A magnetic substance has unpaired electrons
The spin of an unpaired electron generates a small magnetic field Magnetic interaction between substance and magnet (ex. Why magnets pick up paper clips)
Liquid oxygen is magnetic, but most other liquids are not Not predicted by Lewis model
Predicted by molecular orbital theory, most accurate bonding theory Valence bond theory: chemical bond is the overlap between 2 half-filled atomic orbitals
If energy of a system is lowered due to electron and nucleus interactions among two atoms, a chemical bond forms
The interaction energy is usually negative (stabilizing) when the atomic orbitals contain a total of two electrons that can spin-pair
Usually come from 2 half-filled orbitals, covalent bond
Geometry of molecule resulting from geometry of overlapping orbitals
CH4, stable, concept of orbital hybridization
Hybrid orbitals have different shapes and energies than standard atomic orbitals
Allows for greater overlap due to concentration of electron density in a single direction
The greater the overlap, the lower the energy, the stronger the bond
Hybridization usually costs energy, occurs when energy payback through bond formation is large
Central (interior) atoms form the most bonds and have the greatest tendency to hybridize
Carbon always hybridizes
The number of standard atomic orbitals equals the number of hybrid orbitals formed
The particular combinations of standard atomic orbitals determine shapes and energies of hybrid orbitals
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Type of hybridization is the one that yields the lowest energy for the molecule
Rotation about a double bond is restricted, but rotation about a single bond is not
One sigma bond forms between any two atoms and other bonds must be pi bonds
Isomers: compounds with same molecular formula but different structures or spatial arrangement of atoms
Bonding orbital: When electrons occupy bonding molecular orbitals, the energy of the electrons is lower than it would be if they were occupying atomic orbitals (constructive interference) If you want to learn more check out How do we define eligibility for marriage?
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Electrons seek lowest energy molecular orbital available Increased electron density in nucleus, lowers energy compared to orbitals in nonbonded atoms
Antibonding orbital: electrons have higher energies than they had in their respective atomic orbitals, raise the energy of the system (destructive interference)
Node in nucleus, diminished electron density, increases energy compared to orbitals in nonbonded atoms
Electron sea model explains many properties of metallic solids Diodes: circuit elements that allow flow of electrical current in one direction