Chapter 11: Liquids, Solids, And Intermolecular Forces
States of matter We also discuss several other topics like sugar sink
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Solid Liquid Gas
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Density High High Low Physical state =
Shape Definite Indefinite Indefinite Strength of forces If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of heat engine?
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Volume Indefinite Definite Definite between particles
Strength of IMF Strong Moderate Weak
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Freedom of Motion
Solid → vibrate, still locked in place
→ not enough Kinetic energy to overcome the attractive forces (potential E)
Liquid → limited freedom, move around
→ Enough KE to overcome some PE attractive forces
Gas → complete freedom
→ KE overcomes PE between the molecules
→ occurs by changing temperature which alters KE of particles, or pressure which alters PE, or both.
Potential energy → attraction between particles
→ chemical forces
Kinetic E → movement of particles
Intramolecular forces → strong : ionic and covalent
→ gives rise to chemical properties
→ bonding between atoms in a molecule
Intermolecular forces → attraction between molecules holding them close
→ gives rise to physical properties
🞻 Strength of imf affects energy needed for phase change
2. Hydrogen bonds
3. Dipole - Dipole
4. Dispersion (London)
5. Dipole -Induced dipole
6. Induced dipole - Induced dipole
ex) relationship of strength stronger
dipole-induced dipole ↕
induced dipole-induced dipole ↓
→ attractive force between an ion and polar module
2. Hydrogen Bonding
→ type of dipole-dipole
→ attraction between an H bonded to a N,O,F on one polar molecule to a hydrogen on another polar molecule.
→ attractive force between polar cules.
4. Dispersion (London)
→ caused by momentary oscillations of e-
→ exists beneun all atoms and molecules
5. Dipole - induced dipole
→ attractive force between polar alle and non-polar molecule.
6. Induced dipole-induced dipole
→ attractive force between now-polar and non-polar