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UTEP / CLINICAL LABORATORY SCIENCE / CLS 3351 / Explain the reference guide on toxicology.

Explain the reference guide on toxicology.

Explain the reference guide on toxicology.

Description

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Biology 3351If you want to learn more check out Who is George Pullman?

Toxicology:

~ Reference guide on Toxicology: Ch. 1 (textbook link)

  • toxicology - science of poisons; study of adverse (harmful) effects of chemicals on living organisms

3 main Ideas:If you want to learn more check out culture refers to the set of values, ideas, and attitudes that are learned and shared among members of a group. it also serves as a socializing force that

 1) only hazardous all depending on the dose (even water)

 2) each chemical agent produces pattern of biological effects that can cause disease

 3) toxic responses in lab animals are good indicators of how humans would respond

  • toxicologists study foreign agents (all chemicals) and physical agents (in form of radiation, not living organisms)
  • chemicals can affect metabolic, cellular, and physiological aspects
  • ~ Toxicological Research Design
  • use of lab animals (in vivo) or cells/tissues (in vitro)
  • only time humans are actually studied is if they were already exposed to chemicals in work environment, but it's hard to quantify amount of exposure and can't isolate increased risk factor of disease is due to that one chemical
  • active areas of research: solvents and metals, body system effects, effects on physiological processes
  • in vivo research
  • animal research falls under safety assessment and clinical lab science
  • Safety assessment:
  • chemicals potential for toxicity is tested using standardized techniques prescribed by EPA or FDA
  • research holds all variables constant except for chemical ways exposure; any change in experimental group not found in control group is assumed to be caused by chemical
  • toxicological studies test range of doses of the chemicals:

a) dose-response relationships

  • measures extent of observed effects and searches for dose that has no measurable physiological effects

We also discuss several other topics like What is the cost of sexual reproduction?

b) acute toxicity testing - lethal dose 50 (LD50)

  • to determine dose response relationship an (LD50) is derived (dose at which 50% of lab animals die)
  • LD50 use is being abandoned because of technological advances and animal rights activists

c) no observable effects level (NOEL)

  • it's the level above which observable effects in test animals occur and level below which no toxicity is observed

d) no threshold model and determination of cancer risk

  • Some genetic mutations occur without any threshold
  • this model led to one hit theory of cancer risk: each molecule of cancer causing chemical has some possibility of producing mutation that leads to cancer
  • risk is small / unlikely to occur / but risk is not zero

e) max tolerated dose (MTD) and chronic toxicity tests 

  • MTO highest dose that doesn't cause clear toxicity
  • over 90 day period
  • tests evaluate carcinogenicity
  • studies designed to last the lifetime of the species

~ In vitro research

  • concerns the effects of chemical on human animal cells, bacteria, yeast, isolated tissues, or embryos

~ Extrapolation of Animal and Cell Research to Humans

  • 2 types of extrapolation;

1) animal data to humans We also discuss several other topics like Explain the process of matrix multiplication.
We also discuss several other topics like How is rhythm used in art?
If you want to learn more check out What are the two types of stem cells?

2) higher doses to lower doses

  • basic principle of toxicology: if compound causes effect in one mammalian species, it'll cause it in other
  • between different species, factors like absorption, distribution, metabolism , and excretion can alter toxicity

~ Safety and Risk Assessment

  • Safety assessment: area of toxicology relating to testing of chemicals and drugs for toxicity
  • (GLP) Good Laboratory Practice gives codes to labs to prevent fraud and governs animals per cage, dose and chemical verification, and handling of tissue specimens
  • FDA and EPA differ in required procedures (premarket testing)
  • risk assessment: approach used by regulatory agencies to estimate and compare risks of hazardous chemicals and assign priority for avoiding their adverse effects
  • 4 components:
  • hazard identification
  • dose-response estimation
  • exposure assessment
  • risk characterization

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