In preparing for the upcoming Bio 230 exam, please make sure that you review all of the material that we’ve covered so far in the course. This includes information presented in class, handouts, readings, and homework assignments, as well as all of the activities, discussions, clicker questions, index cards, and lectures we’ve done in class. The exam will consist of both multiple choice questions and short essay questions, for which answers should be composed of complete sentences. The topics and questions listed below are intended to help you review your knowledge. The questions on the exam will require you to synthesize what you know and apply it in different situations. Questions You Should Be Able to Answer… The Mystery Box and UABCIT: How does the Mystery Box represent the process of science? What is the one experiment that you’d like to do next on the Mystery Box? What are the six habits of mind that guide our work in this class (UABCIT)? What is a concrete example of how you’ve practiced one of these habits of mind so far in your classwork? How do Biologists Define a Living Thing: What are common functions of living things? What are common structures? What is the Cell Theory of living things? Which of the following are considered to be alive and why? proteins? bacteria? yeast? viruses? prions? DNA? candles? chemical reactions? Water? How would you evaluate an unknown specimen to determine if it’s living? Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes: How are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells similar? How are they different? What kinds of organisms are prokaryotes? eukaryotes? What is the Endosymbiotic Theory of the origins eukaryotes? What is the evidence for this theory? Who is Lynn Margulis? Where are organelles like mitochondria and chloroplasts thought to have come from? Size and Scale: If a cell were the size of our lecture hall, how would you explain to a friend how big a water molecule would be? Which is usually bigger, an organelle or a cell? A glucose molecule or an organelle? A DNA molecule or a carbon atom? A virus or a protein molecule? If you were given several of the strips from the size and scale exercise could you put them in order from smallest to largest? Bio 230: Introductory Biology San Francisco State University Kevin Simonin & Kimberly Tanner, Instructors Spring 2017Altoids and Mad Cow Disease: How would you respond to someone who told you not to eat Altoids because they cause mad cow disease? What evidence were you able to find to confirm or refute this link? From what types of sources did you get this evidence? Were these sources primary, secondary, tertiary, or hearsay sources? What kinds of authors usually write the information in these different types of sources? Which of these different types of sources are usually more scientifically credible, and why? What are prions? Are they considered living? Why or why not? Who is Stanley Prusiner? What was his contribution to understanding prions and Mad Cow Disease? Four Classes of Biological Macromolecules: What are the four main classes of biological macromolecules and their primary functions? What are examples of each of these four main classes of macromolecules? Molecular Bonds and the Structure of Water: Remember back to the analogy of electrons as peanut butter sandwiches. How would you explain the difference between covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds? Could you draw three molecules of water correctly, including the hydrogen bonds between the molecules? The Structure of DNA: What is DNA made of? What are the key features of the structure of DNA? Where are the phosphates in a DNA molecule? Where are the sugars? Where are the nucleotides? What is the purpose of hydrogen bonds? Are these bonds weak or strong? (remember zippers!) How did the structure of DNA give scientists insight into its function? How would you explain to a friend the similarities and differences between DNA, genes, chromosomes, and genomes? What are the similarities and differences between the DNA of different organisms? If you knew the percentage of Adenine in a chromosome, could you calculate the percentage of Thymine? Cytosine? Guanine? Where is genetic information stored in a DNA molecule? The Discovery of the Structure of DNA: Who was involved in this pivotal discovery in biology? What were their relative roles? How did model building contribute to understanding DNA’s structure? How did XRay crystallography contribute to understanding DNA’s structure? What is Chargaff’s rule, and what clues did it provide? What did you learn about the profession of science from studying the history of the discovery of DNA? Who took the key picture of DNA? What technique was used to make this picture? What did the picture suggest about the structure of DNA? DNA to RNA to Protein: What are the similarities and differences in what DNA, RNA, and protein are made of? Where is each of these molecules inside a cell? How does DNA code for RNA? How does RNA code for protein? What are codons? What is the function of DNA? RNA? Protein? What do the terms transcription and translation refer to in biology? What percentage of the human genome is thought to code for protein? What is known about the rest of the DNA sequences, sometimes called “noncoding” or “junk” DNA? What are introns? Exons? Promoters? Telomeres? What is one way that transcription and translation different Bio 230: Introductory Biology San Francisco State University Kevin Simonin & Kimberly Tanner, Instructors Spring 2017between a prokaryote and a eukaryote? Could you “Be RNA Polymerase” and transcribe a template DNA sequence into an RNA sequence? Could you predict the complementary gene sequence from the template DNA sequence? Given the Amino AcidCodon Dictionary (do not memorize!), could you “Be the Ribosome” and translate an mRNA sequence into an amino acid protein sequence? Do you know how to use the Dictionary of the Genetic Code? What is an analogy you could use to explain transcription/translation (a.k.a. gene expression, a.k.a. Central Dogma) to a nonscientist friend? Where does that analogy break down? What are at least 3 examples of proteins and what they do? Mutations: How can small changes in DNA result in big, small, or no changes in the physical characteristics of a living thing? What are different ways that DNA can be mutated to produce different proteins than originally coded for? What are frameshift mutations? Point mutations? Deletion mutations? Insertion mutations? Substitution mutations? Silent mutations? Does a substitution mutation always change the amino acid sequence of the protein? How about an insertion mutation? How about a deletion mutation? Why or why not? What is sickle cell anemia? What change in DNA causes sickle cell anemia to occur? What would happen if a gene had two nucleotides inserted as a mutation? Three nucleotides? Does the place in the DNA sequence where the extra nucleotides are inserted matter? Why? What are examples of a mutagen? Biotechnology: What is a transgenic animal, and what’s an example of one? What are the benefits of taking a gene from one organism and putting it into another? What was the process for creating goats that could make spider silk in their milk? The Story of Henrietta Lacks and HeLa Cells: What are 5 characteristics of HeLa cells? What are 5 things that you know about Henrietta Lacks and her role in science? How are HeLa cells different from the cells in your own body right now? What is your personal reaction to this story? Why were HeLa cells an important discovery in biology? Mechanisms of Cancer: What is cancer? What role do mutations play in cancer? What kinds of things can cause mutations that lead to cancer? How do protooncogene proteins regulate cell division? How do tumor suppressor proteins regulate cell division? What is p53? What is ras? What role do these genes and proteins play in cell division and cancer? What does the protein telomerase do? What does telomerase have to do with cancer? Who are Carol Greider and Elizabeth Blackburn? What was their role in understanding how cells divide? Concept Mapping: You are encouraged to examine your first concept map in revising your ideas and preparing for the exam. You are also encouraged to make another concept map to represent your current understandings and identify your confusions. You should be prepared to make a miniconcept map as one question on the exam. Readings: Make sure you’ve reviewed and read all the websites, readings, articles, and handouts that have been distributed in class and on iLearn… Bio 230: Introductory Biology San Francisco State University Kevin Simonin & Kimberly Tanner, Instructors Spring 2017Our Community: Who have you worked with during our small group discussions in class? Who have you worked with in your laboratory section? What have you learned from working with your classmates? What about the community and structure of this class has most supported your learning? Least supported your learning?Concept Words You Should Be Able to Define, Understand, and Use… Bio 230: Introductory Biology San Francisco State University Kevin Simonin & Kimberly Tanner, Instructors Spring 2017
Mad Cow Disease
Sickle Cell Disease
Dictionary of the Genetic Code
Tumor Suppressor Genes
Think Like a Biologist
Genetically Modified Organism
DNA Cloning & Protein Production
Gain-of function mutation
Sí, se puede!
(n=108, because we have studied a lot of cool stuff in 11 classes!) Bio 230: Introductory Biology San Francisco State University Kevin Simonin & Kimberly Tanner, Instructors Spring 2017
Don't forget about the age old question of define loculi
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