cord cerebral spinal uid in space Notochord is not the spinal cord also known as the nerve cord Pharyngeal slits non chordates have it too ancestral trait could be filter feeding or for water to ow through gills for breathing gt We have them as embryo but they develop into other structures Most ancestral branch of chordate urochordata I Sea squirt some free swimming most attached got two siphons water drawn in through incurrent siphon filtered through the pharyngeal slit then food goes through slit and collected by mucus to go into stomach and is digested absorbed then water stream goes out the ex current siphon I 2 siphons and a filter make it most like a clam bivalve Sponges have cell by cell filter not filter feeding Urochordate have larva metamorphosis into sessile larva gt Larva makes it chordate has tail notochord and dorsal hollow nerve cord gt Larvaceans are sea squirts that retain larva like features can still swim etc Are we larval chordates Evolutionarily may be chordates lost adult form and stayed as larva that becomes sexually mature Acorn worms hemichordate sister to echinoderms not a chordate gt Not as much cephalization feeding structure filter feeders Lancelets chordate look like fish but much less cephalization gt No eyes no sensory structures minus tentacles around mouth gt Live in the sediment filter feeders sediment feeders Urochordates sea squirtsquot or turnicates gt 2 siphons incurrent excurrent gt Sometimes live in colonies gt Larva have chordate features gt Predatory snags passers by with large mouth Hagfish more cephalization gt Teeth like structures no jaw no vertebrate live on sea oor scavengers gt Now jaws so rasp at esh tie selves in a knot for leverage gt Give off gooey slime for protection Lamprey no jaw rows of teeth like structures parasite rasps hole inside a fish and sucks its blood gt Almost wiped out fisheries of great lakes Cartilaginous fish fish not monophyletic gt Sharks mantas whale sharks giant vacuum to filter out water bottom feeders Biggest shark that ever lived Megalodon went extinct 15 MYA Ray finned fish gt Diversity in shapes sizes colors ways of eating Lobe finned fish gt Ancient group 375 MYA gt Some crept on land on occasion gt Coelacanth latimena chalumae still live not extinct gt Lungfish also lobe finned Lungfish Southern Africa Has gills also breathes air using modified swim bladder that acts as lung When rain fails and dries up water lungfish copes w extreme conditions so buries itself underground by eating mud and pushing out their gills To not dry out uses mucus to enclose itself and hardens mud sacrophagesquot leaving only hole for breathing Slows metabolism to 160th of original weight and use fat muscle to feed Can survive up to 4 years by end up poisoned by own waste products Then mucus lining melts off until it rains and drags itself back to the water Tetrapods 4 footed chordates gt Success on land enormous diversity gt O ancestral stage 1 derived stage I Modern phylogeny characteristics would be DNA nucleotides I Lungs of lungfish controversial because are they homologous with lungs of other chordates Possible phylogeny Most recent common ancestor of bilaterians protostomes ex fruit y VVV V VV Protostomes have cephalization fruit y echinoderms and hemichordate have no cephalization nor notochord Cephalochordata and urochordata also has no cephalization but do have notochord Parsimony use the phylogeny tree by assuming the one with the least amount of assumptions is correct Crucial innovation of vertebrates was getting a head and after getting a cranium gt Started out as cartilage hagfish then became bonegt cranium gt Pikaia has a head and sensory organs but no cranium gt Fossil burgess shale has a cranium 518 MYA Paralleling evolution of head and cranium is the eye gt Mollusks have just an eye spot in ancestral group and in more derived groups have lens and a cup and lens because they are adjustable to image forming eye that can focus at different distances gt also the same for chordates gt Signature defining feature of vertebrates and series of segmented bones allows huge exibility in skeleton How do vertebrate develop gt All chordates have notochord at one stage in life and runs length of body not segmented however development of blocks of muscle that notochord runs through is segmented gt Next step segmented muscle blocks secrete calcium phosphate bone in place of notochord in between segments leaves little remnant of notochord between segments of bone 1St veterbrate made of cartilage then they became mineralized and what s left of notochord are disks still got spongy tough cartilage in between vertebrate gt Advantage of tough sponge disk more mobility shock absorption gt Disk trouble in people less cartilage more bone on bone gt We have a notochord because it becomes intervertebral discs Crucial innovation jaws ancient fossil fish 500 MYA one eyespot no jaw rests at bottom sucks up sediment only about 5 in long armored Bones to support gills posterior to head gill archesquot sits between bones and over time some bones anterior most ones got modified and since could already more some what in adjusting gills was now perfect to move and be a jaw gt Later fish more gill arches got added to the jaw allowing it to become more complicated Placoderms first known fish to have jaws not closely related to any living fish gt Live birth some of first to do so in vertebrates gt Huge fish vicious extinct now Complex jaws as more gill arches became incorporated in later lineagesgt jaw function more complex gt Large mouth bass doesn t quotchompquot on prey instead all has to do is open mouth and suck Inferring from ancestral clade urochordate and cepholachordate originated from filter feeders but evolved to predators plants too gt Incurrent excurrent siphons O 09 2 innovations of bones lst spine then jaw bones more exibility with structure and movement jawfish animals Almost half of all animals are ray finned fish gt Why Different habitats because of the way I Just like with insects so diverse because right size could vary a lot in size to feed on plankton but also feed on tinier fishgt range of size diversity I Ray finned fish successful at adapting to fresh water bottom feeders sediment feeders etc Tetrapods why so diverse gt Main innovation land living new world of habitats gt Crucial adaptations of land I Lungs to keep from drying out limbs skin internal fertilization amniotic egg ight new world I Hypothesis 1 did fish get out of land and get in water Or tetrapods started out on water and then moved to land I Water dried up and the ones who could survive legs land first hypothesis shrinking water hole hypothesis I Alternative hypothesis branches in water animals couldn t get around ones who could move around tetrapods water first hypothesis woodland hypothesis Paleontologists limbs of early tetrapod could not support weight so the shrinking water hypothesis Land first hypothesis Is not supported but does support woodland hypothesis Becoming fully terrestrial gt Reptiles drying resistant covering Keratin Scales homologous with other groups I Internal fertilization amniotic egg parental care dinosaurs also did this Wings fossil birds with teeth later tooth bird Huge diversity Were tetrapods inevitable gt No evidence can gather indirect support gt Many animals of convergent evolution around parts of world independently gt Kangaroo hopping deer gt Stehphen I Gould evolution is not predictable I Terror birdsquot were best adapted to world but still went extinct I Convergent or contingency Under study N A Story of evolution phylogeny Digestive system Basic functions of an animal gt Reproductive eat respire exchange of gases 02gtC02 circulating digest excrete waste homeostasis movement thought signals sense defense Things moved around body material transport gt Food digestion circulation respiration gas exchange Choana agellates outgroup gt Ancestrally no gut but have intracellular digestion like sponges gt Incomplete gut food waster out of the same way gt Complete gut gt Acoela not gut gt Incomplete gut Platyhelminthes No gut Porifera sponge each cell catches food when intracellular digestion under filter feeding conditions gt Tapeworm doesn t need gut because attach to utilize something else pre digested meal Incomplete gut hydra food can be stored broken down as advantage then the bite size pieces get taken into cells can only eat again when done with digestion Mouth of atworm in middle of body branches of gut more surface area for digestion distribution of food circulation etc Complete gut nematode mouth lung tube anus gt Advantage can always keep eatinggt food in unnecessary digestion Processing gut several distinct areas food passes through gt Ex earthworm gt Advantages more nutrients passes through faster efficiency more specialization of organs specialized disassembly line gt We have process gut I Physical chemical digestion I Absorption nutrients water I Microbiota Evolution of coelom crucial to allow gut to fold and be longer than body gut folded into coelom gt We have no gastrovascular cavity no worm like morphology mollusk have no segmentation and still a folded gut Adaptations gt Grazer grass non ruminant herbivore gt Browser bushes leaves ruminant herbivore Leaves most difficult to digest Cellulose cell wall makes leaves hard to digest gt Cow 4 chambered stomach gt Rumen chamber fermentation chamber with bacteria and eat meals lets it sit there to be fermented then regurgitates and eats it again to pass it down once more I Bacteria with enzymes advantage time consuming disadvantage gt Rabbit eats got intestine with normal stomach but has fermentation chamber in back called caecum I Problem absorptive part of intestine before caecum and now putting plant matter into fermentation after already absorbing what you take from it I Next rabbit has 2 kinds feces O After food passes through 1St time feces is delicious to rabbit and eats it fermented food passes through whole system again including absorptive part O After passing through again poop not tasty and is excreted O 09 O 00 Gut microbiota most diverse group in healthy human adult gut firmicutes Community of microorganism in gut microbiota gt Can be quantified by DNA and seeing who s related to who gt Changes based on health status obese people have different proportion of microbes in gut I Is abnormal microbiota causing obesity Or is obesity causing odd microbiota gt Changes through life fetus have no microbiota but different depends on how you eat or age gt Antibiotic treatment messes up microbiota gt A baby acquires gut microbiota from its mother s microbiota Microbiota in mouth of mother and through mother s birth canal Why doesn t stomach digest itself gt Stomach is hardest part of the gut has acid pH1 and powerful digestive enzymes proteins cell membranes gt Isn t digested because stomach has deep pits in it called glands that have 3 types of cell making works as combination of the 3 One cell common makes digestive enzymes but doesn t secrete enzymes in active form to just pass through cell membrane and only activated outside cells by HCL HCL secreted as 2 separate ions active ingredients outside of cell H Cl Mucus secreted by cells in neck of gland and makes thick coating over other cells and keeps the enzymes from getting active One species of microbe in intestine that can live in stomach helicobacter pylori 12 humans have this microbe and 80 have no symptoms but 20 can get in ammation or serious disease How does helicobacter pylori do it gt Has adaptions has no enzymes secretes it that breaks down urea and makes it into ammonia basic neutralizing acid gt Swim using agella drill though mucus and when reaching membrane they interact with proteins in membrane and send signal cascade in stomach cells that dissolve in stomach cells making a pedestal for feeding and taking care of bacteria doesn t cause much harm to us gt As cells are infected they release certain substances that attract 1St response white blood cells to squeeze out capillaries and destroy infected cells with oxidative radicas ROI s I Destroys cells that cause infection bacteria itself is actually harmless Lipid transport gt Lipid absorption starts in small intestine I Problem because taking something hydrophobic into hydrophilic cells use bile salts steroids have polar end and non polar end ethyl groups gt Non polar end binds to lipid droplets and polar side helps suspend it in digestive uid emulsification I Little droplets made micelles I Same way detergent gets clothes clean gt Making big fat drops into little ones so it could be taken into the cell gt While going down small intestine micelle approaches intestinal mucosis cell and cell able to take up triglycerides I How is a lipoprotein different from a micelle Has specialized proteins associated with glob or lipids a cargo ship in bloodstream gt Then transported through capillaries wherever cargo ship docks to transfer lipids off v Big cargo ship called chylomicron 339 Lipoprotein has phospholipid boundary for being able to be in contact with water of circulatory system gt Special proteins that determine where lipoproteins dock and where it will load unload more cargo apolipoproteins gt Different protein different lipoprotein different jobs v Bad lipoproteinsquot if system is out of balance drop off lipids where they shouldn t v Good lipoproteinsquot pick up lipids 339 Micelles gt intestinal cells package lipids into chylomicron gt released into circulation to release fat cells where needed v Chylomicron that remain go to liver where they re processed into other types of lipoproteins and cholesterol can be added to cargo at this point gt Other lipoproteins go back into circulatory system gt Bad news should there be too many cargo ships v Low density lipoproteins LDL drop off lipids to make plaque gt Cells of macrophages garbage menquot clean up some plaque unless it builds up too fast then get transformed into a foam cell and plaque gets bigger v High density lipoproteins HDL to the rescue gt Specialized cargo vessel picks up cholesterol instead of dropping it off and when liver synthesizes those it goes to the plaque and pick up deposited cholesterol in artery and carry it away to liver for re packaging gt If you have enough HDL and little LDL plaques can be limited v Different types of lipoproteins vary in all ways whether they carry fatty acids gt in where they dock amount of lipid cargo carried and where they drop off pick up cargo v Protection from cardiovascular disease CVD low LDL and high HDL gt Lowest risk of CVD 339 Diet and amount of fats types of fats in diet can affect HDL LDL in the blood 339 CC is saturated no carbon double bonds and CC is unsaturated has carbon double bonds v Trans fat Unusual arrangement of double bonds only found in processed foods 339 One CC monounsaturated 2 CC polyunsaturated 339 To lower LDL best type of fat oil in diet to lower risk of CVD polyunsaturated Circulation system 0 v Do protists have a circulatory system gt Have circulation but no actual circulatory system needs organs and tissues for that system Do plants have a circulatory system gt There is circulation of water but most of it is lost in the atmosphere no circulatory system Circulatory system what is it gt Is in some animals made up of organs and tissues gt Circulates nutrients gases wastes hormones gt Needs pump like a heart or cilia in coelomic and needs uid blood Planarian atworm no circulatory system alternative gastrovascular cavity 2 main kinds of circulatory system gt Open Has pump but no vessels forming circuit pushes blood toward anterior end of the body then sloshes in tissue spaces and makes it ways around that body that way gt Closed circulating uid completely enclosed in vessels for entire circuit No circ System and alternative gt Sponges water owgt little cells acting independently making water ow and grabs what it needs gt Cnidarians gastrovascular cavitygtall cells are close to that anything moving in cavity gets to all the cells gt Platyhelminthes gut and nematodes gutgttube with opening on both ends but Platyhelminthes isn t a tube but highly branched gastrovascular cavity surface area gt Echinoderms gut and water vasc System I Patterns slow moving animals something not too difficult to distribute can do fine wo one if they are tiny More active animals need circ System Open circ System most circulation taking place just as blood sloshes through spaces between cells Worms and insects don t share recent common ancestor so could ve been big history difference between them and how system evolved Better basis for comparison to be different when have a recent common ancestor ex squid and clam gt Clam open circ System vessels don t quite join up w capillaries sloshing through tissue spaces filter feeding mostly sessile gt Squid active hunter closed circ System Because squid more active than clam squid has higher metabolic rate and needs to deliver 02 and nutrients to tissues at a higher rate A closed circ System deliver 02 and nutrients to tissues at a higher rate than open circ System can Alternate hypothesis gt More active grasshopper open circ System worm closed gt Alternative select pressure 02 more critical to constantly contracting muscle I Grasshopper has airtubes that branch until getting to every tissue air sacs keep air moving though them circ System doesn t need to have high rate of transport since 02 being carried separately I Earthworm has segments walled off from each other open wouldn t work needs closed to get blood to all segments can t slosh Phylogeny of circ System gt Open circ Systems homoplageous homoplasy convergent evolution gt Closed circ System homoplageous homoplasy evolved at least 3 separate times didn t evolve from common ancestor Fish not monophyletic group gt lobe finned cartilegenous bony Closed circ System ancestral for vertebrates gt Various derived system 1 loop 2 chamber 2 loops 3 chamber 4 chamber heart gt 4 chamber heart homplasy Fish circ System 1 loop 2 chamber gt Ventricle beats deoxygenated blood though respiratory capillaries and gills then capillaries coeless into a vessel then branch into another capillary bed throughout the body then return to heart I All done by one heart Amphibians and ancestral reptile 2 loops 3 chamber gt 2 separate circulations I One that sends deoxygenated blood into lungs and back into the heart pulmonary I Another loop that sends mostly oxygenated blood to whole body then back to the heart systemic I Heart is now into 2 halves but not completely and one ventricle only means pulmonary quotPquot blood from lungs mixes slightly w blood returning from rest of body okay for them blood mostly oxygenated Ancestral reptile selection for heart more separated and ventricles start to become more separate gt Means less mixing of pulmonary and systemic blood Derived separately in both mammals and clade w crocodilians dinasaurs birds 4 chamber heart pulmonary and systemic meaning completely separate no mixing Advantage of 2 loops and more chambers gt Most resistance to blood ow in capillaries having 2 loops and assuming equal initial pressures means there s is blood pressure in systemic body loop compared to just one loop I All pressure in blood pressure lowered w one loop cause it has thinner capillaries gt Based on evol Of circ System predict that higher blood pressure needed on land than water and mammals have higher metabolic rates than fish or amphibians I Pressure of water helps push blood through body more blood pressure on land and higher metabolic rate 4 chamber heart better than 2 or 3 chamber heart works just fine for organisms that have them Blood complex mix made up of 3 components gt Plasma gt Pigment gt Formed elements How does blood transport Protect Plasma Mostly water everything is dissolved in it ions proteins what we need Blob w protein around in lipoprotein and white shaped things antibodies fibrous proteins w fibrinogen to form clots and other proteins If we clot blood blood serum plasma oozing out from clot gt Advantage given to patients and studied for clots Pigment respiratory pigment hemocyanin gt Functions in oxygen gas exchange found in arthropods and mollusks with many subunits I Active sites throughout subunits where 02 reversibly binds to with metal atom copperCu not found in cells but protein becomes gigantic with a lot of active sites gt Blood harvested from horse shoe crabs blue from Cu blood used to extract valuable substances Pigment respiratory pigment hemoglobin gt Found in variety of clades can be made of few or many subunits instead of Cu has Feiron in active site making it red instead of blue can be in cells or not I In vertebrate carried in cells gt Heme group w iron reversible binds to 02 in sub units I In humans there are 4 sub units I David Goodsell story 3 blood cells formed elements gt 2 exist as intact cells RBC white blood cell and 1 as fragment of cells platelets gt Red blood cells erythrocytes donut shape with concaved disk I Advantage of dent allows to fold to go through capillaries more contact w capillary wall I No nucleus no mitochondria I Membrane w cytoskeleton w tough exible but doesn t break when folding big bag of hemoglobin I Mammalian RBCs red blood cells repair themselves and divide using mitosis as needed to form new RBCs when they get hurt either get infected or die White blood cells leukocytes gt Some shoot bullets at targets or have oxidative bursts or snag in neck of DNA quotwarriorsquot gt Lymphocytes quotofficersquot coordinate of functions of other cells and instruct can t kill though I Cancer cells infected cells can kill these gt Have nuclei can repair themselves amoeboid shape allows it to change shape and go through capillaries O 09 Platelets fragments of cells and not usually activated but once get appropriate signals from any blood vessels can transform and become sticky gt When they get sticky stock to each other damage and snag RBCs to form a clot Blood cell form from single type of stem cell in blood marrow blood marrow is alive gt Blood forming stem cells can form all types of white blood cells plus RBCs gt RBCs at some point in development lose nucleus and mitochondria The human heart gt How does each part of the heart contribute to its function gt Heart has 4 chambers I 2 upper chambers left right atria I 2 lower chambers left right ventricle that contract in a steady rhythm to make a heartbeat I During a normal heartbeat blood from tissues blood ow from atriagt ventricles I Walls inside heart intratrialintraventricular septum help keep blood from left and right sides from mixing I 2 valves sit like doors between atria and ventricle to keep blood from owing backward into atria tricuspid valve right atriagtright ventricle bicuspid valve left atriagtleft ventricle Strong thin tissues called chordinae hold valves in place during forceful contraction of ventricles gt Blood leaving ventricles pass through another set of valves I Pulmonary valve between right ventricle and pulmonary artery I Aortic valve left ventricle and aorta gt To pump blood into system lungs has 3 layers of muscles arranged in hatch patch pattern when heart pumps it wrings itself out like a towel I Efficient ejection of blood to body gt All energy stored from wringing itself out during pumping phase actually heart relaxes like that and sucks 02 rich blood from left atriumgt left ventricle to fill again like suction filling pattern gt Special cells haespecter cellsquot generate electrical signals inside your heart heart muscle cells called myocytes contract as a group I Heart naturally divided into left right halves work together like dual pumps I Right side poorly oxygenated blood from body tissues ow through superior inferior vena cavagt right atria I Then blood moves to right ventriclegt contractsgt sends blood out to lungs to gather oxygen and get rid of C02 I Left side of heart 02 rich blood from your lungs ows from pulmonary veins to left atriagt left ventriclegt contractsgt out of heart through aortagt all tissues in body 1St branches of aorta coronary arteries supply heart muscle w 02 and nutrients On top of aorta arteries branch off target to head and organs in the middle branches supply blood to the rest of the body Lub dub sounds come from 1St heart sound 81 and 2rld heart sound 82 closing ofAV valves 81 and semilunar valves 82 Heartbeats at average of 72 bpm 5 quarts of blood in one minute gt Bpm beats per minute Dr Chew 5 youtube videos gt Most important thing about studying what you think about when you learn gt Experiment in video2 gt All are effective study methods except copying notes and re reading chapter I Take notes by hand asking self Qs making concept maps are effective study methods Cardiac cycle gt Electrical excitation electrocardiogram EKG changes in pressure heart muscle exerts I Pressure goes up volume goes down causes pumping I Atrial valves lub ventricular valves dub Mechanical changes pressure and volume only in left ventricle pumping blood to whole body most important gt Intraventricular volume volume of blood in ventricle at any one moment gt Intraventricular pressure pressure at any one moment gt Change in pressure and volume when rest volume goes up pressure goes up then pressure goes up rapidly volume stays the same volume decreases pressure increasesheart being pumped leaving the heart then drastic decrease in pressure In exercise compared to at rest heart pumps greater volume of blood in each beat by emptying more gt Heart has extra blood that normally doesn t get pumped out unless necessary Healthy vs diseased heart gt Acute heart failure heart attack gt After a long time of heart disease chronic heart failure In cardiac failure compared to healthy heart pumps blood per cycle gt Look at difference between volume of heart full and empty is x axis showing more or less In cardiac failure compared to when healthy heart itself has and Heart enlarges when unhealthy comes quot abbyquot and fills with more blood that can t be pumped out blood just sits there Cardiac cycle excitation gt Beating of atria spreads from cell to cell by contact of cells but then when reaching SA node pacemaker gt AV node network of thread like fibers I SAgt AVslow AVgt purkinje fibers rapid Measured changes by putting electrodes on patients chest and measuring electrical differences gt Xaxis time bpm gt Y axis electrical current voltage In an EKG QRS wave associated with the most rapid excitation which affects the largest part of the heart gt Ventricle largest part of the heart Blood vessels gt Circuit from the heart through small arteries capillaries then small and big veins gt Capillaries Where exchange happens network never far from any cell never more than 23 cells apart from capillary gt Wall one cell thick really narrow lumen in between RBC is against wall has to fold to get through it gt 3 things determine what enters leaves capillaries I What can squeeze into capillary between cells I Pressure tends to push things out of the capillary I Osmotic pressure tends to pull water in gt Proteins lots of solute in capillary water goes in and can t leave capillaries gt Resistance in capillaries cuts pressure down 40 mmHg at arterial endgt 10 mmHg at venous end I Osmotic pressure same 25mmHg I Net pressure 15arterial end and 15venous end gt Arterial end of capillary water out venous end water in gt Water OZ C02 and white blood cells because can squeeze out because of amoeboid shape can leave capillaries but proteins cannot CVD cardiovascular disease gt 1 cause of death in US gt Known difference between atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis I Arteriosclerosis much worse gt Happens in vessels all over the body I Only life threatening if happen in brain or heart because rest of body won t kill you if it suddenly loses circulation damage fixed new blood vessels grow but can t happen fast enough in brain or heart gt Sanford and son I Rarely there will be a theatrical heart attack esp not for women I Signs more subtle but still uncomfortable I Pressure squeezing feel pain discomfort in upper body and neck left arm not always out of breath break into sweat or feel sick or having feelings of impending doom Same symptoms as anxiety panic attack Call 911 if you have symptoms 0 v Watch 1St half of discovery channel body story ep3 the beast within to show what a heart attack is actually like v How do we prevent CVD and heart attacks gt Healthy diet with good fats unsaturated polyunsaturated or monounsaturated lead to greater HDL and greater picking up of fats out of plaques in blood vessels Fruits and veggies antioxidants Moderate exercise Lowering stress Laughter lowers stress enjoy life v Mediterranean diet contains unsaturated fats veggies and fruits not much meat gt Study shown can lower all causes of death fatal non fatal heart attacks and cancer gt Plt005 significant difference between Mediterranean diet and regular diet in every case gt Plt005significant pgt005 not significant v Moderate exercise brisk walking not slow walking gt Study with women same kind of results from men biggest decrease in risk of CVD came from increasing moderate exercise from lt1 to 15 hours v Make sure to get heart rate up while walking The respiratory system v Pot of chili being stirred on left will heat up faster gt Spreads heat around causing it to heat up more increase heat exchange gt Other things to increase heart rate of heat exchange cover itprevent heat from leaving increase stirring increase heat turn up the heat get closer to fire I Same principle governs gas exchange in respiratory organ v Movement of paramecium s cilia will gas exchange for symbionts and circulation of symbionts will their gas exchange w outside v Equation of how to exchange something ex heating up bowl of chili how to better exchange gas in a respiratory surface gt Fick s law rate of diffusion exchange depends on diffusion constant how easy it is for molecule to movesurface area that diffusion can occurpressure difference more of diffusible substance or exchange ow of diffusible substance will increase effective pressure and this is all divided by distance I Diffusion constant area pressure increase rate of diffusion and distance decreases rate of diffusion DAAP d I R rate of diffusion A area D diffusion constant Ap pressure difference and d distance 339 Respiration and gas exchange gt Gas exchange is controlled by rate of diffusion of gases and that in turn controlled by molecule that s diffusing D surface area that it s diffusing across VVVV I Surface area goes up diffusion rate goes up I Pressure difference goes up diffusion rate goes up I Distance goes up diffusion rate goes down Can t change D diffusion constant of gas gt Flatworm at not thick and diffuses gases on the surface but also has a gut highly branched where gas exchange takes place gt Echinoderm projections come out of upper skin allows gas exchange and highly branched gut allows gas exchange I Maximizes surface area I Flatworm also helps w distance less distance for diffusion to happen Feeding structure doubles as gas exchange structure lopophore little colony outside shell byrozoans live in little houses come out underwater feathery feeding structures for filter feeding gt Filter feed on tiny organisms and debris gt Feeding structure is most of animals increases surface area Most aquatic invertebrates have gills specialized feathery structure that evolved more than once gt Annelid mollusk arthropod all have gills gt Maximizing surface area does it internally or externally Fish gills evolved independently gt Ray finned fish has operculum gill cover highly folded structure w several layers of folding I Stacks of membranes also has feathery gills on it gt Maximizes surface area Mollusks that went up into 02 poor watersgtfresh watergtland we think gt Ancestral snail and gill gt Derived pulmonate quotlungquot snail w simple sac I Not much surface area in simple sac but 02 in freshwater vs land a lot more 02 in air than water gt Maximizes pressure difference doesn t need as much surface area for slow moving slowly metabolizing animal Parallel process going on in fish gt As adapted to murky water w little 02 the 02 I First 2 simple bags in amphibians then 2 different alternatives that happened later in mammals just an extension of idea but now many branches and many tiny little bags gt Surface area from amphibians to human lungs Increase gt Instead of a bunch of little sacs reptiles form dividers between within single sac lung gets divided into little compartments and air sacs to help pull air through little compartments I Surface area and a bit of pressure difference maximization Most highly developed reptile lungs birds feathered reptiles gt Air sacs are big with front and back air sacs I Works by bird taking 2 breaths to inhale and exhale the same air I 1 breathes in and front back air sacs both expand to pull air through the trachea into back air sacs then 1St exhalation pushes it through the lungs in one direction I The air in 2nd inhalation pulled into front air sacs and 2rld exhalation gets pushed out of the body and is finally exhaled I Air ows through lungs in one direction rather than in and out allows air to ow in opposite direction of blood gt Maximizes increasing effective pressure because the two are constantly moving relative to each other blood and air gt Birds have achieved having high surface area and a high effective pressure of 02 Arachnid myriapods hexapods Lophophore byrazoans feeding structure to increase surface area Gills homoplageous to bilaterians Lungs air sacsquot pulmonate snails and tetrapods homoplageous Trachea found in some terrestrial arthropods not all highly branched little tubes that go throughout body and the circulatory system of having to exchange gas Book lungs lungs that work in air arachnids gt All of these are increasing gas exchange on water and land Evolution of respiratory structure evolution of circulatory system and in uenced by transitions to land gt Every animals that don t have circulatory system also don t have special respiratory structure Vetabrate Lungs gt Extinct placodermsgt cartilagenous fish gt Was a respiratory pharynx that developed first but then swim bladder important for ray finned fish and part of big explanation for massive diversity evolved more than once gt Lungs are convergent not homologous did it evolve separately in lobe finned fish and tetrapods Tetrapod lungs gt Lungs swim bladder started off as pockets in digestive system I Gut and respiratory pockets gt 3 kinds of tetrapod lungs w adaptions that increase gas exchange I Which part of fick s law has each of these maximized I Simple paired sacs of amphibians tons of little alveoli sacs in mammals and septate divisions in reptiles and innovation of birds w one way ow Countercurrent exchange like in birds but now with fish gt Surface area maximized by highly feathered gills but in fish they gulp water in mouth and force it out of gills so now have water owing in oen directions and blood in the other I Maximizes exchange If ow in same direction diffusion only happens along concentration gradient will diffuse until it evens out until equilibrium concurrent exchange O 09 If ow is in opposite direction water constantly renewing and owing in the other direction from the blood equilibrium not reached diffusion happens continuously Countercurrent gt Maximized effective concentration difference of 02 in blood When water ows one way in above the blood capillary 02 will increase the most as water ows opposite direction gt Water quot9 100 9 0 02 concentration in blood 6 100 6 0 I Counter current has highest percentage of 02 evolved multiple times feet of penguin do it too to take in heat Water quot9 100950 02 concentration in capillary quot9 0950 I Concurrent equalized of 02 Hemoglobin respiratory pigment gt Heme group w central Fe iron atoms that can reversibly bind to 02 attached to globin protein In humans 4 hemoglobin chains binding together I In veterbrates they are in cells When oxygen binds causes whole shape of molecule to change allosteric change I Makes it easier for next 02 to bind and keeps making it easier for the next ones I Read David Goodsell story slide 30 46 If hemoglobin was not a tetramer 4 subunits and not allosteric then you would expect lineal relationship between pressure partial pressure or 02 and hemoglobin binding more 02 more bind gt If binding of each 02 changes it then not linear is a curve I At 0 partial pressure of 02 no 02 binds to hemoglobin saturation 02 in hemoglobin I Little increase in partial pressure of 02 to get 25 saturation 14 of 02 moleculesgt first binding I Little increases to get 75 saturation a lot to increase to get final 25 or to achieve the final 100 The partial pressure of active muscle is 4mmHg If Hb molecules arrive in muscle saturated w 02 each Hb tetramer will most likely drop off I 02 molecules in muscle gt Muscle only needs about 25 saturation so if Hb molecule is fully saturated would need to drop off 3 02 molecules for muscle only does what muscle structure allow Gives little reserve to drop off extra 02 if needed Advantage of quartenary structure and allosteric function of hemoglobin is that it allows it to drop off additional 02 in tissues gt gt gt With partial pressure of 02 in lungs gonna be near to 0 saturation whether there were separate monomers or tetramers instead of steadily dropping 02 off retains most of it Until it gets to capillaries and then if partial pressure of 02 increases further can drop off more of it I Allosteric function fetus hemoglobin uses slightly different subunits at each partial pressure of 02 it has more saturation than adult hemoglobin At each partial pressure of 02 affinity of fetal Hb for 02 is that of mother Hb so 02 will tend to be transferred to the f C02 also transported in blood cells and C02 changes allosteric function of hemoglobin gt How C02 comes out oftissues at partial pressure of 02 hemoglobin is dropping off 02 and also picking up C02 C02 react with water here make carbonic acid H2CO3 I So blood more acid while in lungs C02 is built up on blood cells and diffuses out because concentration is so much less in the air sacs so now C02 leaves and H2CO3 reverts back to C02 and water then C02 leaves body I Now blood is more basic in lungs pH 78 and more acidic in tissues pH 7 changes association curve of partial pressure of 02 and saturation more basic more affinity more acidic less affinity C02 concentration goes up in the blood blood becomes more and Hb tends to 02 Hemoglobin tetramer humans have and that tetramer advantage allows hemoglobin to be easily picked up and let off at 02 partial pressures in tissues gt Hemoglobin dissociation curve A lot of other ways to put together hemoglobin subunits gt Some are diamer 2 subunits some are tetramers 4 subunits but put together differently and some are just very large hemoglobin molecules that are in animals with no RBCs just a giant molecule Sensory systems Sense to interact with environment Prokaryotic world archaean era no one knows what most ancestral sense is I think it s smell gt 1St organisms not photosynthetic light probably not that important gt Hearing also probably not Single celled eukaryotes have variety of senses ex paramecium can smell bacteria to eat euglena green through photosynthesis and pigment spot sensitive to light to know whether in light or not for photosynthesis Plants have senses sense to detect light study shows plants can see light and other plants gt Study took datura seed relatives of eggplant and tomato plant then planted them in low high med Density and were all the same age gt High density plants could get taller and get better light for more photosynthesis compete for light gt If you knew you had plants around you to know whether or not to grow taller with PRA photosynthetic radiation available per plant gt Eventual PAR goes down because some plants are taller and getting more light than others and plants would grow faster According to the results plants started to elongate faster they are shaded by neighbors 3 days before gt B ecause they saw neighbor next to them using phytochrome Animal sensory system advantage General mechanism gt Look up different types of receptors and explain function and basic mechanism of receptors look for commonality I Green detailed in lecture Chemical sense possibly most ancestral senses gt Smell insects have good sense of smell I Moths use pheromones airborne hormones to find a mate and extremely sensitive can smell as one pheromone molecule per cubic meter of air from suitable mate I Male luna moth have a thicker and shorter antennae than the female longer but both have a feathery appearance to branch out and increase surface area gt Male luna moths more sensitive to pheromones I Female heavy w eggs sends pheromones and male finds here Human olfactory receptors gt Chamber inside nasal cavity and on membrane of that there are various olfactory receptor cells and are different types 400 cell types each producing a single receptor that s sensitive to single kind of molecule in environment gt Nerve pathways of same receptors converge on single cell type and allows signal from those like cells to be processed I Is it enough to report to the brain or not Strong weak smell gt Highly feathery processes of cells have receptor molecules that bind to various scent molecules Dogs have many more receptor molecules than us and can smell more kinds of scents at greater sensitivity gt Research at FIU DeMilles genetics teacher doing research to show dogs can smell out fungus on avocado trees so they can be cut down in time before infecting other trees I FIU dogs and drones research I Dogs can find infected trees before any signs of infection gt Avocados high in unsaturated fats Taste contact w attraction fruit ies gt Fruit ies have taste receptors on feet mouth legs and wings I Most of tastes receptors bitter can also detect salty sweet and carbonated taste gt Fruit y best able to discriminate between bitter molecules Human taste cell in quotbudsquot gt Membrane inside nasal cavity w different kinds of receptors gt Umami meaty kind of taste sweet bitter sodium sour and carbonation gt Mammals discriminate bitter taste the best to distinguish poison how to know if it s a toxin gt Taste organ tongue has different papillae little caves in amongst papillae and have taste buds w in those caves I Taste buds have different taste receptors what it s made of each one with nerve endings and at tip there s receptor molecule on each of those cells On each bud one type of taste receptor per cell type gt Difference 5 different basic cell types that are all mixed together in taste buds gt How it works taste receptor and taste cellgt molecule that fits into binding site of receptorgt bindsgt causes signal cascade inside cellsgt release of calcium ionsgt opens another kind of receptor called gated ion receptorquot I Gated ion receptor allows sodium ions to rush into cell and activates another transport molecule which lets ATP go out ad ATP molecule signals what that cell has tasted to nerve fibergt goes to other cells for more processing Do you taste different tastes on different parts of your tongue gt No not true You can taste all the tastes everywhere gt Different tastes put on different parts of tongue in study participants tasted all of them I All different cells in each taste bud How do we convey different tastes gt Taste bud signal intergrated on nervegtnervegt brain info processed there gt 2 main hypothesis I Flexible hypothesis depends on receptor type signal sent from given taste cell depends on receptor and so different receptor cause cells to send different signalsgt depends on receptor I Hard wired hypothesis send hard wired signals by cell and by connections to nerve cells cells tastes molecule but taste sensation is totally dependent on where nerve are hooked upgt depends on wiring of where nerve cells go In study spiradoline given to mouse since can t taste neutral as control and capsaicin also neutral to y then genetically modified mice so they have sweet and bitter receptors to spiradoline gt Spiradoline receptors added to sweet and bitter taste cells in 2 different groups of mice gt If exible signal hypothesis is correct depends on receptor the spiradoline will taste the to two groups if hard wired hypothesis is correct spiradoline will taste I If It depends on receptor then whatever cell receptor is in won t matter still will taste the same If receptor matters won t matter what kind of cell you put it in receptor is in both cell types I If cell types are hard wired to perceive tastes differently then any receptor causes those cells to send a message that will give that hard O 09 wired taste receptor doesn t matter and still tastes what its hard wired to taste taste different because cell types are different Mice and ies both hard wired to prefer sweet substances and avoid bitter ones gt Supports hard wiredquot hypothesis because cell types made it taste different and didn t depend on receptors You can also taste in the gut gt Pump out bitter substance gt Sweet taste in gut for sweet food processed in cell signal signal molecules in pancreas to make insulin sends signal to other cell to actually put transporter in membrane I Gut tastes then respond to taste gt Even in large intestine can taste bitter taste and releases ions that then cause uid to rush out I Gives diarrhea but washes away bitter substance I Can t perceive taste in gut but helps everyday Taste sensation in gut poison ush it out get rid of it gt Releases hormones to send impulses to braingt brain forms one vision throw up and remember to never eat again all happens in small intestine I Cell signal neighborsgt sends transport proteins Sweet moleculesgt digest it then absorb it absorbed in small intestinegt signals neighbors to make transport proteins to take sugars into cells and signals pancreas to make insulin through hormones Large intestine doesn t absorb but ushes out bitter directs transport of ions outside of cells then osmosis then out of body diarrhea Body makes enzyme to break down alcohol body is ready for alcohol gt Alcohol dehydrogenase in liver Hypothesis for why we can break it down gt Alcohol dehydrogenase evolved humans had a lot of vitamin A Still there is alcohol dehydrogenase specifically at vitamin A called retinol alcohol Alcohol dehydrogenasegt retinol changes retinol to renaldahyde Rald I Has vital role in metabolism of fat by fat cells adipose cells I Vitamin A stored in livergt transported by fat in redinolgtRald serves as internal messenger to limit the size of fat cells and make more sensitive to insulin Causes it to break down fat and make subunits in sugar and release them I Signal molecule to get fat cells to release fat gt Hypothesis 2 How did ancestors know that fruit was ripe Drunken monkey theoryquot I Is bitter if not ripe seeds not ready fruits become delicious when ready because we are the disperser ex African custard apple I Closest relatives monkeys live mainly off fruit and fruit is still part of our diet but how do we know if the fruit is ripe I Drunken monkey hypothesis at moment of ripeness yeasts are breaking down the fruit and fermenting into alcohol and we smell alcohol to know that the fruit tis ripe After we eat the fruit we have to break it down A recent study found ethanol olfactory receptor in fruit ies this is evidence for drunken monkey hypothesis in humans gt Not direct cause not to do with humans or primates gt Suggestive research more on ethanol receptor Vision gt Hypothesis 1 animal eyes evolved multiple times 4x once in box jellyfish once in mollusks once in arthropods insects and once in vertebrates I Opsins sensors that sense lights might have evolved only once and are homologous I Crystallins lens clear proteins that make up lens homoplageous Strongest evidence for hy othesis of evolution of animal e es shown would be that visual animals have opsin molecules and h crystalline molecules Opsin gene protein so if molecules are similar DNA sequences will be similar gt In order to be mapped onto phylogeny genes are similar and can trace relationship I Genes duplicate because they are different and have different types of function I At least 4 different types of opsins Invertebrates more duplication and evolution of opsin molecules and genes gt Melatonin and placopsinsgt cannot detect light Crystallin proteins are very different even with in tetrapods gt All crystallins formed in lens have different functions in other parts of the body I Used also as digestive enzymes I Heat proteins that protect against heat changing metabolism gt Supports hypothesis Retina rhodopsin not color sensitive Rhl to rods gt 4 color sensitive opsins in vertebratesgt most sensitive color shown in spectrum I 1 opsin black white world I 2 opsin blue green world I 3 opsin all colors Ancestral of opsins 4 most ray finned fish have 4 gt Reptiles birds have 4 opsins and mammals losing them gt Amphibians 3 except cecillians worm like amphibians gt 2 oxins in marsupial mammal and 1 in placental what happened to oxins I Advantage mammals evolve when dinosaurs dominant most mammals active at night so no color was needed most sensitive but not color but we see in color I When primates become diurnal active during day got 2 opsins back we have 3 for daytime life In primates trichromatic color vision is w respect to color vision in other mammals gt Ancestral number 2 Not equally sensitive at all colors most sensitive to green color gt Advantage Plants we see world greener that it is Can fish hear yes Line going alongside of body lateral lines water filled canal w sensory structures gt Sensory hairs in cells can detect when hairs moves pushes water through pores and hairs bend gt Tells fish something s approaching can also be sound or vibrations going through water I Vibration receptor hair cell Our lateral lines are curled up inside head called cochlea inner ear developed mentally and has a snail shape gt Inside there is uid filled canal lined w hairs sounds vibrate hairs I Hair cells cilia Weird sense gt Electroreceptions ability to detect electric fields ancestral I Basal clade fish minus ray finned and tetrapods I Insects convergently evolved I Ex Bees can detect electrical impulses from owers already visited by another bee Advantage Know which owers to avoid Ray finned fish most diverse gt 2 lineages that have electroreceptors I In Africa there is the elephant nose fish that have a projection of lips and can live in murky habitats where they can t see detects electrical impulses of prey I In amazon there are blood nose fishes can detect other animals by electrical impulses Active and passive electroreception gt Passive sharks and platypus bill moves bill through sediments and can find shrimps passive means they can only detect electricity but can t produce it gt Active projects electric field around self and detects when someone gets near it ex bluntnose knifefish I Electric eel can generate bursts of electricity strong enough to stun prey Homing pigeons 2 elements gt Construct mental math gt Can sense which direction they re going but not shown how to do it I Why Is it the sun Magnetic field Do we have unusual senses gt Remote perception gt Study by Princeton engineering anomalies research PEAR sent some people to Ireland and put in a room tried to guess what people in Ireland were thinking I Significant results plt005 I Problem Every time they tried to quantify it ex survey effect disappeared mystery I Time didn t matter


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