Study Guide (HEED/WOMS 3305) Chapters 7, 8, 9 & 14 1. Stats on number of women raped in their lifetime. ∙ One in five women and one in 71 men have been raped at some time in their lives, with more than 51 percent of female victims reported being raped by an intimate partner and almost 41 percent by an acquaintance. Additionally nearly one in four woIf you want to learn more check out What is the molar solubility of CuCl in pure water?
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men have experienced physical violence by an intimate partner. (pg 183) ∙ One in three women (35.6%) have experienced rape, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner in their life time (pg 183) ∙ Most female victims has been raped by an intimate partner in their life time ∙ Most female victims of completed rape (79%) experienced first rape by the age of 25 ∙ 1.3 million women reported being raped by any perpetrator in the twelve months prior to taking the survey. ( pg 184) 2. Factors that contribute to staying in an abusive relationship. (page 184-185) ∙ Situational factors may include: financial dependency, lack of education, lack of job skills, or job inexperience. A woman with children who leaves the home has a 50% probability that her standard of living will drop below poverty level. A women is often in greater physical danger when she attempts to leave the relationship. She fear for her safety, her children's safety, her children's safety and sometimes any ones who attempts to help her safety. Fear is the major reason womeon stay in the abusive relationship. A victims chances of being killed or injured increases 75% when she leaves the abusive relationship. ∙ Emotional factors such as fear of social isolation and lack of emotional and financial support from family and friends may contribute to a women staying in an abusive relationship. ∙ Cultural constraints and religious beliefs may also keep women from leaving thses relationships. Women generally accept the responsibilities for success and failure of the relationship; to leave is to feel like a failure. ∙ Love for the abuser is one reason for not reporting abuse inflicted by a partner. The partner may be the father of her children; they love him, therefore, she is reluctant to eliminate his presence form the home. ∙ Abused women often are concerned about their husband inability to survive on their own. 3. 3 stage cycle of abuse (pg 188) 1. The increased tension building-phase characterized by increased arguments, minor forms of verbal/physical abuse. Perpetrator wants to control, victim is aware of consequences if she doesn’t "obey" his demands. o Perpetrator- isolates her, withdraws affection, puts down, yelling, destroys property, sullen, isolates hero Victim- nurtures him, agrees, keeps kids quiet, cooks favorite meal, tries to reason, calms him, walking on egg shells. She may be willing to seek help and assistance. 2. The acute battering stage or abusive incidents- for the perpetrator, situations cause tension/anger and exceed his ability to cope, results in angry/violent responses; attempts to change "her" behavior through the acts of violence toward her and/or the children. o Perpetrator- slapping, beating, choking, rape, use of knife or other weapon, humiliates, locks her up, throwing her down. o Vitim- attempts to protect self and children, calls for help(police, neighbor), tries to reason with him, calms him, leaves, fights back. After acute abuse, both may be amenable to intervention: he feels shame/ guilt; she feels hurt, angry, frightened. 3. Honeymoon phase ( calm)- couple has feelings of reconciliation, calmness, and reminders of earlier, loving times. Usually shorter than the tension phase and usually disappears over time as battering becomes more frequent and severe. He attempts to justify his behavior by blaming others, alcohol, the victim. Intervention for the batterer may be possible in the phase o Perpetrator- begs forgiveness, promises to seek help, sends flowers/gifts, brings presents, goes to AA, promised to never do it again, say he loves her/children, cries, tries to get family to help. o Victim- attempts to stop legal processes, sets up counseling appointments, agrees to stay, takes him back, feels happy and hopeful. As she stays, cycles starts to repeat. 4. Common elements in all types of abuse. Pg.( 194) 1. Minimization- the public thinks that violence and abuse are rare and that official statistics accurately represent prevalence. 2. Directionality- violence occurs largely in one direction: men victimize women. Incest is generally from father or stepfather to daughter to stepdaughter. 3. Trivialization- violence against women is often viewed in a joking way. Remarks and jokes tend to negate the impact and seriousness of violence against women and promote a sporting aspect to men's violence. 4. Blaming the victim- this occurs not only in violence but in crimes as theft and burglaries. An underlying assumption is that women are careless, men are not responsible for their actions, and self-control is more difficult for men than women. 5. When in the abuse cycle is a woman more likely to seek counseling The honey moon phase 6. The reality of violence against women-violence against women is a major public health concern and a violation of human rights. The concept and treatment of women as the lesser sex is documented throughout history. Pg.(182)7. Barrier methods of contraception- Barrier methods include spermicides, female and male condoms, sponges, diaphragms, and cervical caps. Page (233) 8. Alcohol in abuse/sexual assault- pg. 190 alcohol is the most commonly used when sexual assault is committed. When a person drinks too much her or his judgment is impaired and can cause a distortion of thinking and reasoning abilities. Alcohol, can lessen the ability to recognized danger signals, such as changes in a man's behaviors, suggestions and intentions. 9. Anatomy that protects the vaginal & urethral openings- Labia majora, which are two longitudinal folds of adipose tissue covered with skin. They are sometimes referred to as the large lips and have darker pigmentation than the labia minora. 10. Purpose of vagina- the vagina connects the cervix to the outer body and lies between the bladder and the rectum. Three important purposes include: pg. (208) ∙ the menstrual flow and uterine secretions pass through the vagina to the vaginal opening. ∙ The vagina serves as the birth canal during labor and can expand during childbirth to several inches. ∙ The vagina is lubricated by two Bartholin's glands located on either side of the vaginal opening and is the female organ of copulation. 11. Where the ovum is usually fertilized? Fallopian tubes serve as a pathway for the ovum (egg) to the uterus and as the site of fertilization, typically in the upper third fallopian tube. The sperm travels through the vagina, cervix and uterus to fertilize the egg in one of the tubes. Pg( 209) 12. What is dysmenorrhea? Painful menstrual cramps. This is usually painful menses without evidence of physical abnormality, is a normal body response to forceful frequent uterine contractions that result from increased production of prostaglandins. Symptoms may include: nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal disturbances, and fainting. Pg( 215) 13. Factor for risk of early puberty- factors include genetics, socioeconomic conditions, nutritional status, exercise regimens. Overweight and obesity are also known factors for early puberty.(212) 14. How long is Depo-Provera effective- this is the most widely used progastrin injection. It is injected into the gluteal or deltoid muscle of a woman once every three months. It prevents the egg from ripping thus suppressing ovulation. It thickens cervical mucus to keep sperm from fertilizing egg. Pg. (238) it usually last for 12 weeks 15. Most common method of first trimester abortion Pg. (258-259)- Surgical abortion also called suction aspiration, is the most common surgical method of first-trimester abortion. 16. Who started American birth control movement?- Pg. (237) Margaret Sanger was acclaimed worldwide for her founding the birth control movement and the planned parenthood federation of America as well as her international efforts to encourage family planning. She established these important principals: that a woman's right to control her body is the foundation of her human right, that every woman should be able to decide when and whether to have a child, and that volunteers could organize a network of family planning centers. 17. What does the corpus luteum do?- the empty follicles becomes the corpus luteum during the luteal phase. it secrets estrogen and large amounts of progesterone. These hormones are essential in maintaining pregnancy by preparing the endometrium for a fertilized egg. the corpus luteum is the temporary structure formed from the follicles following the release of the matured egg, and accounts for the stable time between ovulation and day 1 of the next follicular phase. pg (213) 18. What is an ectopic pregnancy? The fallopian tubes provide the environment in which fertilization occurs and cell division begins. After 3 days, the fertilized ovum is transported into the uterus. Premature expulsion from the fallopian tube could result in failure to implant and prolonged retention in the tube could result in an ectopic pregnancy. Pg. (243) 19. The best indicator of health status for women- Maternal mortality, which is defined as the death of a woman while pregnancy, regardless of the site or duration of the pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or it management and not from accidental or incidental causes. Pg (242) the best mechanism for preventing maternal deaths is continuing to improve the status of women including access to education, health care, and proper nutrition. The who acknowledges a heath issue but also a matter of social issues. 20. Common reason of primary infertility pg. (252-253)- is the inability of a couple to conceive a pregnancy after at least 1 year of unprotected intercourse. Common reasons are failure to ovulate or having a damages uterus or fallopian tubes. In men, low sperm count or abnormal sperm development. 21. Types of adoptions- Adoptions can be opened or closed. ∙ Open adoptions- means that contact occurs between birth parents and adoptive parents. This contact can vary from occasional letters to regular contact with the child. Open adoption eliminates the need for children to fantasize about their birth parents ∙ Closed adoptions- there is no contact between birth parent and adoptive parent. 22. The most common sexually transmitted infection in the US- Pg. (366) chlamydia is the most reported infectious disease in the us 23. What does asymptomatic mean?- (of a condition or a person) producing or showing no symptoms. 24. Treatment for chlamydia. The treatment is antibiotics either given in a 7 day or single dose regimen. Pg.(367)25. Causes of gonorrhea and syphilis. Gonorrhea is cause by the "Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria. Gonorrhea can affect any of the mucous membranes, including the vagina, cervix, anus, throat, and eyes. Symptomatic women may experience a thick yellow or white vaginal discharge, burning during urination, intercourse, and bowel movements pg 367-369 Syphilis- is cause by spirochete Treponema pallidum, which spread throughout the body within hours of infection. It is primarily transmitted through sexual contact., but I also passed from mother to fetus. It is characterized by phases such as the primary secondary and latent, and tertiary. Page (368) 26. What is autoinoculation?- a woman can spread herpes to other parts of her body. This process is called autoinoculation and occurs by touching or scratching an area of shedding active cells and then touching another susceptible area. Pg. 371 27. Risk associated with HPV infections.-there can either be low risk or high risks. Low risks are associated with genital warts, LIIL, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. High risks are associated with low and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. It is known to cause cervical cancer. There is no cure for HPV. pg 371-372 28. Health problems associated with Hepatitis B & C.-Hepatitis B is a viral infection causing inflammation of the liver. It is 100 time more contagious than HIV. Symptoms include jaundice and tender liver. This is treatable. Pg. 383 Hepatitis c- is a viral infection affecting the liver. Signs and symptoms include jaundice, fatiigue, dark urine, adnominal pain, loss of appetite and nausea. 29. Population with the greatest increase in HIV infections.- nearly 95% of the global total of people with HIV line in developing countries. Women constitute nearly 46% of all people living with AIDS. Women are more susceptible because of biologic factors, epidemiologic factors and social vulnerability. Pg. 376 30. What is causing increase in resistant strains of gonorrhea? The most challenging aspect of controlling this disease may be the continuing spread of antimicrobial resistance in N gonorrhoeae. The current U.S. protocol for dual therapy includes the administration of doxycycline, which help prevent antimicrobial resistance. Pg. 368 31. Why chlamydia is reported more in women. The reported rate of chlamydia for women substantially exceeds the rate for men, suggesting that many male partners are not screened or treated. Adolescent girls age 15-19 and women age 20-24 have the highest rate of chlamydia Pg. 367 32. What ailments are part of the herpes simplex family?- is one of the family of common viruses including the varicella zoster virus(chicken pox and shingles) and Epstein –barr virus (mononucleosis). Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a contagious infections that is spread from direct skin to skin contact particularly in the oral and genital areas. The two primary types of herpes simplex viruses are HSV-1 and HSV-2. HSV-1 usually manifest as cold sores or fever blister, primarily around the mouth. HSV-2 are sores around the genitals. Page 370 33. Organ associated with Hepatitis.- liver 34. Why folic acid is important in fetal development. Folic acid is a nutritional supplement that provides protection against neural tube defects ( defects of the brain and or spinal cord) to the fetus. It is good to take this beginning 1 month before conception and through the first trimester. Pg. ( 243) 35. What is congenital syphilis and is it preventable?- congenital syphilis is transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy and has a devesting impact on the newborn. It accounts for 40% of fetal perinatal deaths in affected infants. Most cases of congenital syphilis are preventable if the pregnant women is screen during the first prenatal visit and treated properly though early prenatal care. ( pg 369) 36. What is the most common surgery in the US? Cesarean sections Pg. (217) 37. What is an episiotomy?-An episiotomy, also known as perineotomy, is a surgical incision of the perineum and the posterior vaginal wall generally done by a midwife or obstetrician during second stage of labor to quickly enlarge the opening for the baby to pass through. 38. Plus and minus of IUD use. This can be used as an emergency contraception and insertion is also a choice within 5 days of unprotected intercourse and reduces the risk of pregnancy by 99.9%. It must be inserted and removed by a health care provider. The risks and benefits of IUD's are the same as when used for regular birth control. The cost is greater . This prevents pregnancy in cases of unanticipated sexual activity, contraceptive failure, or sexual assault. Progastrin – only EC tends to have fewer side effects, the cost of medication is minimal, and has a potential to reduce the overall rate of abortion, and does not prevent pregnancy during the remaining part of cycle. The world health organization and the American medical association called Intrauterine devices IUD one of the safest, most effective, and least expensive reversible methods of birth control available. Page ( 238-240) 39. What birth control must be prescribed? Hormonal contraceptives such as oral contraceptives, transdermal patches, rings, injectable's, hormonal intrauterine devices, emergency contraceptive ( does not need to be prescribes unless under the age of 17) and implants. Cervical cap should be fitted by a doctor, and diaphragm. Pg (236) 40. Hysterectomies performed and the US guidelines of the American College of Gynecologists- every minute a hysterectomy is performed in the united states and nine of twelve of them may not meet the guidelines for the American college of gynecologist. hysterectomies are the second most common major surgery performed in the united states. Hysterectomy is an operation to remove a woman's uterus and sometimes the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and cervix pg.(217)