B. Social Cognitive Theory People learn by observing the behaviour of others and can regulate their own behaviour by thinking about the consequences of their actions, setting performance goals, monitoring performance, and rewarding themselves for goal accomplishment. Involves three components: i) Observational learning ii) Self-efficacy iii) Self-regulation i) Observational Learning - The process of imitating the behaviour of others: a. Examining the behaviour of others b. Seeing the consequences they experience c. Thinking about what might happen if we act the same way d. Imitating the behaviour if we expect favourable consequences - Involves self-reinforcement o Meaning that we reinforce our actions by ourselves - Attractive, credible, competent, high-status people and trustworthy are most likely to be imitated. Therefore, managers have to always be at their best, both in their work and in their looks. ii) Self-Efficacy - Beliefs people have about their ability to successfully perform a specific task - Self efficacy is task specific, not generalised - Different people have different self-efficacy beliefs. E.g I can think I can do a workout, but I don’t think I can paint. - Self-efficacy influences the activities people choose to perform, the amount of effort and persistence devoted to a task, stress reactions, and job performance. - 4 Factors that determine self-efficacy a. Performance Mastery -Practice makes perfect b. Observation -The more you watch it, the more you are confident. E.g ramsay videos c. Verbal Persuasion and Social Influence -Being motivated by others. E.g, being able to do a waterslide even if you are scared of heights d. Physiological State -How do we feel about that task? E.g I can kill a fish by others cannot iii) Self-Regulation -The use of learning principles to regulate one’s own behaviour -A key part of the process is people’s pursuit of self-set goals that guide behaviour. -Self-regulation involves the following activities: i. Collect self-observation data ii. Observe models iii. Set goals iv. Rehearse v. Reinforce oneself -Discrepancy reduction and discrepancy production lie at the heart of the self regulatory process. -Discrepancy reduction: A difference between one’s goals and performance which motivates one to modify their behaviour. -Discrepancy production: When individuals attain their goals they are likely to set higher and more challenging goals. Personality • The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment. • Dimensions and traits that are determined by genetic predisposition and one’s long-term learning history. • People have a variety of personality characteristics. Personality and Organizational Behaviour -Dispositional approach ∙ Belief that individuals are genetically predisposed to have a certain behaviour ∙ Is not an effective approach as it does not take into consideration other factors, such as, upbringing -Situational approach ∙ Belief that characteristics of the organization, such as rewards and punishment, influence people’s feelings, attitudes, and behaviour. ∙ Studies show a strong correlation between motivation and situational factors. BOTH, Situational approach and dispositional approach, have their importance in the prediction and comprehension of org’l behaviour. -Interactionist theory ∙ Organizational behaviour is a function of both dispositions and the situation. ∙ To predict organizational behaviour, we need to know something about an individual’s personality and the work setting. ∙ This the most widely accepted approach to organizational behaviour. Situations can be described as being either “weak” or “strong” ∙ In weak situations, roles are loosely defined, there are few rules and weak reinforcement and punishment contingencies. Few rules and weak rewards and punishment. ∙ Personality has the strongest effect in weak situations, this is because we don’t have any restraint by rules over our feelings and actions. ∙ In strong situations, the roles, rules, and contingencies are more defined. E.g in military.∙ Personality has less of an impact in strong situations, as we are more governed by rules and regulations, than by our feelings. The extent to which personality influences people’s attitudes and behaviour depends on the situation. Five Factor Model (FFM) of Personality 1) Extraversion -The extent to which a person is outgoing versus shy. -High Extraverts ∙ Sociable, outgoing, energetic, joyful and assertive ∙ Important for jobs requiring interpersonal interaction, where being an extravert leads to success -Introverts ∙ Avoid social situations 2) Emotional Stability -AKA Neuroticism -the degree to which a person has appropriate emotional control. -High emotional stability (LOW Neuroticism) ∙ Self confident and have high self-esteem. ∙ Tend to be calm and more secure. ∙ Have more effective interactions with co-workers and cx. 3) Agreeableness -Extent of Friendliness -Tolerant, cooperative vs cold, rude -High agreeability ∙ Better teamwork, less argumentative, flexible and more caring 4) Conscientiousness -level of responsibility and achievement-oriented. -High level of conscientiousness ∙ Self-disciplined, hard-working and achievement thriving ∙ Likely to perform well, given their tendency to hard-work -Low level of conscientiousness ∙ Irresponsible, lazy and impulsive -is related to performance for all jobs across occupations and is the strongest predictor of overall job performance of all of the “Big Five” dimension. 5) Openness to experience -open people tend to be more creative and innovators. ∙ Tend to do better as they are better learners, curious and have broad interest -less open people tend to favour status quo Locus of Control A set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external factors.∙ Internals (people with inner locus of control) o believe that the opportunity to control their own behaviour rests within themselves. o They believe that they are the sculptor of their destiny o Have free-will o Are self-initiative ∙ Externals (people with external locus of control) o believe that external forces determine their behaviour. o They believe that they are controlled by something else or that other factors determine their future rather than their own hard work. o Believe in Luck, fate or the influence of ‘powerful’ people Self-Monitoring The extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships. ∙ High self-monitors o take great care to observe and control the images that they project, like actors o Exert self-presence, communication skills and persuasive abilities o Are able to adapt to a cx’s or contacts, or even to their bosses expectation o More likely to emerge as leaders, and very involved in their jobs o are more likely to change employers and locations and to receive more promotions. o HOWEVER, are likely to undergo role stress and show less commitment to their org. ∙ Low self-monitors o cannot regulate their behaviour. They don’t fit in social contexts. o Strong innovators and can resist social pressures o Comfortable in ambiguous social settings, where it is hard to determine what behaviours are appropriate Self-Esteem -Degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation -we are highly motivated to protect ourselves from threats to our self-esteem∙ Behavioral Plasticity Theory -People with low self esteem, tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences. -Therefore, events and people in the work place have more impact on people with a low self-esteem. -Low self-esteem people are more likely to look to others for information about their actions, i.e, they need social approval. Self-esteem and management -Employees with low self-esteem tend to react badly to -ve feedback and their performance decreases. -Managers have to be careful when using -ve reinforcers and punishment. -If performance problems are thought to be due to external factors, this must be made clear. -Managers should direct criticism to the difficulty of the task and not to the person. -Low self-esteemers should not be given tasks where they get said ‘NO’ to a lot. -Rules and culture should not point to a person’s incompetences. -High self-esteemers provide more benefit to the org, they tend to cope better with stress and are more resilient when it comes to work difficulty.COMM 222 Chapter 5 Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. Motivation The extent to which persistent effort is directed towards a goal - Basic characteristics of motivation a. Effort o The strength of the person’s work-related behaviour o Differents kinds of efforts are shown in different kinds of jobs o E.g, a researcher might put in the effort to publish his research and a mover might put a different kind of effort to carry a sofa b. Persistence o The continuity that an individual exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks o Effort has to be continuous to show motivation o E.g, the mover would not be considered a motivated employee if he works hard for 2 hours and then goofs around for 6 hours. c. Direction o The quality of the work done o Effort and persistence must be put into action to provide a good quality o Should work hard AND smart d. Goals o All motivated behaviour has some goal or objective towards which it is being directed o Goals might include high productivity, good attendance, or creative decisions o Employees can also be motivated by goals that are contrary to the objectives of the org, such as, sabotage or embezzlement. Therefore, they are channeling their persistent efforts in directions that affect the org negatively Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation - Intrinsic motivation o Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task o Usually self-applied o Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, and competence derived from performing a task are examples of intrinsic motivation - Extrinsic Motivation o Motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task o Usually applied by others o Pay, fringe benefits, company policies, and various forms of supervision are examples of extrinsic motivation - Motivators have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities - Self-Determination Theory (SDT)o Considers intrinsic and extrinsic factors and determines whether motivation is autonomous or controlled. o Motivated by intrinsic factors autonomous motivation o Motivated by extrinsic factors controlled motivation o Extrinsic factors can lead to autonomous motivation o Key aspect of SDT is to which extent is one’s motivation autonomous or controlled Important distinction as autonomous motivation facilitates effective performance Motivation and Performance - Performance o The extent to which an org’s member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization Factors affecting performance: a. Personality b. Gen’l cognitive ability c. Task understanding d. Emotional intelligence e. Chance Intelligence and performance - Two types of intelligence I) General Cognitive Ability II) Emotional intelligence - General cognitive ability o A person’s basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources o Includes a number of cognitive abilities, such as, verbal, numerical, spatial, and reasoning abilities that are required to perform mental tasks o Predicts learning and training success in both manual and mental tasks o Better predictor of performance for more complex and higher-level jobs that require the use of more cognitive skills and involve more info processing o Both gen’l cognitive ability and motivation are necessary for performance - Emotional intelligence (EI) o The ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions o EI model (sequential steps) a. Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others People differ in the extent to which they can accurately identify emotions in others, particularly from facial expressions b. Using emotions to facilitate thinking Refers to the ability to use and assimilate emotions and emotional experiences to guide and facilitate one’s thinking and reasoning. Involves being able to shift one’s emotions and generate new emotions that can help one to see things in different ways and from different perspectives. Very important skill as emotions and moods affect what and how people think when making decisions c. Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signal conveyed by emotions Involves being able to understand emotional info, the consequences of emotions, and how emotions evolve and change over time. People at this stage understand how emotions play a role in decision making Ind good at this stage know when to ask for a favour, depending on the mood of the person being asked the favour d. Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals Involves the ability to manage one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions as well as emotional relationships Highest of EI as it requires one to have mastered the previous stages. At this stage, an individual is able to regulate, adjust, and change his or her own emotions as well as others’ emotions to suit the situation. E.g being able to remain calm even when angry or upset - EI predicts performance in a number of areas - EI also helps in taks that are emotionally or mentally challenging - EI self-management skills a. Self-awareness o The ability to understand your moods, emotions and drives, as well as their effect on others b. Self regulation o The ability to control or re-direct disruptive impulses or moods c. Self-motivation o Pursue goals with persistence d. Empathy o The ability to see and understand the viewpoint of others e. Social skills o Find common ground and builds rapport o Persuasive Need Theories of Work Motivation (WHAT motivates people) McClelland’s Theory of Needs - According to this theory, needs reflect relatively stable personality characteristics that one acquires through early life experiences and exposure to selected aspects of one’s society. -people will be motivated to seek out and perform well in jobs that match their needs -Three needs: 1. Need for achievement 2. Need for affiliation 3. Need for power 1. Need for achievement (n Ach) - A strong desire to perform challenging tasks well- Individuals who have a high need for achievement exhibit the following: o A preference for situations in which personal responsibility can be taken for outcomes Don’t like situations that are determined by chance as these situations don’t provide experience of achievement o A tendency to set moderately difficult goals that provide for calculated risks. Small risks don’t give enough sense of achievement and high risks may not be reached. o A desire for performance feedback Feedback allows ind to modify goal attainment strategies to ensure success and signals them when success has been reached - People with high n Ach are concerned with bettering their own performance and that of others. - Concerned with innovation and long-term goal achievement - Goals are not met to please others, rather to be satisfied intrinsically - N Ach is an example of self-actualization need 2. Need for Affiliation (n Aff) - A strong desire to establish and maintain friendly, compatible interpersonal relationships - They like to like others or like to be liked by others - Have an ability to learn social networking quickly and tendency to communicate frequently with others. - Prefer to avoid conflicts and competition with others - N Aff is an example of a belongingness or relatedness need 3. Need for Power (n Pow) - A strong desire to influence others, making a significant impact or impression - High n Pow seek out social settings in which they can be influential - Act in a high-profile, attention-getting manner in small groups - Power can be used to serve the power seeker, other people, or the organization’s - Corresponds to self-esteem need Process Theories of Work Motivation (HOW are people motivated) -Three Theories 1. Expectancy Theory 2. Equity Theory 3. Goal Setting Theory 1. Expectancy Theory - States that motivation is determined by the outcomes that people expect to occur as a result of their actions on the job - i.e, people are motivated when they get (outcomes) what they thought they should get (expected) afer performing an action - Outcomes (O) o Consequences that follow work behaviours o After an action, there are first-level outcomes and second-level outcomes o First-Level outcomes: org interested in this one e.g, High productivity vs average productivity or High attendance vs low attendance expectancy theory focuses on specifying how a person might be tempted to choose one first-level outcome over another first-level outcome o Second-Level outcomes Consequences that follow the achievement of a particular firt-level outcome Mostly personally relevant, unlike first level outcomes which are org’l interest E.g pay, sense of accomplishment, peer acceptance, Fatigue - Instrumentality (I) o If I perform at that level, what will happen? What work outcomes will be achieved? o The probability (how likely) that a particular first-level outcome (e.g High productivity) will be followed by a particular second-level outcome (e.g pay). o AKA Performance to outcome link - Valence (V) o The expected value of work outcomes, i.e, the extent to which outcomes are attractive or unattractive. o Second-level outcomes might be more or less attractive to particular workers o The valence of first level outcomes is: V of a particular first level outcome=Σ I ×second levelV - Expectancy (E) o Can I achieve desired level of performance? o Probability that a first-level outcome can be achieved o AKA Effort performance link o E.g I am sure I can to sell 5 phones in one day (E= 1.0) but not so sure to be able to sell 10 phones a day (E=0.4) - Force (F) o Effort directed towards a first level outcome o End product of the other components F=Firstlevel V × E - SUMMATION of Expectancy Theory o People will be motivated to perform tasks that they find attractive and that they feel they can accomplish o The attractiveness of various tasks depends on the extent to which they lead to favourable personal consequences o Based on the perception of ind’l workerManagerial implications of expectancy theory a. Boost Expectancies o Ensure that the employee expects to be able to achieve first-level outcomes that are desirable to the org. o The point is to clarify the path to beneficial first-level outcomes. o Practices to increase expectancy Providing proper equipment Training Demonstrating correct work procedures Explaining how performance is evaluated Listen to employee problems b. Boost instrumentality o Managers should try to ensure that the paths between first- and second level outcomes are clear. o Employees should be convinced that first-level outcomes are clearly instrumental in obtaining positive second-level outcomes and avoiding negative outcomes. o Provide stimulating, challenging work to employees who seem to be interested to work Increases sense of achievement c. Boost valence o Managers should analyze the diverse preferences of employees and attempt to design individualized “motivational packages” to meet their needs. o Motivational packages must be perceived to be fair 2. Goal setting theory - A motivational technique that uses specific, challenging, and acceptable goals and provides feedback to enhance performance. - Goals should be SMART o Specific o Measurable o Attainable o Results oriented o Time frame - Research shows that participation can improve performance by increasing the difficulty of the goals that employees adopt. - Goal setting has led to performance increases without the introduction of monetary incentives for goal accomplishment. - Goal-setting theory focuses on setting goals to motivational goals to improve performance. - It works when goals are : o Specific o Challenging o And when employees: Are committed to the goals Receive feedback on their progress - Goal Specificityo Goals that specify the exact level of achievement for people to accomplish in a particular time-frame o E.g I will enrol in five courses next semester and achieve a B or better in each course” is a specific goal. - Goal Challenge o Base initial goals on past performance o Mostly personal that goal oriented as it depends on worker’s skills and past experiences o Easy goals are not motivating and too hard goals are perceived as impossible o Challenge must be at the competence of the worker and increased once task is mastered o E.g, Unlike last semester, get all B’s instead of C’s - Goal Commitment o commitment-Individuals must be committed to specific, challenging goals if the goals are to have effective motivational properties. o Effect of goals on performance is strongest when ind have high goal commitment o Goals are not goals until an individual accepts them and is committed towards that goal - Goal Feedback o To be most effective, feedback should be accurate, specific, credible, and timely. Types of Goals - distal goal o a long-term or end-goal such as achieving a certain level of sales performance. o can accompany proximal goals - proximal goal o a short-term or sub-goal that is instrumental for achieving a distal goal. o are especially important for novel and complex tasks - A specific, high learning goal is more effective when individuals are learning to perform a novel or complex task. - Setting a high performance goal is more effective when individuals have the knowledge to perform the task. Enhancing Goal Commitment - Factors that affect commitment o Participation Improves performance by increasing the difficulty of the goals that employees adopt Goal oriented If tension between supervisor and employee exists, supervision is necessary to create that bond and sense of team spirit If there is trust between employee and boss, participation is not necessaryo Rewards Goal setting theory takes into account rewards but there’re study shows that rewards are not necessary for performance. Might be because goal settings do not involve more than was required. E.g Asking a cook to send out 50 burgers with more attention to detail (5% error) is not more demanding than the job he was already doing; he just needs to be more careful. o Supportiveness Being coercive (pushy) towards employees will not increase goal commitment and can prove to be detrimental Showing support, desire to assist employees increases goal commitment Goal Orientation - Goal Orientation o An ind’s goal preferences in achievement situations o Important for learning and performance - Learning Goal Orientation o Preference to learn new things and develop competence in an activity by acquiring new skills and mastering new situations o Focus on learning new knowledge and skills, and developing their competence - Performance-prove goal orientation o Preference to obtain favourable judgements about the outcome of one’s performance o Will try to do their best to be praised o Not related to learning or performance outcomes - Performance-avoid goal orientation o Preference to avoid negative judgements about the outcome of one’s performance o Detrimental for learning and performance Motivation theories across cultures - Most theories that revolve around human needs will come up against cultural limitations to their generality. - Equity theory will be constrained by what is considered “fair” in a particular culture in terms of how to allocate rewards (e.g., equity versus equality). - Because of its flexibility, Expectancy Theory is very effective when applied cross culturally. - Setting specific and challenging goals should be motivational when applied cross culturally. - Goal setting has been found to predict, influence, and explain behaviour in many countries around the world. -Components of Perception 1. The Perceiver Perception of the perceiver is affected by his/her experience, needs, and emotions. • Past experiences lead the perceiver to develop expectations that affect current perceptions. = Perceptual set • Needs unconsciously influence perceptions by causing us to perceive what we wish to perceive. • Emotions, such as anger, happiness, or fear, can influence our perceptions • E.g We might interpret a friend’s comment differently, depending on our mood/emotions of the moment • Perceptual Defence - Our perceptual system seres to defend us against unpleasant emotions. - E.g, when we “see what we want to see,” our perceptual system is working to ensure that we do not see what is threatening 2. Situation - The situation/ context of what is perceived affects our perception - E.g If I hear a racial joke before a racial incident, I will be less offended that I would have been after 3. The Target - The target involves interpretation and addition of meaning - The person/situation being perceived - Demographic information ex: age, status, appearance Bruner’s Model of the Perceptual Process Unfamiliar Target Encountered (New Employee) Openness to Target cues (Observation, search for info) Familiar cues encountered (Employee is JMSB Graduate) Target categorized (Employee is a hardworking man) Cue selectivity (Employee’s poor performance ignored)Categorization strengthened (Employee is still a hardworking man) Three Characteristics of perceptual process: 1. Perception is selective - Perceivers do not use all of the available cues, and those they do use are given special emphasis. - Perception might be efficient but this efficiency might aid or hinder accuracy. 2. Perception is Constant - The tendency for the target to be perceived in the same way, no matter the situation or time. - E.g getting on the wrong foot with a boss might create a bad impression for the rest of a career 3. Perceptions are consistent - The tendency to select, ignore, and distort cues in such a manner that they fit together to form a homogeneous picture of the target. - We do not see a person being both good and bad. We might even distort the cues to make a picture of the person to satisfy our perceived thought of that person. Basic Biases in Person perception Primacy effect - The tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues/ first impression. - Can be an advantage for interviews Recency effect - The tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions. - E.g, doing better in recent days might make up for a whole month’s screwups Stereotyping - Assuming that a person has certain characteristics based on the category they fall into as suggested by the social identity theory. - The tendency to generalize people, ignoring the variations among them. - Categories on which people might base a stereotype include race, age, gender, ethnic background, social class, occupation, and so on - Stereotypes help us develop impressions of ambiguous targets. - Most stereotypes are inaccurate, especially when we use them to develop perceptions of specific individuals. - Major stereotypes in Business are racial, age and gender - Gender the glass ceiling WOMEN: barriers to progress o Lack of role models in business (traditional job stereotypes) o No track record (Hiring through the “old boys network”) o Feeling isolated/little peer support (Little advice, “sponsorship”)o Concentrated in areas not leading to upper level positions (assigned to less visible jobs) o “Invisible Women” syndrome (difficulty showing competence) o Use of “fit” criteria (“good qualifications but will she fit in?”) - Ways to advance according to female execs o Seek out difficult/visible work assignments early in career. o Development management style comfortable to male managers. o Link up with mentor. o Be part of a supportive and influential network. - Reducing gender stereotypes - decision makers need to have good information about the qualifications and performance of particular women and an accurate picture of the job that they are applying for or seeking promotion into. - AGE stereotype - Knowing that a person falls into a certain age range, we have a tendency to make certain assumptions about the person’s physical, psychological, and intellectual capabilities. - Older workers are seen as o having less capacity for performance o less productive, creative, logical o capable of performing under pressure o having less potential for development o more rigid and dogmatic, and less adaptable to new corporate cultures than younger workers o perceived as more honest, dependable, and trustworthy. Social Identity Theory - People form perceptions of themselves based on their personal characteristics and memberships in social categories. - Our sense of self is composed of personal identity and social identity - Personal identity our unique personal characteristics (e.g., interests) - Social identity our perception that we belong to various social groups (e.g., gender) - BOTH help us answer the question: “Who am I?” - People tend to perceive members of their own social categories in more positive and favourable ways The Changing Workplace • The Canadian population and labour force is becoming increasingly multicultural and multiethnic. • The number of visible minorities in Canada is expected to double by 2017. • In less than a decade, 48 percent of the workingage population will be between the ages of 45 and 64. Valuing Diversity - Provides competitive advantages better performance and higher stock prices i) Cost Argument - As diversity increases, the cost of integrating workers will increase. Therefore, by accepting them for who they are, that cost is minimalized and a cost advantage is created over those that don’t want to accept diversity. ii) Human Resources - : best candidates attracted, more positive employee attitudes, better retention iii) Marketing - better understanding and service of customers, more positive org image iv) Creativity - different perspectives leads to more creative decision making v) ProblemSolving - more critical analysis of issues leads to better problem solving vi) Flexibility - system more fluid, able to react to environmental changes Managing Diversity - Build senior management commitment and accountability o Management has to be visibly, actively, and constantly involved and committed to diversity programs - Conduct a thorough needs assessment o Allows to identify the right issues and the appropriate interventions are implemented. o To be effective, diversity programs need to be tailored to an organization’s business, culture, and people. - Develop a welldefined strategy tied to business results o Diversity strategy must align with the company’s success - Emphasize team building and group process training o Increases trust among coworkers o Ensures that team members understand the resources available to them - Establish metrics and evaluate the effectiveness of diversity initiatives - Build a culture that embraces diversity - Establish Diversity Training Programs - Review Communication and HRM practices Projection - The tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others. - Leads to perceptual difficulties Implicit personality theories- Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together - E.g associating hardworking people to be honest - Creates misunderstanding as implicit theories are innacurate Halo Effect - AKA Reliance on Central traits - The creation of an entire impression based on one attribute or trait - E.g believing that a person is a great employee b/c he/she attended a renown school Attribution Theory - Attribution: the process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behaviour - Dispositional attributions: o Internal factors o Based on personality or intellect - Situational attributions: o External factors o Based on ext’l situation or env. - Consistency Cues o Does the person engage in the behaviour regularly and consistently? - Consensus cues o Do most people engage in the behaviour, or is it unique to this person? - Distinctiveness cues o Does the person engage in the behaviour in many situations, or is it distinctive to one situation? - To know whether internal or external causes, ask the following questions: a. Consistent? b. Consensus? c. Distinctiveness? If Answer is: Consistent (Lana is always angry with her secretary) Not consensus (Not everyone is angry to the secretary) Not distinctive (Lana is angry with everyone) Therefore attribution is internal (Lana needs help) If answer is: Not consistent (Lana is not always angry with secretary) Consensus (Other people are angry with secretary) Distinctive (Lana gets angry only with secretary) Therefore attribution is external (Fire secretary)If answer is: Not consistent Consensus Not distinctive Therefore, attribution is temporary external Three biases in attribution a. Fundamental Attribution Error - The tendency to overemphasize dispositional explanations for behaviour at the expense of situational explanations - Person overemphasizes internal factors as the cause of behaviour - We often discount the strong effects that social cues can have on behaviour. - Managers will cite laziness while ignoring poor training or bad sales territory b. ActorObserver Bias - Actor: A person attributes his/her own behaviour to external causes Observer: A person attributes behaviour of others to internal causes - The tendency for an actor and observer to view the actor’s behaviour differently - E.g, the actor might say that he did not go to work because of the bus (external), but the manager with see it as laziness (internal) c. SelfServing Bias - The tendency to take credit for favourable outcome (internal) and to blame situations or others for failures (external). Perceptions of Trust Trust - A psychological state in which one has a willingness to be vulnerable and to take risks with respect to the actions of another party. - To create a great workplace, managers need to build trust by practicing credibility, respect and fairness, and by encouraging pride and camaraderie among employees. Perceived Organizational Support (POS) - Employees gen’l belief that their org’n values their contributions and cares about their wellbeing. Organizational support theory - States that employees who have strong perceptions of org’l support feel an obligation to care about the org’s welfare and to help the org’n achieve its objectives. - POS provides a great competitive advantage COMM 222 Chapter 4: Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour Values - Broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others. - Signal attraction and our belief of behaviour. - Do not predict behaviour in specific situations - Are learned through reinforcement - Differs from person to person Generational differences in values - Traditionalists (19221945) o Hard working, stable, loyal, thorough, detailoriented, focused, emotional maturity o Preferred leadership: Fair, consistent, clear, direct, respectful - Baby Boomers (19461964) o Team perspective, dedicated, experiences, knowledgeable, service oriented o Preferred leadership: Treat as equals, warm and caring, mission defined, democratic approach - Gen X (19651980) o Independent, adaptable, creative, technoliterate, willing to challenge the status quo o Preferred leadership: direct, competent, genuine, informal, flexible, resultsoriented, supports learning opportunities - Millennials or Gen Y (19812000) o Optimistic, able to multitask, tenacious, technologically savvy, driven to learn and grow, teamoriented, socially responsible o Preferred leadership: Motivational, collaborative, positive, educational, organized, achievementoriented, able to coach - Most research points to more similarities than differences in values across generations. - Some indication that Gen X and Y are more inclined to value money, status, and rapid career growth than are boomers. - Gen Ys (Millennials) and Xers, compared to Boomers, see work as less central, value leisure more, and are more inclined toward worklife balance. - Note: All work generations share the same values but express them differently Organizations may have to adapt their job designs, leadership styles, and benefits to the generational mix in order to find good fits for the org’s goal. Cultural differences in Values - Work centrality o Work importance in life - Hofstede’s Study five dimensions of work related values i) Power distance o The extent to which an unequal dist. of power is accepted by society o Low Power Distance Cultures that view power as something that should be distributed equally among people. o High Power Distance Cultures that view an unequal distribution of power as relatively acceptable. ii) Uncertainty power o Extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations o Low Uncertainty Avoidance Cultures where individuals are comfortable in unpredictable situations and have a high tolerance for uncertainty (or ambiguity). Risk takers o High Uncertainty Avoidance Cultures where individuals prefer predictable situations and have a low tolerance for uncertainty (or ambiguity). Stress rules and regulations, hard work, conformity and security iii) Masculinity/Feminity o Masculinity (“Quantity of life”) Cultures where individuals value achievement, competitiveness, as well as acquisition of money and other material objects; separation of gender roles o Femininity (“Quality of life”) Cultures where individuals value maintaining good relationships, quality of life, and caring for the weak Less separation of gender roles iv) Individualism/collectivism o Individualism Cultures in which people define themselves as individuals and form looser ties with their groups. o Collectivism Cultures where people have stronger bonds to their groups and group membership forms their selfidentity. Interdependent and loyal to family v) Longterm/shortterm orientation o Longterm orientation Cultures that stress persistence, perseverance, thrift, and close attention to status differences o Shortterm orientation Cultures that stress personal steadiness, stability, facesaving, and social niceties Explains the high number of East Asian entrepreneurship Developing Global employees• Success in translating management practices to other cultures, importing practices, and appreciating global customers does not happen by accident. • Companies need to select, train, and develop employees to have an appreciation of differences in cultural values and the implications of these differences for behaviour in organizations. Attitudes - Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. - Affected by values and beliefs - We need to change our beliefs to change our attitude - Influences Behavior Relationship between value, attitude and Behaviour E.g Belief: My job is interfering with my social life Value: My social life crucial for my happiness Attitude: I dislike my job Behaviour: I’ll search for another job Job Satisfaction - A collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs - Composed of two aspects i) Facet satisfaction o refers to the tendency for an employee to be more or less satisfied with various facets of the job o composed of the work itself, the people, compensation, career opportunities, supervision, working conditions, and policies o E.g One facet can be management, another facet can be the staff ii) Overall satisfaction o A summary indicator of a person’s attitude towards his or her job that takes into consideration various facets o E.g On the whole, I hate my job Determinants of Job Satisfaction 1. Discrepancy theory o Theory that job satisfaction comes from the discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtaine 2. Fairness o Distributive Fairness Occurs when people receive the outcomes they think they deserve from their jobs It is the ultimate distribution of work rewards and resources. The equitable distribution of work outcomes contributes to job satisfaction by providing for feelings of distributive fairness Equity concept might correspond well to the individualistic views of NA but in collective cultures, equality of outcomes (no matter the inputs) might produce higher distributive fairness o Equity Theory Theory that satisfaction comes from the comparison of inputs one invests in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or group. Inputs: any sacrifices, offers and trades that a person does for their organization in exchange for outcomes Outcomes: Factors that an organization distributes to employees in exchange for their inputs. o Procedural Fairness Fairness that occurs when the process used to determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable. Concerned with how the outcomes are decided and allocated Relevant to outcomes such as performance evals, pay raises, promotions, lay offs and work assignments. Factors contributing to perceptions of procedural fairness: i) Consistent procedures over time and across people ii) Use of accurate info and unbiased approach iii) Allowance of twoway communication during allocation process iv) Allocator welcomes appeals of the procedure and allocation Procedural fairness might provoke dissatisfaction when people see distributive fairness as being low. Procedural unfairness leads to dissatisfaction with the system o Interactional fairness Fairness that occurs when people feel they have received respectful and informative communication about an outcome. Respectful communication is sincere and polite and treats the individual with dignity. Fair when communication is candid, timely, and thorough. Interactional unfairness leans to dissatisfaction with the boss 3. Disposition o The belief that people are predisposed to be satisfied or dissatisfied with their job. o Extraverts and conscientious people are more satisfied that those who have high neuroticism o People with higher locus of control and selfesteem have higher job satisfaction 4. Mood and Emotiono Emotions Intense, often short lived feelings caused by a particular event. E.g, joy, pride, fear and sadness o Moods Less intense, longerlived, and more diffuse feelings Keys Contributors to Job Satisfaction - Though Job Satisfaction is highly personal, there are some external factors that affect Job satisfaction i) Mentally Challenging Work - Work that allows employees to set their own pace. - If work is TOO challenging, employee can break down and job satisfaction is reduced. ii) Adequate Compensation - Not everyone’s motive is money. There will be a group who will want more hours and more money and others who would want less hours and less money. - The compensation for these groups should be wellestablished so as not to create dissatisfaction iii) Career Opportunities - Promotion opportunities important contributors to job satisfaction - Promotions come with an increase of a person’s selfworth. - Selfworth maybe materialistic (Compensation, raise) or social recognition (prestige, honor) - The self worth of a person is affected by culture and individual - Flatter organizations no longer provide the promotional hierarchy as in the past. They provide lateral moves in the company that provide challenging work, - Also, career development prepares employees to assume challenging assignements. iv) People - Friendly, considerate, goodnatured supervisors and coworkers contribute to job satisfaction. - We are also satisfied by the presence of people who help us attain wanted job outcomes, - Friendliness is attached to job satisfaction in fields of lowlevel jobs, with clear duties and various deadend jobs. - The ability of others to help us becomes an aspect of job satisfaction when compensations or promotions are attached to performance. Consequences of Job Satisfaction i) Absence from work - Absenteeism is costly to the org’n - Job satisfaction and absenteeism connection is not very strong. - Some factors that show the disconnection between absenteeism and job satisfaction a) Unavoidable absences due to illness, weather conditions or childcare problems. b) Opportunities for offthejob satisfactiono E.g I might love my job but I love fishing more. Therefore, skipping a day of work for fishing and a dissatisfied person who has nothing to do will show up to work. c) Policies (e.g no pay on absence) might reduce absenteeism of both satisfied and dissatisfied workers. An economic need is an indicator of reduced absenteeism rather than job satisfaction. d) Lack of company guidelines might make it unclear to employees about how much absenteeism is reasonable. ii) Turnover - Refers to the resignation from an organization, which can be very expensive - The relationship between job satisfaction and turnover is that lesssatisfied workers are more likely to leave. - Shocks and job commitment are the best indicators of turnover - Reasons why satisfied employees leave and dissatisfied ones stay: o Certain shocks (marital breakup, childbirth, attractive job offer) might stimulate turnover despite satisfaction o Dissatisfied employee might be willing to stay due to the commitment of the overall values and mission of the org’n o Dissatisfied employee might be embedded in the community (sports, school) and willing to endure a dissatisfying job. o Other job opportunities must be present for a turnover to occur. - A decrease in job satisfaction often precedes turnover, and those who quit experience a satisfaction boost at their new job. - The honeymoon effect: o The effect of feeling very satisfied with a new job because the bad facets of the old job are gone and the newer bad facets are not apparent yet. - Hangover Effect: o Occurs when the bad facets of the new job becomes apparent and satisfaction decreases. iii) Performance - The connection between performance and job satisfaction is complicated. - The most important facet is the job itself, therefore, more challenging jobs are most likely to stimulate high performance. - Connection between job satisfaction and performance is stronger for complex, hightech jobs - Connection between job satisfaction and performance is WEAKER for more routine labour jobs o This is because people with complex tasks have more control over their level of performance. - Good performance should be rewarded for job satisfaction. Satisfaction is more likely to affect performance rather than the reverse, meaning, if you are satisfied, you will do a great job, but doing a great job does not mean that you are satisfied. iv) Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) - Voluntary, informal behaviour that contributes to org’l effectiveness. - Job satisfaction contributes GREATLY to OCB, more than it does on regular task performance. - Characteristics of OCB: o Behaviour voluntary o Behaviour spontaneouso Behaviour contributes to organizational effectiveness, and not just a personal favour o Behaviour is unlikely to be picked up and rewarded by the performance evaluator, especially since it’s not in the job description o Conscientiousness of work (e.g getting to work even during a snow storm) o Being a good sport (e.g, not everyone can have the best office) o Courtesy and cooperation - Fairness seems to affect OCB, mostly interactional and procedural fairness - OCB reduces turnovers and increases efficiency v) Cx satisfaction and profit - Employee satisfaction affects customer satisfaction - Orgs with higher levels of satisfied employees tend to have satisfied customers - Reduced absenteeism and turnover contribute to efficient service delivery and OCBs that stimulate teamwork Organizational Commitment - An attitude that reflects the strength of the linkage between an employee and an org. i) Affective commitment o Based on identification and involvement with an org o Highly affective committed workers stay because they want to stay o Contributor is challenging work, role clarity and having one’s expectations met after being hired o Positively related to performance ii) Continuance Commitment o Commitment based on the costs that would be incurred in leaving an org o People stay because they have to o Increases with the time the person is employed o Being embedded in the community, having pension plans, rapid promotion are key factors to continuance commitment o Negatively related to performance iii) Normative commitment o Based on ideology or a feeling of obligation towards an org o People stay because they think that they Should o Strong identification, social practices that emphasize loyalty - Consequences of Organizational Commitment o Very high levels of commitment can have a negative impact on family life and work life or can lead to unethical and illegal behaviours - Changes in the workplace and employee commitmenta) Changes in the nature of employees commitment to the org. o Commitment profiles of employees will increase or decrease after the change, and maintaining high levels of affective commitment is challenging o Changes that are made for the best of the company but at the same time are detrimental to employees are most likely to decrease affective commitment b) Changes in the focus of employees’ commitment o Employees have multiple commitments o An increase in the company’s size might change an employee’s focus from a bigger focus to a narrower focus. o Employees might be more focused on finding new career opportunities c) The multiplicity of employeremployee relationships within organizations o Attained by having different levels of employees, with different levels of commitment o Core employees perform key operations and have high affective commitment o Contractual or temps do not perform core tasks that require commitment o This allows org to have a more flexible and adapted workforceChapter 6: Motivation in practice Job Design Strategies 1. Job Rotation 2. Job enlargement 3. Job enrichment Traditional views of job design - Break down jobs into their simplest components - Assign tasks so each employee performs select number of tasks in a repetitive manner - GOAL: efficient productivity Job Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldam’s) Composed of: A. Core Job Characteristics B. Critical Psychological States C. Outcomes D. Moderatorw A. 5 Core Job Characteristics 1. Skill VARIETY o The opportunity to do a variety of job activities using various skills and talents o High variety: owner-operator of a garage who does electrical repair, rebuilds engines, does body work, and interacts with cx o Low variety: body shop worker who sprays paint eight hours a day 2. Task IDENTITY o The extent to which a job involves doing a complete piece of work, from beginning to end o High Identity: A cabinet maker who designs a piece of furniture, selects the wood, builds the object, and finishes it to perfection o Low identity: a worker in a furniture factory who operates a lathe, solely to make table legs 3. Task SIGNIFICANCE o The impact that a job has on other people o High significance: Nursing sick people in a hospital’s intensive care o Low significance: Sweeping hospital floors 4. Autonomy o The freedom to schedule one’s own work activities and decide work procedures o High Autonomy: telephone installer who schedules work for the day, makes visits without supervision, and decides the most effective techniques for a particular installation o Low Autonomy: A telephone operator who handles calls as they come according to a routine, highly specified procedure5. Job FEEDBACK o Information about one’s effectiveness of work performance o High feedback: an electronics factory worker who assembles radios and then test it to see if it works o Low feedback: an electronics worker who assembles a radio and then routes it to a quality control inspector who tests it for proper operation and makes needed adjustments - Motivational potential score (MPS) o According to the job characteristics model, an overall measure of the motivating MPS=Skill Variety+Task Identity+Task Significance 3× Autonomy×Job feedback B. Critical Psychological states - Work will be intrinsically motivating when it has o Meaningfulness Attained with skill variety, task identity and task significance o Responsibility Attained with autonomy. The more autonomous you are, the more responsible you tend to be for your actions o Knowledge of results Results from feedback from job Feedback provides knowledge of mistakes and achievements and allows a person to learn C. Outcomes o High internal work motivation o High Growth Satisfaction o High General Job satisfaction o High work effectiveness D. Moderators - Three moderator or contingency variables intervene between job characteristics and outcomes: o Job-relevant knowledge and skill of the worker. o Growth need strength: the extent to which people desire to achieve higher order need satisfaction. o “Context” satisfactions: Factors surrounding the job (Pay, supervision, policies) Job Enrichment - Designing jobs to enhance intrinsic motivation, quality of working life, and job involvement - Job involvement o Cognitive state of psychological identification with one’s job and the importance of work to one’s total self-image o High job involvement job satisfaction - Job enrichment schemes: o Combining tasks Involves assigning tasks that might be performed by different workers to a single individual Increases variety of skills and task identity o Establishing external client relationships Putting employees into contact with people outside the org who depend on their products/service. Involves the use of new skills (interpersonal) increases identity and significance of the job increases feedback o Establishing internal client relationships Putting employees in touch with people, within the company, who depend on their product/services. E.g, assigning expedites and billers to one salesperson Involves the use of new skills (interpersonal) increases identity and significance of the job increases feedback o Reducing supervision or reliance on others Goal is to increase autonomy and control over one’s work o Forming work teams Used to combine a sequence of small jobs that individual workers perform when a task is too big or complex Develop variety skills, and increase task identity and significance o Making feedback more direct Used to increase feedback Also increases task identity as workers se the product as “theirs” - Job design as a motivator o Jobs with a high “motivating potential” or high-scope jobs tend to fulfill higher-order needs (consistent with needs theories) o If the outcomes (e.g., feedback, impact on others (significance)…) are considered attractive, these jobs have valence (consistent with expectancy theory) o Job feedback may be used to set goals(consistent with goal-setting theory) o Job design can foster intrinsic motivation by making the jobs more enjoyable Problems with Job enrichment - Poor diagnosis - Lack of desire or skill - Demand for rewards - Union resistance - Supervisory resistance Flexible Work Arrangement (FWA) 1. Flex-Time 2. Compressed work week 3. Job sharing 4. Telecommuting 1. Flex-Time - Schedule with flexible arrival and departure times - Common Core o all employees are at work (9a.m-12.00 and 13.00-15.00)- Flexible hours o Those hours that are left to the employee to decide whether he needs to stay longer or can allow himself to work less. - + attitudes - + productivity - Absenteeism - Tardiness 2. Compressed Work Week - Working less days but harder or longer hours - The most common compressed workweek is the 4-40 system. - May increase productivity in situations where work process requires significant start-up and shut down periods. - May create fatigue, reduced customer service - E.g working 3 day 12 hour shift and having the rest of the week off 3. Job Sharing - Two part-time employees divide the work of a full time employee - Job sharing is attractive to people who want to spend more time with their families. - It is also an effective strategy for avoiding layoffs. - Work sharing o Reducing the number of hours employees work to avoid layoffs when there is a reduction in normal business activity o Companies reduce the hours but give a small amount for the days that the employee is asked not to come in. 4. Telecommuting - A system by which employees are able to work at home but stay in touch with their offices through the use of communications technology, such as a computer network, voice mail, and electronic messages. - Benefits: o Increases in productivity-fewer interruptions,days lost to illness,no commute time, o reduces real estate costs o Can recruit employees from a wider geographical area. o Can recruit employees with physical disabilities - Weaknesses o Career Uncertainty-promotional opportunities o Out of sight, out of mind? o Data insecurity-fear of data being lost or stolen. o Family/home boundary blur o Harder to coordinate teamwork Benefits of FWA - Helps retain talented employees - Builds employee appreciation and commitment - Reduces stress-Balance of work/non-work Advance Planning for FWA - Establish procedures for flexible arrangements. o They have to be clear and in accordance to company’s goals and vision- Be clear about criteria for promotions. o Clarifications for rewards criteria should be explicit and clear, in both employer’s mind and employee’s mind - Be explicit about building upon or departing from precedent o Applies when company adopts new criteria for FWA Management by objectives (MBO) - An elaborate, systematic, ongoing program designed to facilitate goal establishment, goal accomplishment, and employee development - The Process: o Top management commitment is key 1. Use corporate strategy to set company wide goals 2. With employee, set individual-level goals (specific, challenging, and aligned with strategy) 3. Periodically meet with employee to monitor progress and provide feedback; modify objectives if needed 4. Periodically appraise performance – identify reasons for success/failure 5. REPEAT - The MBO process involves manager-employee interactions: o The manager meets with individual workers to develop and agree on employee objectives. o There are periodic meetings to monitor employee progress in achieving objectives. o An appraisal meeting is held to evaluate the extent to which the agreed objectives have been achieved. o The MBO cycle is repeated. - Research evidence shows clear productivity gains associated with MBO. - However, a number of factors that are associated with the failure of MBO programs: o Lack of commitment from top management. o An overemphasis on measurable objectives at the expense of more qualitative objectives. o Excessive short-term orientation. o Performance review becomes an exercise in browbeating or punishing employees for failure to achieve objectives. -Chapter 7: Groups and Teamwork Characteristics of well-functioning group - Relaxed, comfortable, informal atmosphere - Task well understood and accepted - Members listen well and participate - Conflict & disagreement over ideas, methods - Group aware of its operation and function - Consensus decision making o Not a vote. o Everyone has to agree, completely of partially - Clear assignments made and accepted Advantages of teams - Constructive Criticism from peers (feedback) - Increased Synergy - Sense of community - Increased interpersonal skills - Member diversity - Increased Motivation - Complement skills - Peer support - Job sharing and time management - Exchange of Knowledge increased creativity - Less stress Disadvantages A. Social Loafing o The tendency to withhold physical or intellectual effort when performing a group task. o In the free rider effect, people lower their effort to get a free ride at the expense of their fellow group members. o In the sucker effect, people lower their effort because of the feeling that others are free riding. - Counter-acting Social Loafing o The tendency to withhold physical or intellectual effort when performing a group task. o In the free rider effect, people lower their effort to get a free ride at the expense of their fellow group members. o In the sucker effect, people lower their effort because of the feeling that others are free riding. B. Diffusion of responsibility o Bystander effect o Lead to unethical and riskier decisionsCharacteristics of Groups - Group Structure 1. Norms 2. Cohesiveness 3. Group Size 4. Diversity 1. Norms - Acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group’s members. - Typical norms in groups: ∙ Reward allocation norms i. Equity: reward according to input ii. Equality: same rewards to all iii. Reciprocity: reward people the way they reward you iv. Social responsibility/need: reward those who need it most ∙ Performance norms (appropriate level of perf.) E.g, absenteeism norms, break norms, level of errors and mistakes allowed ∙ Dress norms What is acceptable to wear? Military and semi-military: Very strict Casual: not so strict but are still concerned with some level of dress norms - Norm Development ∙ Norms develop to regulate behaviours that are considered important to their supporters. ∙ Shared attitudes form the basis for norms. ∙ Groups have a range of rewards and punishments available to induce conformity to norms. 2. Cohesiveness - The strength of group members’ desires to remain in or be part of the group. - How attractive the group is to outsiders who wish to enter and how desirable it is for group members to stay. - Factors affecting Cohesiveness I) Homogeneity low diversity∙ The more that members agree on decisions (common beliefs), the more cohesive the group II) Communication ∙ Communication increases cohesiveness of the group III) Isolation ∙ Being isolated from other groups tends to make the group more cohesive ∙ E.g Saint-Hubert BOH and FOH IV) Size ∙ The smaller the size, the more cohesive V) Outside pressure ∙ Increases cohesiveness ∙ E.g, if there is a threat of shorter hours, employees come together and start working slower. VI) Interdependent tasks ∙ The more interdependent the tasks, the more cohesion ∙ E.g surgery team VII) Difficult initiation ∙ The more difficult it is to get in the group, the more cohesive it becomes ∙ E.g, club initiation VIII) Success ∙ The more success the more cohesive the group. - Consequences of Cohesion ∙ Satisfaction ∙ Development and learning ∙ Productivity ∙ More Participation in Group Activities There is more participation in cohesive groups in terms of lower voluntary turnover and absenteeism, and a high degree of communication within the group. ∙ More Conformity Highly cohesive groups are able to induce greater conformity to group norms. Members of cohesive groups are especially motivated to engage in activities that will keep the group cohesive. The group can apply pressure to deviants to get them to comply with group norms. ∙ Performance Cohesive groups are especially effective at accomplishing their own goals. If these goals correspond with those of the organization, increased cohesiveness should have benefits for group performance. If not, organizational effectiveness might be threatened. Relationship between Cohesiveness and Performance: a. HIGH Productivity and HIGH Cohesiveness High Productivity b. HIGH Productivity and LOW Cohesiveness Moderate Productivity c. LOW Productivity and HIGH Cohesiveness Moderate to Low Productivity d. LOW Productivity and LOW Cohesiveness LOW Productivity 3. Group Size - The smallest possible group consists of two people - Large vs Small Grous: ∙ Benefit Large Groups o More resources More diversity allows for more creation o Division of labor o Specialization of tasks Members can allow themselves to focus on one task as there are other members to focus on other tasks ∙ Benefits of Small Groups o Regular interaction As size increases members have less interaction flexibility o Ease of sharing information Sharing information is easier with less members o Recognition of individual contributions to group The more members, the less individual recognition o Strong group identification As group size increases, so does diversity. Diversity can mean different goals, beliefs, leading to a dysfunctional group o Higher group satisfaction Smaller groups allow the members to argue less, and allows them to have more verbal time allocation and recognition o Relationship with satisfaction : Satisfaction is higher in small groups. In large groups: less chances to develop real friendships more chances of conflict/dissension people may be inhibited about participating people identify less easily with successes of the group Process Losses o As groups performing tasks get bigger, they tend to suffer from process losses.o Process losses are performance difficulties that stem from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groups. o Problems of communication and decision making increase with size. o Actual performance = Potential performance – Process losses o The relationship between group size and performance depends on the task. o Types of tasks: Additive tasks Disjunctive tasks Conjunctive tasks 1) Additive Tasks o Tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual group members. o The potential performance of groups doing additive tasks increases with group size…up to a point o E.g, Building a house. Potential performance increases with size, but, if only size increases and the skills of workers don’t, then potential performance is the same or even decreases 2) Disjunctive Tasks o Tasks in which group performance is dependent on the performance of the best group member. o The potential performance of groups doing disjunctive tasks increases with group size, because the probability that a group inherits a superior member increases o E.g Surgical Team 3) Conjunctive Tasks o Tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member. o Both the potential and actual performance of conjunctive tasks would decrease as group size increases. o E.g Assembly line’s progress is hindered by the slowest workers performance 4. Group Diversityo Diversity refers to differences among group members (cultural, gender, generations, etc.) o Potential problems: Communication difficulties Difficult to become cohesive Take longer to get to performing stage o Potential Strengths Better performance when the task requires cognitive, creativity demanding tasks and problem solving Formal VS Informal Groups Formal Work Groups Formal work groups are groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals. The most common formal group consists of a manager and the employees who report to the manager. The hierarchy of most organizations is a series of formal, interlocked work groups E.g task forces, project teams, committees. Informal Groups Informal groups are groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members. They are seldom sanctioned by the organization. Informal groups can either help or hurt an organization, depending on their norms for behaviour. Group Development 1) Five-Stage Model o This model claims that groups develop in five stages – forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. a. Forming Testing the waters, getting to know each other Situation is ambiguous Members try to find their purpose in the group b. Storming Conflict emerges Issue: rules & responsibilities Confrontation and criticism occur as members decide whether their goals align with those of the group Problems are more likely to occur at this stage rather than later c. Norming Members agree on norms Information and opinions flow freely Cohesion & cooperation Social consensus emerges Compromise often necessary Interdependence reorganized, and group becomes more cohesive d. Performing Group devotes energy to the task Productivity, achievement, creativity, mutual assistance e. Adjourning Groups are definite, they get dissolved, either by end of contract (planned) or layoffs (unplanned) Group dissolves (can be planned or not) Rites and rituals are common (parties, gifts) Members exhibit emotional support for each other o NOTE: NOT all groups go through those stages. Some groups can perform very well even if they do not go through all the stages. E.g, flight attendants can perform very well even if they meet their members just before take-offs. 2) Punctuated Equilibrium Model o Typically seen when groups have specific deadlines a. Phase 1 Begins with the first meeting and continues until the midpoint in the group’s existence. The first meeting is critical in setting the agenda for what will happen in the remainder of this phase. The group gathers information and holds meetings but makes little visible progress toward the goal. b. Mid-point Transition Occurs at almost exactly the halfway point in time toward the group’s deadline. Critical Stage The transition marks a change in the group’s approach. How the group manages the change is critical for the group to show progress. This transition crystallizes the group’s activities for Phase 2. Groups can have a Successful transition or an unsuccessful transition c. Phase 2 Decisions and approaches adopted at the midpoint get played out in Phase 2. It concludes with a final meeting that reveals a burst of activity and a concern for how outsiders will evaluate the product. o Advices for a successful punctuated equilibrium model Prepare first meeting carefully Stress motivation and excitement about project As long as people are working, do not look for huge progress during phase 1 Manage the midpoint transition carefully Eval. Strengths and weaknesses of phase 1 Clarify questions Essential issues are not going to “work themselves out” Focus on strategy to be used in phase 2 Be sure the adequate resources are available to execute Phase 2 RESIST deadline changes. This can damage midpoint transitionCOMM 222 Chapter 8 Notes Social Influence in Organizations Informational dependence - Reliance on others about how to think, feel, and act - Ind’ls compare their thoughts, feelings and actions with those of others as a means of acquiring information - E.g, comparing work done by co-worker to know how much or how little should be done Effects dependence - Reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment - We depend on the effects (reward or punishment) of our behaviour - Managers had an array of rewards (promotions, raises, and assignments) and punishments - Informal level effects are diverse: o Cooperation might be rewarded by praises, friendship, and a helping hand o Not cooperating might be punished by nagging, name calling, or social isolation Social influence in action Conformity: - a change in behavior or attitudes resulting from peer pressure. - Factors of conformity: 1. Publicity 2. Size of the Opposition 3. Dissension 4. The Issue at Hand 5. Status - Motives for Conformity 1. Compliance o Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment o Simplest, most direct motive o Primarily involves effects dependence o Ind. Adjust behaviour to norm but do not change beliefs, values, and attitudes o E.g, most children behave themselves only because of external force 2. Identificationo Conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself. o E.g Children behave themselves because such a behaviour corresponds to that of an admired person, a parent in this case 3. Internalization o Conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm o Ind. Conforms because it is right, not because he/she is motivated by reward or punishment o E.g, an army officer might be very strict and rigid, not because others are strict, but because he feels it is right and believes in these values Organizational Culture - Shared beliefs and values that lead to norms and behavior. These beliefs, values and assumptions determine: o The norms that develop o The patterns of behaviours that emerge from those norms - Characteristics of Organizational Culture: o It represents a true “way of life” for organizational members who often take its influence for granted. o It tends to be fairly stable over time and once established it can persist despite turnover among organizational members, providing social continuity. o The content of a culture can involve matters that are internal to the organization or external. o Culture can have a strong impact on both organizational performance and member satisfaction. o Culture is like an operating system of an organization. o It guides how employees think, act and feel o Culture operates at both conscious and unconscious levels. o Ex. Avoidance of conflict- unconscious norm o Artifacts- visible expressions of culture. - Culture is maintained o Physical design of the workplace o Slogans, jargon o Role modeling, training programs o Rewards, status symbols, Published, formal statements o promotional criteria o Leader reactions to crises o Organizational structure o Hiring practices Subcultures- smaller cultures that develop within a larger organizational culture that are based on differences in training, occupation, or departmental goals - Effective organizations develop an overarching culture to manage differences between subcultures. Strong vs Weak Culture Strong Culture: - core values are intensely held and widely shared. - Advantages: o Coordination overarching values and assumptions can facilitate comm. & coordination departments know what each other is doing different departments can learn from each other and help each other o Conflict resolution sharing core values is a mechanism for resolving conflicts Though a strong culture can create conflicts, having a strong culture allows employees to understand what us expected from them and why and they work towards the same goal o Financial Success if supports the mission, strategy, and goals of the organization as long as disadvantages can be avoided - Potential Disadvantages o Resistance to Change can damage a firm’s ability to innovate a firm’s mission, goals and strategy might need to change due to external pressures o Culture Clash can mix badly when a merger or acquisition pushes two together New mergers are very likely to have a clash in cultures, resulting in failure o Pathology if based on beliefs, values that support infighting, secrecy, and paranoia: unethical e.g Law and accounting firms should be able to come clean and open. Having a culture that blur to the public or that praises secrecy can be pathological Contributor’s to the Culture1. Founder o values and preferences o shapes the org’s culture o culture will reflect what to management pays attention to o Top management and founder can have conflicting when top management wishes to give a new direction to org. o Sometimes, to change a culture, org’s need to change the CEO 2. Socialization - process by which new employees learn necessary attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors to function in the org. - Socialization process: (i) Selecting employees o Select those that will adapt to the current culture o Screening allows candidates to de-select themselves (ii) Debasement and hazing o Promotes humility in new recruits so that they are open to norms of org (iii) Training “in the trenches” o Employees start at the bottom to understand the core of the org o Even academically accredited ind’s are asked to start from the bottom, even if it’s just in the beginning (iv) Reward and promotion o Carefully used to reinforce employees who perform well in areas that support the goals of the org (v) Exposure to core culture o Employees are constantly taught the values and beliefs of the company for them not to lose track (vi) Organizational folklore o Members are exposed to folklore about the org (stories used to reinforce nature of culture) (vii) Role models o Indentify people as “fast-tracker” o Fast-Trackers’ actions and beliefs are in sync with the org’s values, beliefs (Jean-Charles). o Fast-Trackers are role models to new recruits. They are tangible beings which can be imitated - Consistency between steps is what reinforces the culture of a company Diagnosing a Culture - There are mechanisms that teach, communicate, and reinforce the company’s culture. - These mechanisms characterize the organization’s way of life. - 3 Mechanisms (i) the symbols(ii) rituals (iii) stories (i) Symbols o strong indicators of corporate culture. o Some executives are particularly skilled at using symbols consciously to reinforce cultural values. o E.g, having a glass ceiling in an office can be symbol for an office’s culture which believes that the sky is the limit (ii) Rituals o Rites, rituals, and ceremonies can convey the essence of a culture and can include: Recognition awards and events Monthly parties Beach parties Employee nights Award ceremonies o E.g having beer Fridays for brain storming sessions (iii) Stories o The folklore of organizations – stories about past organizational events – is a common aspect of culture. o Stories communicate “how things work” and reflect the uniqueness of organizational cultures. o A few common themes underlie many organizational stories: Is the big boss human? Can the little person rise to the top? Will I get fired? Will the organization help me when I have to move? How will the boss react to mistakes? How will the organization deal with obstacles?
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