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UCONN / Physiology and neurobiology / PNB 2265 / How did pco2 affect respiration rate?

How did pco2 affect respiration rate?

How did pco2 affect respiration rate?

Description

School: University of Connecticut
Department: Physiology and neurobiology
Course: Human Physiology and Anatomy
Professor: Kristen kimball
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: PNB Practical 2 Study Guide
Description: Covers labs 6-10
Uploaded: 04/12/2017
10 Pages 103 Views 3 Unlocks
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Lab 6: Respiratory System


How did pco2 affect respiration rate?



Conducting Zone Architecture

∙ Filter, warm, and moisten air

and conduct it into the lungs

∙ Respiratory zone is site of O2

and CO2 exchange with the

blood

∙ Terminal bronchioles divide

into the smaller respiratory Don't forget about the age old question of What is adrienne rich known for?

bronchioles (beginning of the

respiratory zone)


What are causes of pneumothorax?



∙ Alveolar ducts: tiny, connect

the respiratory bronchioles to

alveolar sacs, each of which contains

a collection of alveoli

Histology

∙ The respiratory bronchiole inner

membrane: pseudostratified

columnar epithelial tissue

∙ Portions of hyaline cartilage rings If you want to learn more check out What is the age of the oldest seafloor?

can also be seen outside of the


Which phase of respiration is affected?



bronchiole

∙ *Only respiratory bronchioles are

involved with gas exchange

Tuberculosis

• Fibrous scar tissue

• Destruction of alveoli

• Low compliance (hard to inhale)

• “Thick balloon” (hard to inflate) If you want to learn more check out What does the electron sea model explain?

• Caused by various strains of mycobacteria

• Transmitted by fluids through the air  

(cough/sneeze)

• Form granulomasabnormal necrosis in  

tubercles

o Langhans cells in granulomas

o Fusion of many epithelial cells We also discuss several other topics like What are natural resources?

o Nuclei line periphery of cell

Emphysema

∙ Destruction of respiratory bronchioles and  

alveoli

o Limited area for gas exchange

∙ High compliance (hard to exhale)

o Increased ability to distend lungs

o Also lose elasticity

∙ “Grocery bag” (hard to deflate)

∙ Decreased surface area, decreased ability to  

exchange

∙ Strong internal intercostal muscles

Spirometry

∙ Measures the amount of (volume) and/or speed (flow) of air that can be inhaled  and exhaled

∙ Can be used to detect for respiratory diseases We also discuss several other topics like What ways is the social construction of gender the foundation of the oppression of women and transgender people via sexism, patriarchy and misogyny?

∙ Zero before each reading, hold parallel to table

How did pCO2 affect respiration rate? If you want to learn more check out How do we define eligibility for marriage?

pH?

∙ Inspiratory Reserve Volume: as  much additional air as you can ∙ Tidal Volme: normal breathing

∙ Vital Capacity: IRV+ERV+VT

∙ Inspiratory Capacity: VT+ IRV

∙ Total Lung Capacity (TLC)+

VC+ RV

∙ Expiratory Reserve Volume:

exhale as much as you can

∙ Functional Residual Capacity:

RV+ ERV

∙ Residual Volume: air that

stays in lungs

Oxygen Loading and Unloading

∙ O2 picked up in lungs through respiration

o Diffuse from the alveolipulmonary capillaries

 Binds to hemoglobin molecules in the RBCs

∙ RBC to peripheral tissues, hemoglobin unloads the oxygen

∙ CO2 formed as a byproduct of metabolism by peripheral tissues o Diffuses into the RBC in the systemic capillaries, binds to hemoglobin, or  combines with water to form carbonic acid

o Dissociates into hydrogen ion and biocarbonate

∙ Bicarbonate transported out of the RBC into the plasma in exchange for chloride ∙ RBC back to the pulmonary capillaries where biocarbonate leaves the plasma  and enters the RBC in exchange for chloride

o Combines with hydrogen ions to form carbonic acid

 Dissociates into water and CO2, which diffuses back into the alveoli

∙ Any CO2 bound to hemoglobin in the pulmonary capillary also unloads and  diffuses into the alveoli

Regulation of Blood pH

∙ CO2 + H2O  H2CO3 HCO3- + H+ 

∙ Lungs regulate CO2 concentration

o Hypoventilation éCO2 (acidosis)

o Hyperventilation êCO2 (alkalosis)

∙ Kidneys maintain HCO3- levels

o êHCO3- (acidosis)

o éHCO3- (alkalosis)

∙ Blood pH level can be maintained by controlling PCO2 and HCO3- levels o When compromised: Respiratory Acidosis/Alkalosis

o Hypoventilation decreases pH (acidosis), hyperventilation increases pH  (alkalosis)

∙ Kidneys maintain HCO3- levels in the blood (secrete H+ and resorb HCO3-) o When compromised: Metabolic Acidosis/Alkalosis

o Excessive vomiting, diabetes, diarrhea, lactate build up, massive cell  death

∙ Both systems contribute to maintain appropriate blood pH

Example Questions

∙ A 1st year graduate student anxious about their midterm performance begins to  feel lightheaded and tingling in their hands so they go to the clinic. A workup  revealed: pH 7.48, PaCO2 30, HCO3- 23

o Respiratory alkalosis

∙ An undergraduate student celebrated too much on St. Patrick's day. After a  weekend of atonement, his lab values are: pH 7.48, PaCO2 51, HCO3- 29 o Metabolic alkalosis with partial respiratory compensation

∙ What are causes of pneumothorax?

o Pneumothorax: when air or gas leaks into the pleural space

 Open pneumothorax has chest wall damage, closed pneumothorax  does not

o Caused by physical trauma to the chest or as a complication of medical or  surgical intervention

∙ Which phase of respiration is affected?

o Both phases of respiration are affected, but mostly inhalation because of a lack of negative pressure

∙ Does pneumothorax affect other organs?

o Can cause displacement of the heart, veins, and the lung on the other side

Lab 7: Digestive System

Anatomy of the Digestive System

Esophagus

∙ Esophagus: stratified squamous  

epithelium

∙ Stomach: simple columnar epithelium

o With goblet cells (mucous

white)

o Fold

∙ Small intestine: simple columnar  

epithelium

o Villi

∙ Large intestine: simple columnar  

epithelium

o With goblet cells (mucous

white)

o No fold

Types of GI contraction

∙ Peristalsis

o Propel one way

into the GI tract

∙ Segmentation

o Mix contents in

GI tract

Atropine Response

∙ Parasympathetic

∙ Inhibits contraction of

smooth muscle in gut

Lab 8: Active Transport

Glucose Curve

∙ Don't mix DNS and DNP

DNP

∙ Used as proxy for glucose levels in assay

∙ Mitochondrial uncoupler

∙ Proton Ionophore (shuttles protons across membranes)

∙ Destroys proton gradient in mitochondria preventing the production of ATP Intestine NOT Inverted

∙ Always transport glucose from mucosal to serosal side

Predictions for Inverted Sac

∙ The biggest increase in concentration above 15 mM

∙ Slight increase in concentration above 15 mM

∙ Ideally, no change (concentration should stay 15 mM)

o Might see a slight increase

o Depends on the concentration of DNP

∙ In our experiment, glucose concentration should NEVER be below 15 mM Predictions for Non-Inverted Sac

∙ The biggest decrease below 15 mM

∙ Slight decrease below 15 mM

∙ No change (or slight decrease)

∙ Slight decrease below 15 mM

Fructose Instead of Glucose

∙ No change

∙ Fructose is transported via facilitated diffusion so the concentration gradient is  critical

∙Glucose concentration (mM)Since there is 15 mM fructose in the  sac as well as outside, there is no concentration gradient

o No transport

Glucose Concentration Examples

∙ 37C: C

∙ DNP: Ideally A, can be D

∙ Low temperature: D

∙ Low Na: D

∙ 37 in non inverted intestine: B

∙ A: rate of glucose

transport in the small

intestine

Cholera

∙ Can kill you by

dehydrating you via

diarrhea  

∙ Releases ctx and causes

diarrhea via opening of

CTFR channels and causing ion loss

o Give patient a glucose rich solution to allow glucose ( and by proxy h2o) to enter the cell

Lab 9: Urinary System and Kidney

Function

Urinalysis

∙ Specific gravity: urine

Refractometer

o Proportional to urine

osmolarity

o Measures solid concentration

o >1.035 - Hypersthenuria,

diabetes mellitus,

dehydration, acute nephritis

o <1.002 – Hyposthenuria,

chronic nephritis, diabetes

insipidus

o When nephron stops to work

sp gr is in the range of 1.007-1.01, the same as in Bowman’s space ∙ pH: pH paper

o Changes to 7.4: happens in DCT and collecting duct

o <6: type I diabetes, diarrhea, starvation, respiratory/metabolic acidosis o >7.4 UTI, vegetarian diet, respiratory/metabolic alkalosis

∙ Glucose: Benedict’s reagent (<0.1%)

o Only small proteins filter through glomerulus and usually reabsorb in renal  tubules

 Small amount is not reabsorbed

o Normal - <150mg/24 hrs, or <10mg/100ml in any single specimen o Most filtered glucose is reabsorbed in proximal convoluted tubule o Glycosuria can also indicate pregnancy, or nephritis

∙ Protein: Exton's reagent (<10mg/100ml)

o Proteinuria can indicate strenuous physical exercise, emotional stress,  infections, pregnancy, prolonged exposure to cold

o Exton’s reagent provides more reliable measurement

 Dipstick can give false positive

o Clintest and Benedict does not miss the fructose and galactose  Can be the case for simple dipstick method that uses glucose  

oxidase

∙ Ketone: Rothera's reagent (no ketone)

o Ketone: accelerated fat metabolism

o Type I Diabetes mellitus (ketone acidosis), people with fevers, fasting  people, starvation, cold exposure

o Rothera’s reagent – nitroprusside and alkali. Purple ring will develop during this test if ketone is present

Gross Anatomy of Urinary System Internal Anatomy of the Kidney

Microstructure of the Urinary

System

∙ Distal convoluted tubule have a short sparse microvilli

o Cytoplasm of the cells stains bright due to abundance of mitochondria ∙ Proximal convoluted tubule contains tall microvilli

o Lumen of it look fussy due to the brush border

Movement out of the Renal Tubules

∙ Filtration

o Pressure driven  

o Of protein-free plasma from glomerular capillaries into nephron ∙ Reabsorption  

o Active and passive

o Back into blood – materials to be retained; Need to reabsorb nutrients  (Vitamins, Amino acids, glucose, etc)

∙ Secretion  

o Active

o Transport of materials (H+, K+) into tubule for excretion

∙ Excretion = Filtrate – Reabsorption + Secretion  

Hormones Involved in Water/Ion Regulation in the Kidney

∙ Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH; vasopressin)

o Made in hypothalamus, stored in posterior pituitary

o Acts primarily at collecting duct by making it water permeable by adding  aquaporins

∙ Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

o Powerful vasodilator secreted by heart muscle cells of the atria. o Increases glomerular filtration rate, resulting in more water and sodium in  filtrate

o Flushes out some of the NaCl in the vasa recta, which results in less water  and sodium being reabsorbed

∙ Aldosterone

o Secreted by zona glomerulosa of adrenal gland.

o Stimulates secretion of potassium and retention of sodium and water

Lab 10: Reproductive System

Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis

∙ Female cat: bicornuate uterus  

o Uterine body  

o 2 uterine horns to have multiple offspring  

o Pregnant

 Right and left uterine horn with fetus  

∙ Gametogenesis  

o Begin with diploid germ

cells

 Oogonium (females)

 Spermatogonia

(males)  

o Primary: after mitotic

division of germ cells  

o Secondary: meiosis II

 Females: secondary

oocyte completes

meiosis II only if

fertilized by sperm  

 Male: ALL secondary

oocyte completes

meiosis II to become

spermatids to become sperm cells

 Seminiferous tubules in testes

∙ Seminiferous tubules  

o Each circular structure is one seminiferous tubule

 Elongated convoluted tubules  

 Cross section of testes  

o Spermatogonia: diploid germ cells that continuously produce sperm  beginning at puberty  

 Round cells with: round nuclei  

o Primary spermatocytes: extend prophase of first meiotic division  o Secondary spermatocytes: rarely seen, immediately after formed  undergo secondary meiotic division to become spermatids  

o Spermatids: smaller cells closer to lumen, nuclei smaller denser and  assume shape of sperm heads  

o Sertoli cells: non dividing supportive cells, just towards lumen from  spermatogonia, large, pale, irregular in shape  

o Leydig cells: testosterone producing cells of testes, in spaces between  seminiferous tubule  

∙ Ovarian Histology  

o Outer cortex and inner medulla  

o Outer cortex are thousands of

ovarian follicles each containing

oocytes surrounding supportive

follicle cells  

o Primordial follicles: ovaries

prior to birth  

 Each primordial follicle

contains primary oocyte

surrounded by single layer

of squamous follicular cells

 Follicular cells: arrested at prophase I in meiosis I until puberty   At puberty, each primordial follicle mature into primary follicle   Primary follicle contains primary oocyte now surrounded by  several layers of cuboidal granulosa cells

 Surrounding granulosa cells: flattened thecal cells, create  estrogen for monthly ovarian and uterine cycles  

o Some primary follicles enter the next phase of follicular development and  become secondary follicles

 Secondary follicles have a development of fluid filled space called  antrum

 One or more follicles will develop and mature into a graafian  follicle  

 Graafian follicles have a large antrum  

 Start to appear on surface of ovary and ready to appear and  release oocyte  

 Oocyte has completed meiosis I and is now secondary  

oocyte released from ovary during ovulation and if  

fertilized by male sperm to complete meiosis II

Male Reproductive System and Spermatogenesis  

∙ Sperm produced in testes travel through ducts  

∙ Epididymisvas deferensejaculatory ductto reach

urethra (end of the penis)

∙ Sperm travel along this pathway, accessory glands

(seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands)

secrete substances that form semen

∙ Sperm are formed in the testes

o Each testis: coiled seminiferous tubules lined by

epithelium

 Epithelium: germ cells and supporting

sustentacular (or sertoli) cells

∙ Spermatogonia: germ cells from which sperm cells arise

∙ Beginning of spermatogenesis: mitotic division of

spermatogonia produces diploid cells (each with 46

chromosomes)

∙ One daughter cell stays spermatogonia, other becomes a primary spermatocyte o Primary spermatocyte divides (meiosis), forms haploid secondary  spermatocytes (each with 23 chromosomes)

o Secondary spermatocytes divide againspermatids

o Spermiogenesis: move into toward the lumen of the seminiferous tubule  Spermatids differentiate into sperms cells

 Spermatids shed excess cytoplasm, form a head with acrosomal cap, a midpiece and a flagellum (tail)  

o Sperm cells immature when they leave the seminiferous tubules and  testis, mature fully in the epididymis  

Female Reproductive System  

∙ Ovaries: paired oval shaped organs on either side of the uterus, on lateral  abdominal walls of the pelvic cavity  

o Each ovary attaches to the uterus via an ovarian ligament

 Held in place by a suspensory ligament  

 Each suspensory ligament: ovarian vein, ovarian artery and nerves  Supply its respective artery

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