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UA / Chemistry / CH 101 / What do electrons seek in bonding orbital?

What do electrons seek in bonding orbital?

What do electrons seek in bonding orbital?


School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry
Professor: Paul rupar
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: General Chemistry
Cost: 50
Name: Chapter 7 study guide
Description: These notes contain mostly definitions of basic concepts discussed in chapter 7.
Uploaded: 04/15/2017
2 Pages 136 Views 2 Unlocks

Chapter 7

What do electrons seek in bonding orbital?

 A magnetic substance has unpaired electrons

 The spin of an unpaired electron generates a small magnetic field  Magnetic interaction between substance and magnet (ex. Why  magnets pick up paper clips)

 Liquid oxygen is magnetic, but most other liquids are not  Not predicted by Lewis model

 Predicted by molecular orbital theory, most accurate bonding theory  Valence bond theory: chemical bond is the overlap between 2 half-filled  atomic orbitals

 If energy of a system is lowered due to electron and nucleus  interactions among two atoms, a chemical bond forms

 The interaction energy is usually negative (stabilizing) when the atomic orbitals contain a total of two electrons that can spin-pair We also discuss several other topics like Who uses social networking sites and twitter?

 Usually come from 2 half-filled orbitals, covalent bond

What does the electron sea model explain?

 Geometry of molecule resulting from geometry of overlapping  orbitals

 CH4, stable, concept of orbital hybridization

 Hybrid orbitals have different shapes and energies than standard  atomic orbitals

 Allows for greater overlap due to concentration of electron density  in a single direction

 The greater the overlap, the lower the energy, the stronger the  bond

 Hybridization usually costs energy, occurs when energy payback  through bond formation is large

 Central (interior) atoms form the most bonds and have the greatest  tendency to hybridize

 Carbon always hybridizes

 The number of standard atomic orbitals equals the number of hybrid orbitals formed

 The particular combinations of standard atomic orbitals determine  shapes and energies of hybrid orbitals

What is the purpose of diodes?

 Type of hybridization is the one that yields the lowest energy for the molecule

 Rotation about a double bond is restricted, but rotation about a  single bond is not

 One sigma bond forms between any two atoms and other bonds  must be pi bonds

 Isomers: compounds with same molecular formula but different  structures or spatial arrangement of atomsDon't forget about the age old question of What is the role of septal nuclei?
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 Bonding orbital: When electrons occupy bonding molecular orbitals, the  energy of the electrons is lower than it would be if they were occupying  atomic orbitals (constructive interference)

 Electrons seek lowest energy molecular orbital available  Increased electron density in nucleus, lowers energy compared to  orbitals in nonbonded atoms

 Antibonding orbital: electrons have higher energies than they had in their  respective atomic orbitals, raise the energy of the system (destructive  interference)

 Node in nucleus, diminished electron density, increases energy  compared to orbitals in nonbonded atoms

 Electron sea model explains many properties of metallic solids  Diodes: circuit elements that allow flow of electrical current in one  direction

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