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UA / Chemistry / CH 101 / What do electrons seek in bonding orbital?

What do electrons seek in bonding orbital?

What do electrons seek in bonding orbital?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry
Professor: Paul rupar
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: General Chemistry
Cost: 50
Name: Chapter 7 study guide
Description: These notes contain mostly definitions of basic concepts discussed in chapter 7.
Uploaded: 04/15/2017
2 Pages 50 Views 2 Unlocks
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Chapter 7


What do electrons seek in bonding orbital?



 A magnetic substance has unpaired electrons

 The spin of an unpaired electron generates a small magnetic field  Magnetic interaction between substance and magnet (ex. Why  magnets pick up paper clips)

 Liquid oxygen is magnetic, but most other liquids are not  Not predicted by Lewis model

 Predicted by molecular orbital theory, most accurate bonding theory  Valence bond theory: chemical bond is the overlap between 2 half-filled  atomic orbitals

 If energy of a system is lowered due to electron and nucleus  interactions among two atoms, a chemical bond forms

 The interaction energy is usually negative (stabilizing) when the atomic orbitals contain a total of two electrons that can spin-pair

 Usually come from 2 half-filled orbitals, covalent bond


What does the electron sea model explain?



 Geometry of molecule resulting from geometry of overlapping  orbitals

 CH4, stable, concept of orbital hybridization

 Hybrid orbitals have different shapes and energies than standard  atomic orbitals

 Allows for greater overlap due to concentration of electron density  in a single direction

 The greater the overlap, the lower the energy, the stronger the  bond

 Hybridization usually costs energy, occurs when energy payback  through bond formation is large

 Central (interior) atoms form the most bonds and have the greatest  tendency to hybridize

 Carbon always hybridizes

 The number of standard atomic orbitals equals the number of hybrid orbitals formed

 The particular combinations of standard atomic orbitals determine  shapes and energies of hybrid orbitals


What is the purpose of diodes?



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 Type of hybridization is the one that yields the lowest energy for the molecule

 Rotation about a double bond is restricted, but rotation about a  single bond is not

 One sigma bond forms between any two atoms and other bonds  must be pi bonds

 Isomers: compounds with same molecular formula but different  structures or spatial arrangement of atoms

 Bonding orbital: When electrons occupy bonding molecular orbitals, the  energy of the electrons is lower than it would be if they were occupying  atomic orbitals (constructive interference) If you want to learn more check out How do we define eligibility for marriage?
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 Electrons seek lowest energy molecular orbital available  Increased electron density in nucleus, lowers energy compared to  orbitals in nonbonded atoms

 Antibonding orbital: electrons have higher energies than they had in their  respective atomic orbitals, raise the energy of the system (destructive  interference)

 Node in nucleus, diminished electron density, increases energy  compared to orbitals in nonbonded atoms

 Electron sea model explains many properties of metallic solids  Diodes: circuit elements that allow flow of electrical current in one  direction

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