HDFS 3440 Final Study Guide
HDFS 3440 Final Study Guide 3440
Popular in Human Sexuality
Popular in Human Development
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Bacevice on Sunday April 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 3440 at Ohio State University taught by Katye Miller in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Human Development at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 04/26/15
Human Sexuality Final Study Guide Chapter 10 Contraception Comstock laws prohibited any information about contraception to be passed through the mail Comstock laws were passed in 1870s and were not struck down until 1960s for married women and 1970s for unmarried women Margaret Sanger one of the early promoters of changing birth control legislation Provided birth control information through her newspaper The Women s Rebellion around 1915 Five things to consider before choosing a birth control method 0 Effectiveness I Perfect Percentage percentage effective when used perfectly and consistently each time someone has sex I Typical Percentage drops percentage of effectiveness of a significant amount Types of Birth Control 0 Behavioral I Outercourse anything that doesn t include vaginal sex I Withdrawal not effective I FAM Fertility Awareness Method Standard Days Method cycle of 2632 days avoid unprotected vaginal sex from days 8 through 19 Mucus Method Ovulation Method different textures of vaginal secretions that predict fertility Need to really be comfortable with your bodyvagina Rhythm Method calendar to track cycle Basal Body Temperature take temperature before getting out of bed 0 BarrierSpermicidal I Spermicides creams jelly s foams Non oxil nine Perfect use 80 typical 65 Can increase the risk of infections and diseases I Male Condom One of the most utilized method Perfect rate 9798 Typical rate 8385 Animal skin condoms will not help reduce risk of STDs I Female condom Inner and outer ring both exible Perfect use 95 Typical Use 75 I DiaphragmLea s Shield Can be used multiple times over and over again Use spermicide with it for highest effectiveness Diaphragm different sizes Lea s Shield one size fits all Both lasts 2 years Have to leave in for 6 hours after having sex Perfect use 94 effective Typical use 85 effective Decreases bacterial STIs Increase use of UTIs and vaginal cervical irritation Can increase risk of Toxic Shock Syndrome I Cervical Cap FemCap Actually cover the cervix Used up to 2 years In US need a prescription for both Does depend on if you39ve had a vaginal birth or pregnancy Rate drops from 81 to 75if you have been pregnant I Sponge 0 Hormonal Can be left in for 30 hours Must be left in 6 hours after vaginal sex Do not have to add spermicide like others Perfect use 99 no vaginal birth 80 with birth Typical use 88 no vaginal birth 76 with birth I Oral Contraceptives The Pill Four Basic Types 0 Constant dose combination pill birth control pill that contains a constant daily dose of estrogen I Most commonly used oral contraceptive in the US I Secretes estrogen and progestin o Triphasic pill birth control pill that varies the dosage of estrogen and progestin during the menstrual cycle I Designed to reduce total hormone dosage and any side effects 0 Seasonale birth control pill that reduces menstrual periods to four times a year 0 Progestinonly pill I Contraceptive pill that contains a small dose of progestin and no estrogen I Only 035 mg of progestin about 13 average strength pill The estrogen in these pills prevents conception primarily by inhibiting ovulation The progestin in these pills provides secondary contraception protection by thickening and chemically altering the cervical mucus so that the passage of sperm into the uterus is hampered Also changes lining of the uterus making it less receptive to implantation I Vaginal Ring and Transdermal Patch Releases hormones through the vaginal lining or skin into the bloodstream I Injected Contraceptives Inhibits the secretion of gonadotropins and prevents follicular maturation and ovulation Shot given every twelve weeks Usually takes 10 months after stopping injections for a woman to get pregnant I Contraceptive Implant Matchstick size rod implanted under the skin of the upper arm and releases contraceptive hormones Releases slow steady dose of progestin o Nonhormonal IUD I Intrauterine device a small plastic device that is inserted into the uterus for contraception I Most common reversible contraceptive used by women in the developing world I The one with copper seems to alter the tubal and uterine uids which affects the sperm and egg so fertilization does not occur Chapter 12 Infant Sexuality The capacity for sexual response is present at birth Pelvic thrusting rubbing genital are against an object are signs of sexual arousal in infants Occurs both in boys and girls Childhood Masturbation Generally starts around 23 years old16 of mothers observed their 25 year old children masturbating with their hands Comments about masturbation that pass from parent to child are often negative or nonexistent Childhood Sex Play Prepubertal children often engage in play that can be viewed as sexual usually between ages of 4 and 7 Curiosity about what is forbidden probably plays an important role in encouraging early sexual exploration Many children 57 begin to act in ways that mirror the predominant heterosexual marriage script in our society Ex playing house Most 1112 year olds are interested in body changes particularly involving genitals Youthful same sex experiences rarely play a determinant role in establishing a homosexual orientation The Physical Changes of Adolescence In Western societies it is between ages 12 and 20 Puberty latin pubescere to be covered with hair A period of rapid physical changes in early adolescence during which the reproductive organs mature Gonadotropins pituitary hormones that stimulate activity in the gonads testes and ovaries Usually between ages 814 Girls typically enter puberty at ages 10 or 11 boys a little later with an average age of 12 Secondary Sex Characteristics the physical characteristics other than genital development that indicate sexual maturity such as body hair breasts and deepened voice The only event of puberty that is clearly different in boys and girls is growth Growth spurts usually begin two years earlier in girls The median age for menarche in girls in the US and other developed countries is 1243 In boys the prostate gland and seminal vesicles increase noticeably in size during puberty Ejaculation is not possible until the prostate and seminal vesicles begin functioning Sexual Behavior During Adolescence The Sexual Double Standard 0 For males the focus of sexuality may be sexual conquest o For girls they may learn to appear sexy to attract males yet they often experience ambivalence about overt sexual behavior If a young woman refuses to have sex she may worry her boyfriend will lose interest and stop dating her But if she has sex she may fear a bad reputation of being quoteasyquot Masturbation o Masturbation rates are notably lower in females than males 20 vs 60 Noncoital Sexual Expression 0 Noncoital sex physical contact including kissing touching and manual or oralgenital stimulation but excluding coitus 0 Rate of oral sex in teenagers has significantly increased 0 For many noncoital sex is highly valued as a way to experience sexual intimacy while technically maintaining their virginity Ongoing Sexual Relationships 0 Studies in the US have shown that romantic relationships jumped from 30 in early adolescence to 70 in late adolescence 0 Nevertheless casual sexual hookups are also common among adolescence Adolescent Sexting o Sexting Sending sexually suggestive photos or text messages via the Internet cell phone or other electronic devices 0 Some states have sought to define sexting as a criminal offence and other states have allowed charging youthful practitioners of sexting with a misdemeanor which provides the option of diversion programs and subsequent purging of their legal records Sexual Intercourse 0 Incidence of Adolescent Coitus I Strong upward trend from the 1950s through 1970s I From 1995 to 2009 the percentage of high school students who have had coitus declined somewhat I Over the last several decades there has been a trend toward experiencing first coitus at an earlier age in both sexes 0 Reasons for Engaging in Adolescent Coitus I About 50 of men and 25 of women in a survey reported that the primary reason for engaging in their initial coital experience was curiosity and feeling ready for sex 0 Factors that Predispose Teenagers to Early or Late Onset of Coitus I Psychosocial factors for predisposition of early coitus Poverty family con ict or marital disruption teens living in singleparent or reconstituted families parents lack of education lack of parental supervision substance abuse esp alcohol low self esteem and a sense of hopelessness Poor academic performance and low educational expectations tolerance for antisocial behavior and association with delinquent peers exposure to a diet of television high in sexual content having been sexually victimized I Adolescent females with a partner several years older than them are much more likely to experience coitus than females with same sex partners I Factors that delay coitus Strong religious beliefs regular religious service attendance spiritual interconnectedness with friends High socioeconomic status good school performance high parental expectations adolescent s belief that they had one or more adult in their lives who cared about them I Positive link between delayed onset of teenage sexual activity and high quality parentchild relationships and communication 0 Adolescents Online Social Networking and Communication I A number of social scientists suggested that while adolescents often access valuable information and support on various websites electronic communication may also be reinforcing peer communication at the expense of communication with parents I A possible consequence of the rise of online networking and communicating may be a reduction in real world interpersonal competence o Adolescent MultiPerson Sex I MultiPerson Sex adolescent sexual interaction involving multiple simultaneous partners that may be either consensual or forced I Increases health risks of participants who often engage in unsafe condomless sex and who may be injection drug users I Females ages 1420 reported 7 have has MPS Homosexuality o 611 of girls and 1114 of boys report having experienced same sex contact during their adolescent years 0 American society is not noted for embracing the fact of adolescent sexuality 0 Adolescents who are suspected of being gay are sometimes verbally abused bullied sexually harassed or physically assaulted o Nationwide there are more than 3000 GayStraight Alliances on middle schools high school and college campuses The Effect of AIDS on Teenage Sexual Behavior 0 Most teenagers do not believe they are at risk for contracting HIV most do not significantly alter their sexual behavior to avoid infection 0 Research suggests that having a friend who engages in unprotected sexual intercourse increases the likelihood that a teen will also engage in unprotected intercourse Adolescent Pregnancy Peaked in 1991 618 births to 1000 teens 2009 lowest rate ever recorded 391 per 1000 teens US has highest rate of teen pregnancy in Western industrialized nations Sex Education Answering Children s Questions About Sex 0 Answer questions without avoiding the subject or acting uncomfortable Putting off questions at an early age means that you as a parent may be confronted with the potentially awkward task or starting the dialogue on sexual matters at a later point in your child s development 0 It can be helpful for parents to include information about sex in everyday conversation that their children can either observe or participate in when appropriate Initiating Conversations When Children do not Ask o It is important that youngsters be aware of these physiological changes before they actually happen 0 Most young people prefer that their parents be the primary source of sex information and that their mothers and fathers equally share in this responsibility 0 Positive parentadolescent communication about sex has been linked to decreased risk of contracting STIs more effective and consistent use of birth control and decreased incidence of teenage pregnancy SchoolBased Sex Education 0 Most efforts to provide sex education in schools have utilized one of two principle approaches comprehensive sex education and abstinenceonly programs Chapter 14 Specific Sexual Difficulties DesirePhase Difficulties o Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Lack of interest prior to and during sexual activity 0 Desire Discrepancy 41 of men and 29 of women want more sex in a relationship 0 Sexual Aversion Disorder extreme and irrational fear of sexual activity ExcitementPhase Difficulties 0 Female Sexual Arousal Disorder I Genital Persistent inability to attain or maintain the lubricationswelling response I Subjective Absent or diminished awareness of physical arousal I Combined genital and subjective absent or diminished subjective and physical sexual arousal 0 Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder Spontaneous intrusive and unwanted genital arousal 0 Male Erectile Disorder Consistent or recurring lack of an erection sufficiently rigid for penetrative sex for a period of at least three months OrgasmPhase Difficulties 0 Female Orgasmic Disorder The absence marked delay or diminished intensity of orgasms 0 Female Orgasm During Intercourse I Many more women experience orgasm from masturbation manual stimulation by a partner and oral sex than women who experience it during intercourse 0 Male Orgasmic Disorder The inability of a man to ejaculate during sexual stimulation from his partner 0 Premature Ejaculation A pattern of ejaculations within 1 minute and an inability to delay ejaculation resulting in a man s impairing his or his partner s pleasure o Faking Orgasms typically discussed in reference to women Dyspareunia Pain or physical discomfort during sexual intercourse o Dyspareunia in Men I Peyronie s Disease Abnormal fibrous tissue and calcium deposits in the penis I Vestibulodynia A small area at the entrance of the vagina that causes severe pain 0 Dyspareunia in Women I GenitoPelvis Pain Penetration Disorder Pain with partial vaginal entry during intercourse and after intercourse o Vaginismus Involuntary spasmodic contractions of the muscles of the outer third of the vagina Origins of Sexual Difficulties Physiological Factors 0 Good Health Habits Good Sexual Functioning I Good health is closely tied to sexual health I Body fat around the abdomen reduces testosterone levels in men I Men who are obese are 90 more likely to develop erectile disorder Disabilities 0 Spinal Cord Injury I Does not necessarily impair sexual desire and psychological arousal but may have impaired physical ability for arousal and orgasm I Sex counseling focuses on sensory amplification developing heightened sexual responsiveness in the inner arm breasts neck or some other area that has retained some feeling 0 Cerebral Palsy I Genital stimulation is unaffected by cerebral palsy I However people with CP may require help of someone who can assist in preparation and positioning for sexual relations 0 Blindness and Deafness I Can affect a person s sexuality primarily when the visual or hearing deficits interfere with learning the subtleties of social interaction skills and with a person s independence Cultural In uences 0 Negative Childhood Learning I People learn basic important attitudes about sexuality during childhood by viewing how parents perceive sexuality I Children notice how their parents touch and feel about one another which can equate to how that child will react one day I People who have religions that guilt sex report lower levels of sexual satisfaction 0 The Sexual Double Standard I Opposing sexual expectations for women and men are still prevalent in US society and can negatively affect sexuality I Sexual intimacy that transcends gender role stereotypes moves beyond caricatures of men and women and express the richness of humanness 0 Performance Anxiety I People are watching themselves during sex more than they are experiencing sex I Performance pressure and an inability to be selfish and pursue one s own heightened arousal instead of focusing on the partner s pleasure is a result of inhibited orgasm in both men and women Individual Factors 0 Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes 0 Self Concept 0 Emotional Difficulties 0 Sexual Abuse and Assault Relationship Factors 0 Ineffective Communication 0 Fears About Pregnancy or Sexually Transmitted Infections 0 Sexual Orientation Chapter 16 Paraphilia A term used to describe uncommon types of sexual expression beyond usual or typical lovequot Atypical Sexual Behaviors Behaviors not typically expressed by most people in our society Noncoercive Versus Coercive Paraphilias 0 When the acts involve willing participants or are completed alone they are often considered harmless Noncoercive Paraphilias Fetishism A sexual behavior in which a person obtains sexual excitement primarily or exclusively from an inanimate object or a particular part of the body Transvestic Fetishism who put on clothes of the other sex to achieve sexual arousal Sexual Sadism and Sexual Masochism o Sadomasochistic SM behavior The association of sexual expression with pain 0 Sexual Sadism The act of obtaining sexual arousal through giving physical or psychological pain 0 Sexual Masochism The act of obtaining sexual arousal through receiving physical or psychological pain 0 Bondage A sexual behavior in which a person derives sexual pleasure from being bound tied up or otherwise restricted Other Noncoercive Paraphilias Autoerotic Asphyxia hypoxphilia or asphyxiophilia the enhancement of sexual excitement and orgasm by pressure induced oxygen deprivation Klismaphilia An unusual variant of sexual expression in which an individual obtains sexual pleasure from receiving enemas Coprophilia A sexual paraphilia in which a person obtains sexual arousal from contact with feces Urophilia A sexual paraphilia in which a person obtains sexual arousal from contact with urine Coercive Paraphilias Exhibitionism The act of exposing one s genitals to an unwilling observer 0 Typically obtains sexual gratification by masturbating shortly after using mental images of the observer s reaction to increase his arousal 0 Most are men ages 2030 and over half are married or have been married 0 Many were reared in atmospheres characterized by puritanical and shame inducing attitudes towards sexuality Obscene Phone Calls 0 Is viewed by some professionals as a subtype of exhibitionism 0 Typically experience sexual arousal when their victims react in a shocked or horrified manner and usually masturbate shortly after the exchange 0 Typically male and suffer from pervasive feelings of inadequacy and insecurity Voyeurism The act of obtaining sexual gratification by observing undressed or sexually interacting people without their consent 0 To be a problem it must be sexually preferred to sexual relations with another person or indulged in with some risk 0 Share characteristics with people who expose themselves 0 Behaviors include peering into bedroom windows stationing oneself by the entrance of women s bathrooms and boring holes in the walls of public dressing rooms Other Coercive Paraphilias o Frotteurism A fairly common paraphilia in which a person obtains sexual pleasure by pressing or rubbing against another person in a crowded place o Zoophilia beastiality A paraphilia in which a person has sexual contact with animals I Commonly only a transitory experience of young people to whom a human sexual partner is inaccessible or forbidden I True zoophilia exists when sexual contact with animals are preferred to humans 0 Necrophilia A rare sexual paraphilia in which a person obtains sexual gratification by viewing or having intercourse with a corpse Sexual Addiction Fact Fiction or Misnomer Nymphomania women or satyriasis men the idea that people can become dominated by insatiable sexual needs The criteria often used to establish alleged subconditions of hypersexuality are subjective and laden Typically defined moralistically rather than scientifically Many sexologists do not believe that sexual addiction should be a distinct diagnostic category because it is rare and lacking in distinction from other compulsive disorders Chapter 17 Rape Rape sexual intercourse that occurs with out consent as a result of actual or threatened force Stranger rape rape of a person by an unknown assailant Acquaintance rape sexual assault by a friend acquaintance or date that is someone known to the victim Date rape sexual assault by an acquaintance when on a date Statutory rape intercourse with a person under the age of consent Prevalence of Rape 0 Women victims do not typically report rape range from 11928 0 Reasons for not reporting rape self blame fear of being blamed by others concern for the rapist fear of retaliation attempt to block recall of traumatic experience Factors Associated with Rape o Psychosocial Basis of Rape I Many researchers view rape more as a product of socialization processes that occur within the fabric of normal society than as a product of the individual rapists pathological condition I Rape pronequot societies tolerate and even glorify masculine violence encouraging boys to be aggressive and competitive and they view physical force as natural and exemplary I High rate of rape in US is associated with widespread stereotypical gender roles Characteristics of a Rapist Men who embrace typical gender roles Anger towards women Alcohol consumption and abuse Self centered personalities Narcissism Sense of entitlement Deficient empathy for others 0 Exploitative tendencies towards others Characteristics of Female Rape Victims o The younger the age of the rape victim the more likely it is that the perpetrator is a relative or an acquaintance 0 Women who were victims of childhood sexual abuse are at increased risk for adult sexual revictimization by rapists o Abusive relationships 0 Native American and Alaska Native women have a much higher frequency of rape than any other group 0 Women who live in poverty Acquaintance Rape and Sexual Coercion 0 About 3 out of 4 sexual assaults against women are done by someone the victim knows 0 2045 of teenage and adult women have been victims of coerced sexual activity Acquaintance Rape The Role of Perceptions and Communication 0 Sexual scripts culturally learned ways of behaving in sexual situations I Encourage men to be aggressive and women to be passive 0 Men and women misinterpreting quotsignalsquot Date Rape Drugs 0 Rohypnol in the 1990s 0 Other drugs used include Valium GHP ketamine hydrochloride 0 NEVER leave your drink unattended or accept a drink that is from an open container Sexual Abuse of Children Child sexual abuse An adult engaging in sexual contact of any kind with a child including inappropriate touching oralgenital stimulation and coitus Characteristics of People Who Sexually Abuse Children 0 Most are heterosexual males and are known to the victim 0 Some characteristics alcoholism severe marital problems sexual difficulties poor emotional adjustment various brain disorders Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse 0 Portion of girls who were victimized 1033 Portion ofboys 916 0 Approximately 22 of all women and 9 of the men reported being sexually abused as children 0 Catholic Church in America has been under investigation Recovered Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse OOOOOOO 0 Many associations have supported the belief that memories can be recovered later in life Pedophiles in Cyberspace 0 Almost 13 of online pedophiles are female 0 Pedophiles first gain a child s trust by appearing to be genuinely empathetic and interested in the child s problems and concerns 0 Then they intend to email text have private conversations Finally they arrange a meeting 0 Communications Decency Act prohibits the distribution of indecent materials to minors by computers Effects of Child Sexual Abuse 0 Survivors speak of their loss of childhood innocence the contamination and interruption of normal sexual development and a profound sense of betrayal by a relative family friend priest or clergyperson or community leader 0 The longer the molestation goes on the worse the prognosis 0 Studies reveal that adult survivors of child abuse often exhibit detrimental parenting practices Preventing Child Sexual Abuse 0 Saying quotNoquot 0 Talk about strategies early 0 Differentiate between okay touches and not okay touches 0 Encourage child to tell right away When the Child Tells 0 Many children do not disclose their abuse to an adult until they have reached adulthood Sexual Harassment Sexual Harassment unwelcome sexual advances requests for sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature in the workplace or academic setting Varieties and Incidence of Sexual harassment on the Job 0 Prevalence of Sexual Harassment in the Workplace I Many incidences of workplace sexual harassment go unreported I 4070 of American women and 1020 ofAmerican men I It occurs in all positions and at every level Heightened in military and medical professions o SameSex Sexual Harassment in the Workplace 0 Effects of Workplace Sexual Harassment on the Victim I Can erode a victim s financial status job performance career opportunities psychological and physical health I Reported PTSD symptoms 0 Dealing with Sexual Harassment on the Job I You can file criminal charges against the perpetrator I Report to a supervisor or the supervisor of the offender I Can file an official complain with our city or state Human Rights Commission I Can pursue legal action and file a lawsuit Cyber stalking 0 Cyber stalking threatening behaviors or unwanted advances that use web technologies as weapons for stalking and harassment 0 Almost 1 million Americans victimized each year 0 Fueled by rapid evolution of various technologies to create instantaneous large audiences and the nonchalance with which people use this technology to divulge personal details about their lives Sexual Harassment in Academic Settings 0 Prevalence of Sexual Harassment in Academic Settings I By peers or educators I 2040 of undergraduate women and 3050 graduate women report having been the target of one or more incidents of sexual harassment in their academic setting 0 Dealing with Sexual Harassment on Campus I Report it in order to curtail these inappropriate actions and to reduce the likelihood that other students will be victimized by the same person
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