1/31/17 2/2/17 ● What is News? ○ “The process of gathering information and making narrative reports…” ■ Edited by individuals for news organizations ■ That offer selected frames of reference ■ Within those frames, news helps the public make sense of...the world ● Important events, political issues, cultural trends, prominent people, an unusual happenings in everyday life ● WhDon't forget about the age old question of states of matter class 11 notes
Don't forget about the age old question of The embodiment of Horus is what?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is done during trauma analysis?
Don't forget about the age old question of ∙ What happens if at least two competitive firms combine to create a monopoly?
We also discuss several other topics like nathan seegert university of utah
Don't forget about the age old question of gsu printing
at is “newsworthy”? ○ Newsworthy information most worthy of transformation into news stories ■ Timeliness ■ Proximity ■ Conflict ■ Prominence ■ Human interest (“ordinary people”) ■ Consequence/ Utility ■ Uniqueness/ Deviance ● How do reporters get stories? ○ Reporters tend to use specific strategies that the textbook describes as “rituals of reporting” ■ This helps explain why American journalism function the way it does ● Rituals of Reporting ○ 1. Focus on the present ● Provides reporters with an endless supply of material and makes sure they report important developments ● Also means focusing on reaction/ recency and deemphasizing stories that provide analysis or historical context ■ A. Get a good story ● Journalists have to tell a story to capture the public’s imagination and put facts into a larger context ● Sometimes this results in an emphasis on story at the expense of truth ■ B. Get the Story First ● Emphasizes publishing a story before the competition ● Can cause journalists to publish stories whose facts they haven’t verified● The rush to publish first often causes a herd mentality where many news organizations are pursuing the same story, regardless of its newsworthiness ○ 2. Rely on experts ■ Gives journalists (and consumers) access to credible, complex knowledge about a subject ■ Allows journalists to seem credible while acting neutral, separating themselves from whatever the experts say ■ Journalists tend to rely on a small number of “experts” for everything ● Gives the false sense that there are only a few knowledgeable people in the world ● Especially on TV news, “experts: are overwhelmingly white and male ○ 3. Balance story conflict ■ Journalists like to tell “both sides” of any story involving conflict ■ This can lead to charges of false equivalence: making two arguments (or people, or organizations) seem equally legitimate when they are not ○ 4. Acting as adversaries ■ Journalists are trained to ask tough questions, which can be beneficial when they are confronting powerful people who are trying to hide the truth ■ But it also tends to make journalists cynical even when it’s not appropriate, and can cause journalists to miss the opportunity to ask broader questions ● Journalistic Values: The Claim ○ Objectivity ■ Arguably impossible, and probably never true of any journalist ○ Neutrality ■ A series of practices involving careful attribution of sources, limited descriptive terms, and so on, designed to increase credibility ■ Making journalists seem more politically moderate was also a deliberate sales tactic by newspapers to appeal to the broadest possible audience ○ Open partisanship is now replacing neutrality ■ The TV audience is no longer a single, large, moderate group ■ Many of the other practices of neutrality, like journalistic professionalism, are also being lost○ Some argue that “neutral” journalism was always politically partisan, so nothing has really changed ○ Research demonstrates that claims of news bias by politicians can have an impact on public perception ● Sociologist Herbert J. Gans’s News Values ○ Gans conducted an indepth analysis and observation of the CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly, Newsweek, and Time ○ He concluded that journalist base their reporting on their inherent assumptions about the nature of reality ○ He called these assumptions enduring values ○ If there is bias in the news, it is probably toward these six values as much as it is liberal or conservative ■ This obviously applies most consistently to mainstream news organization ● 6 Enduring Journalistic Values ○ Ethnocentrism ■ Taking the American viewpoint on events and judging other countries by how they measure up to the US ■ Americans value their own nations above all others ○ Altruistic Democracy ■ Viewing democracy as the best form of government ■ Assuming government officials should behave altruistically and citizens should be involved at the grassroots level ○ Responsible Capitalism ■ Assuming economic growth is a positive phenomenon and that the government regulation is bad ■ Unions and consumer organizations are accepted as countervailing pressures on business and are judged negatively ○ Small town Pastoralism ■ The news promotes rural and anti industrial values ■ Nature and smallness are desirable, which encourages environmentalism… ○ Individualism ■ Reporters value the preservation of the freedom of the individual ■ The news promotes the idea of rugged individualism, self made people are admired ○ Moderation ■ The news discourages excess and extremism ● The Four Principles of Journalistic Ethics ○ Taken from the Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics ■ 1. Seek truth, and report it ● Journalists should be honest, fair, and courageous in gathering, reporting, and interpreting information■ 2. Minimize Harm ● Ethical journalists treat sources, subjects, and colleagues as human beings deserving of respect ■ 3. Act Independently ● Journalists should be free of obligation to any interest other than the public’s right to know ■ 4. Be accountable ● Journalists are accountable to their readers, listeners, viewers, and each other1/12/17 ● Why are we studying this? ○ Ubiquity on average, people spend almost 5 hours a day intentionally involved in media activity ○ Total “media time” more than of our waking life ⅔ ○ Information virtually everything you know about the world is delivered to you by the media ○ Culture modern media both influence culture and is deeply influenced by it ■ To operate as citizens and consumer, we need to develop “visual literacy” the ability to decipher meaning from common images ○ Ignorance students get decades of classes on reading and math, but virtually none on media literacy ● What are we studying ○ Mass Media the vehicles through which messages are disseminated to mass audiences ■ Also mean for the industry of mass media ■ Sometimes refer to news industry ● Media Maturation Model ○ Most media technology (and most technology of any kind) goes through 3 predictable stages ■ 1. Innovation the technology is just being explored (not necessarily for the same thing it ends up becoming) ■ 2. Entrepreneurial a commercial use is discovered for the technology ■ 3. Stability the commercial use becomes stable and widespread a true “mass” media ● Media Convergence ○ A new stage of the model ■ Older media are reconfigured in various forms on newer media ○ Media becomes converged in 2 different ways ■ 1. Products that were produced in one medium become available in another medium (songs or movies on the internet) ● This includes bits and pieces of older products ■ 2. Multiple companies that produce different media get purchased by a single corporation ● High vs. Low Culture ○ One perspective on media sees it as a cultural continuum ■ High Culture is associated with higher lever or taste; education complexity, wealth, and cultural durability■ Low Culture is associated with mass popularity, throw away culture and simplistic appeals ○ Some see high and and low culture as being in competition ■ They see culture as a zero sum game ■ They argue that low culture makes us incapable of appreciating high culture ○ Other argue that low culture is increasingly coming to resemble high culture ○ Still others argue that the whole idea of high culture and low culture is wrong ● Culture as a Map ○ “It’s not a skyscraper, it’s a map” ○ Different practices and media artifacts can be mapped according to their characteristics ■ Ex) conventional/ innovative, popular/ niche, religious/ secular ○ Our media preference locate us on the map ■ Some of us have preference locate that are focused, others are “all over the map” ○ The map is always changing, not permanent fixture ■ So are our tastes over time, we might move from one part of the map to another ○ One part of the map isn’t inherently superior to another part ● Postmodern Media Culture ○ Postmodernism skepticism toward the grand narratives of the modern age ○ When it comes to media, some ways this appears: ■ Stones and figures that question traditional forms of authority, like government, science, religion, etc. ■ Media artifacts that blur the boundaries of styles and genres (including the boundary b/w fact and fiction) ■ An enthusiasm for mixing cultures, styles, time period ■ Retelling classic narratives (fictional/ historical) to question their truth or to change our perspective on them ■ Recognizing that audience is increasingly diverse and global with access to disparate media options