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usf cop


School: University of South Florida
Department: Computer Programming
Course: Programming Concepts
Professor: Schinnel small
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Arrays, methods, OPP, class, Drivers, toString, Accessors, Mutators, and static
Cost: 50
Name: COP 2510 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover the new stuff learned and what will be tested on for the Lab Exam/Midterm that's on April 21st. You should also consider using past homework as well. Topics covered for Lab Exam 3 will be on Arrays, Methods, OPP, Classes and Drivers, toStrings, Accessors and Mutators, and Static Variables.
Uploaded: 04/16/2017
22 Pages 137 Views 1 Unlocks

❖ How is a static variable different from an instance variable?

❖ What are the values of the following statements?

Why use void methods?

COP 2510 Week 9 - Void Methods: Intro to Array Quick task The following methods are overloaded: Public static int subtract (int num1, int num2) { Return num1 - num2; } Public static int subtract (int num1, int num2, int num3) { Return num1 - num2 - num3; } Public static double subtract (double num1, double num2) { Return num1 -Don't forget about the age old question of psychology uf
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num2; } Methods will be used for the following statement: ❖ System.out.println Recall: Method - a group of statements that are collectively given a name. Methods may be a value returning or void. A value returning method returns a value after the method is called (invoked). A void method does not return a value after a method is invoked. Why use void methods? ❖ Since void method doesn’t return a value, you may wonder why it is useful. ❖ A void method is still appropriate for defining a group of statements to a task ❖ Values can be “returned” to main using output statements instead Return Statements in void methods? ❖ You CANNOT use a return statement in void method to return a value ❖ You can use a return statement to exit a method ➢ E.g if (denom == 0) { System.out.println(“Not allowed.”); Return; } ❖ If you attempt to use a return statement without a clause it results in a syntax error. INTRODUCTION TO ARRAYS ❖ An array is an ordered list of values.➢ Entire array has a single name ➢ Each value has a numeric INDEX ➢ Array of size N is indexed from zero to N-1 ❖ In Java, arrays are objects that must be instantiated. ➢ The name of the array is an OBJECT REFERENCE VARIABLE. Declaring Arrays - The scores array could be declared as: “Int[] scores = new int[10]; ❖ This type of variable scores is “int[]” ❖ The reference variable scores is set to a new array object that can hold 10 integers. ❖ Java provides two ways to declare arrays; Int [] grades; Int grades[]; ❖ The first is consistent with other types of declarations ❖ Declared type is explicit if array brackets are associated with element type ❖ Other examples of array declarations ➢ Int[] weights = new int[2000]; ➢ Double[] prices = new double[500]; ➢ Boolean[] flags; Flags = new boolean[20]; ➢ Char[] codes = new char[1750]; Accessing Array Elements ❖ To reference a particular value or element, use the array name followed by the position or index in brackets ➢ For Example, the expression: scores[2] refers to the value 94 (3rd value in array) ❖ An array element can be assigned, used for calculation or printed: ➢ Assigned → Scores[2] = 89; ➢ Calculation → Scores[0] = Scores[0] + 2; ➢ Printed → System.out.println(“Top = “ + scores[5]); ❖ FOR loops are very effective for manipulating the contents of an array. ❖ Recall: FOR loops are useful when you know EXACTLY how many times you need to repeat a process ❖ The size of an array provides this information.Output Public class BasicArray { //----------------------------------------------------------------- // Creates an array, fills it with various integer values, // modifies one value, then prints them out. //--------------------------------------------------------- Public static void main(String[] args) { Final int LIMIT = 15, MULTIPLE = 10; Int[] list = new int[LIMIT]; // Initiate the array values For (int index = 0; index < LIMIT; index++) List[index] = index * MULTIPLE; list[5] = 999; // change one array value // Print Values For (int index = 0; index < LIMIT; index++) System.out.print(list[index] + “ “); } } Arrays: FOR vs FOR-EACH loop ❖ You can use a variation of the FOR loop called the for-each loop: ➢ for (int value : list) System.out.print(value + “ “); ❖ The above is equivalent to ➢ For (int index = 0; index < LIMIT; index++) System.out.print(list[index] + “ “); Array Index and Bounds Checking ❖ Once an array is created, it has a fixed size ❖ An index used in an array reference must specify a valid element, i.e. value must be in range from 0 to N-1. ❖ The Java interpreter throws an “ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException” if an array index is out of bounds. ❖ Example: if an array “codes” can hold 100 values, it can be indexed from 0 to 99.❖ The following will cause an exception to be thrown: ➢ For (int index=0; index < 100; index++) Codes[index] = index * 50 + epsilon; ❖ Known as an “off by one” error ❖ Each array has a public constant called “length” that stores the size of the array. ❖ It is referenced using the array name. ❖ Note: length holds the number of elements, not the largest index. ❖ EXAMPLE: - for (int index = 0; index < list.length; index++) System.out.print(list[index] + " "); Initializer Lists ❖ An initializer list can be used to fill an array in one step. ❖ Values are delimited by braces, and separated by commas. ❖ Examples: ➢ int[] units = {147, 323, 89, 933, 540, 269, 97, 114, 298, 476}; Char[] letterGrades = {‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, ‘D’, ‘F’}; ❖ Note that when an initializer list is created: ➢ NO SIZE value is specified ➢ The new operator is not used ❖ The array size is determined by the number of items in the list. ❖ Initializer lists can only be used in the array declaration. Two-Dimensional Arrays (2D Arrays) ❖ A Two-Dimensional array can be thought of as a table of elements, with rows and columns. ❖ In Java, a 2D array is an array of arrays ❖ 2D arrays are declared by specifying the size of each dimension separately ➢ Int [] [] table = new int[12][50]; ❖ An element is referenced using two index values ➢ Value = table[3][6] ❖ The array stored in one row can be specified using one index ➢ Table[3]: the array of elements table [3] [0], Table [3] [1], …, table[3][49] ❖ Use nested loops to manipulate a 2D array ➢ For (int row = 0; row < table.length; row++) For (int col=0; col < table[row].length; col++) table [row][col] = row * 10 + col; Multidimensional Arrays ❖ An array can have many dimensions ❖ Each dimension subdivides the previous one into a specified number of elements. ➢ For each dimension add another nested loop!❖ Each dimension is an array of array references, so arrays within one dimension can be of different lengths ➢ Each dimension has its own length constant Arrays vs ArrayList ❖ Chapter 5 mentions ArrayList class ❖ Part of the java.util package ❖ To instantiate: ArrayList<String>Band = new ArrayList <String> (); ---- Week 12 - Arrays and Methods How to declare the following arrays – An array of 100 integers called people • int[]people = new int[100]; – An array of 5000 floa9ng point values called weights • double[]weights = new double[5000]; – A two-dimensional integer array called chart with 10 rows and 15 columns • int[][]chart = new int[10][15]; ❖ What are the values of the following statements? ➢ Height[1] = 61 ➢ Height [2] + Height[5] → 70 + 69 = 139 ➢ Height [2+5] = 73 ➢ Height.Length = 11 Height: 69, 61, 70, 74, 62, 69, 66, 73, 79, 62, 70 ARRAYS AND METHODS ❖ A array can be passed to the method. ❖ You would need the following: ➢ An array declared as a formal parameter (in the method header). ➢ An array declared as an actual parameter (within the main method).import java.util.Scanner; public class ArrayMethodExample { public static void main(String[] args) { Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in); double[] list2 = new double[10]; System.out.print("Enter 10 double values: "); int i = 0; while (i < list2.length) { List2[i] = = input.nextDouble(); i++; } System.out.println("The average is " + average(list2)); } public static double average(double[] array) { double sum = 0; for (int i = 0; i < array.length; i++) sum += array[i]; return sum / array.length; } } - Java also allows you to RETURN an array. - This is allowed because you actual return a reference to an array (considered one entity).import java.util.Scanner; public class ReverseArray { public static void main(String[] args) { Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print("Enter 10 integers: "); int[] myList = new int[10]; for (int i = 0; i < myList.length; i++) myList[i] = input.nextInt(); reverse(myList); for (int i = 0; i < myList.length; i++) System.out.print(myList[i] + " "); } Public static int[] reverse(int[] list) { For (int i = 0, j = list.length - 1; i < list.length / 2; i++, j--) { Int temp = list[i]; List[i] = list[j]; List[j] = temp; } Return list; } } ----- Lecture 03/30/17 → OPP, Classes and Methods Recall: Object-Oriented Programming uses classes, objects and methods as basic programming components. These components help us - Organize a large problem into small modules - Design an intricate program - Find and remove errors→ Classes Recall: Classes serve as blueprints for objects, aka they represent a concept. An object created from that class realizes that concept. ❖ Objects have ➢ State: defined by attribute values ➢ Behavior: Defined by operations A class can contain data declarations and method declarations. Example: Import java.text.NumberFormat; Public class Account { Private final double RATE = 0.035 Private long accNumber; Private double balance; Private String name; // Set up account Public Account(String owner, long account, double initial) { Name = owner; acctNumber = account; Balance = initial; } // deposit Public double addInterest() { Balance += (balance * RATE); Return balance; } // withdraws specified amount Public double withdraw(double amount, double fee) { Balance = balance - amount - fee;} // Adds interest Public double addInterest() { Balance += (balance * RATE); Return balance; } //Returns the current balance. Public double getBalance*( { Return balance; } // Returns a one-line description public String toString() { NumberFormat fmt = NumberFormat.getCurrencyInstance(); return (acctNumber + "\t" + name + "\t" + fmt.format(balance)); } } Example - Driver Programs ❖ A driver program drives the use of other more interesting parts of a program. ❖ Driver programs are used to test other parts of the software. ❖ Example: The transactions class contains a MAIN method that drives the use of the ACCOUNT class, exercising its services. Transactions.java Public class Transactions { // Creates some bank accounts and get service Public static void main(String[] args) { Account acc1 = new Account(“Ted Murphy”, 72354, 102.56); Account acc2 = new Account(“Jane Smith”, 69713, 40.00);Account acc3 = new Account(“Edward Demsey”, 93757, 759.32); acc1.deposit(25.85); Double smithBalance = acct2.deposit(500.00); System.out.println(“Smith balance after deposit: “ + smithBalance); System.out.println(“Smith balance after withdrawal: “ + acc2.withdraw (430.75, 1.50)); acct1.addInterest(); acct2.addInterest(); acct3.addInterest(); System.out.println(); System.out.println(acct1); System.out.println(acct2); System.out.println(acct3); } } To run the Bank Account Example: ❖ Place Account.java and Transactions.java in the same folder ❖ Compile both Account.java and Transactions.java ❖ Run Transactions.java only. (Account.java has no main method) → Constructors, and Instance Data ❖ A constructor is a special method that is used to set up an object when it is initially created. ❖ Constructors has the same name as the class. ❖ Programmers do not have to define a constructor for a class: Each class has a DEFAULT CONSTRUCTOR that accepts no arguments. Example: NOTE - no return type specified in the header, not even void. Common Error - put a return type on a constructor, making it a REGULAR method with the same name as the class. Public Account(String owner, long account, double initial) { Name = owner;acctNumber = account; Balance = initial; } Instance Data - Objects share the method definitions but each object has its own space. Account acct1 = new Account(“Ted Murphy”, 72354, 102.56); Account acct2 = new Account(“Jane Smith”, 69713, 40.00); ❖ Classes declare the type of the data, but does not reserve memory space for it. ❖ Whenever an ACCOUNT object is created, a NAME variable is created. ❖ Instance Variables (which are declared at class level) exists as long as the object exists. → ENCAPSULATION ❖ We can take one of two views of an object: ➢ Internal: The details of the variables and the methods of the class that defines it. ➢ External: The services that an object provides and how the object interacts with the rest of the system. ➢ From the external view, an object is an encapsulated entity, providing a set of specific services. ■ These services define the interface to the object ➢ One objects (or client) may invoke the interface methods of another object, which manages the instance data. ❖ NOTE: While a client may request the services of another object, the former does not have to be aware of how those services are achieved. ❖ We should make it difficult, if not impossible for one object to access another object’s variables directly. That is, an object should be SELF-GOVERNING. ❖ Think of an encapsulated object as a black box, whose inner workings are hidden from the client. → Visibility Modifiers ❖ In Java, encapsulation is achieved through the use of visibility modifiers. ❖ A modifier is a Java reserved word that specified particular characteristics of a method of data. ➢ E.G. final to define constants. ❖ Java has three visibility modifiers: public, private, and protected ➢ The protected modifier involves inheritance ❖ Members of a class that are declared with public visibility can be referenced anywhere. ❖ Members of a class that are declared the private visibility can be referenced only within that class.❖ Members declared without a visibility modifier have default visibility and can be referenced by any class in the same directory. ❖ Example: Public ➢ Public class withdraw(double amount, double fee) { Balance = balance - amount - fee; Return balance; } ❖ Example: Private ➢ Private final double RATE = 0.035; Private long acctNumber; Private double balance; Private String name; ❖ Public variables violates encapsulation because they allow the client to modify values directly. ❖ Instance variables should be declared with private visibility ❖ Constants may have public visibility which allows it to be used outside the class. ❖ Public constants does not violent encapsulation because its value cannot be changed (the client can access it). ❖ Methods that provide the object’s services are declared with public invisibility so that they can be invoked by clients ➢ Public methods are also called service methods ❖ A method created to assist a service method is called a support method. ➢ Since support methods are not intended to be called by a client, it should be declared with private visibility. → Data Scope ❖ The scope of the data is the area in a program in which that data can be referenced (used). ❖ Data declared at the class level can be referenced by all methods in that class. ❖ Data declares within a method can only be used within a method. ➢ This is known as a local data. Locals ❖ The formal parameters of a method create automatic local variables when the method is invoked. ❖ When the method finishes, all local variables are destroyed. ➢ Int add(int num1, int num2){ Int sum = num1 + num2; Return sum; } → More on Methods: toString, Getters, and Setters. toString ❖ The toString method returns a character string that represents the object in some way. ❖ It is called automatically when an object is concatenated to a string or when it is passed to the println method. ❖ It is good practice to define a toString method for a class. Example: When these lines are executed: - System.out.println(acct1); - System.out.println(acct2); - System.out.println(acct3); toString is used: Public String toString() { NumberFormat fmt = NumberFormat.getCurrencyInstance(); Return (acctNumber + “\t” + name + “\t” + fmt.format(balance)); } Accessors and Mutators ❖ Since instance data is private, a class usually provides services to access and modify data values. ❖ Accessor methods return the current value of a variable ➢ AKA getters; name gets the form of getX where X represents the value. ❖ Mutator methods change the value of a variable ➢ AKA Setters; name takes the form of setX. ❖ Accessor Example: ➢ Public double getBalance() { Return balance; } ❖ Mutator Example:➢ Public void setFaceValue(int value) { faceValue = value; } → WEEK 13A ← STATIC MODIFIER ● Recall: A static method is one that can be invoked through its class name, instead of through an object of that class. ● Example: Methods of the MATH class: ○ Result = Math.sqrt(25); ● Variables can be static as well ● Determining if a method or variable should be static IS an important design decision. ● Static methods and variables are declared using the static modifier. ● It “associates the method or variable with the class” rather than with an object of that class. ● Static methods are also called CLASS METHODS. ● Static variables are also called CLASS VARIABLES. Static Variables ❖ A static variable is shared among all instances of a class. ➢ private static int count = 0; ❖ If a variable is declared as static, “only one copy of the variable exists.” ❖ Memory space for a static variable is created when the class is first referenced. ❖ All objects instantiated from the class share its static variable. ❖ Important that changing the value of a static variable in one object changes it for all others. ❖ How is a static variable different from an instance variable? ➢ An instance variable is a variable declared within a class, but not inside a method. ➢ When an object of that class is created, each object has its own version and memory space of the variable. ➢ Remember: only one copy of a static variable exists for all objects of that class. ❖ How is a static variable different from a local variable? ➢ A local variable is a variable declared inside a method. ➢ Memory space for a local variable is only allocated when the method is referenced. ■ A local variable in a method cannot be static. ➢ Memory space for a static variable is allocated when the class is referenced.❖ Can a constant be static? ➢ Sure! ➢ Constants are VARIABLES whose value/content cannot be changed, thanks to the FINAL modifier. ➢ Since the value can’t be changed, there might as well be only one copy of it across all objects of the class. Static Methods ❖ Why have static methods? ➢ The methods in the MATH class perform basic calculations based on values passed as parameters, ➢ No good reason to create an object just to request those services. ❖ Why is the main method in Java static? ➢ “The main method is static so that it can be executed by the Java interpreter without creating an object that contains main.” ➢ Recall that the Java interpreter translates the code into the target language (machine language) and executes the instructions of that code. ❖ Since static methods do not operate in the context of a particular object, they cannot reference instance variables. ➢ Remember instance variables are only created when an object is created. ❖ However, a static method can reference static variables or local variables. Example of Static Modifier: Slogan.java public class Slogan { private String phrase; privatestatic intcount=0; //staticvariable //----------------------------------------------------------------- // Constructor: Sets up the slogan and counts the number of // instances created. //----------------------------------------------------------------- public Slogan(String str) { phrase = str;count++; } // Returns this slogan as a string. Public String toString() { Return phase; } // Returns the number of instances of this class that have been created. Public static int getCount() { Return count; } } SloganCounter.java - DRIVER PROGRAM Public class SloganCounter { // Creates several Slogan objects and prints the number of objects created. Public static void main(String[] args) { Slogan obj; Obj = new Slogan(“Remember the Alamo.”)’ System.out.println(obj); Obj = new Slogan(“Don’t Worry. Be Happy.”): System.out.println(obj); Obj = new Slogan (“Live Free or Die.”); System.out.println(obj); Obj = new Slogan(“Write Once, Run Anywhere.”); System.out.println(obj); System.out.println(); System.out.println(“Slogans created: “ + Slogan.getCount()); }} Output: Remember the Alamo. Don’t Worry. Be Happy. Live Free or Die. Talk is Cheap. Write Once, Run Anywhere. Slogans created: 5 The THIS reference ❖ The “this” reference allows an object to refer to itself. ❖ That is, the “this” reference, used inside of a method, “refers to the object through which the method is being executed.” ❖ “THIS” is a reserved word in Java. ❖ Supposed the “THIS” reference was used inside a method called tryMe: Private int num; Public void tryMe() { This.num++; } ❖ tryMe invoked as follows: obj1.tryMe(); (In the first innovation, the THIS reference refers to obj1). obj2.tryMe(); (In the second, it refers to obj2) ❖ The THIS reference can be used to distinguish instance variables of a class from corresponding method parameters with the same names. Consider: the constructor for the account class (Chapter 4) was written as: Public Account (String owner, long account, double initial) { Name = owner; acctNumber = account; Balance = initial; } Remember: Variables on lft were private members of the class. ❖ Using the THIS reference, the constructor could be written as: Public account (String name, long acctNumber, double Balance) { This.name = name;This.acctNumber = acctNumber; This.balance = balance; } ❖ This approach eliminates the need to come up with different, yet equivalent names. LECTURE 04/11/17 Week 14 Lecture File Input and Output (File I/O) ❖ Java provides several classes for reading data from a file and writing to a file. ❖ To read data from a file you can use: ➢ Scanner class ➢ File class ❖ To write data to a file you can use: ➢ PrintWriter class ❖ File must be opened ➢ This creates a connection to file and the program ❖ Data is then read or written to the file. ❖ File must be closed after the program is finished using it. ➢ This prevents corruption or loss of data. Input File - File that a problem reads from. - Data stored in the file serves as input Output File - File that a program writes to. - Program stores output in the file File formats: text (common) or binary Reading from a file. ❖ You will need to import the Scanner and File classes ➢ java.util.Scanner; ➢ java.util.io*; ❖ You will need to include a THROWS exception clause ➢ Any method that uses a Scanner object to read a file must have a THROWS IOException clause in its header. ➢ Public state void main (String [] args) Throws IOException ❖ You create a File object and pass the name of the file as a string to the constructor. ➢ File inputfile = new File (“Numbers.txt”);❖ You create a Scanner object and pass the reference of the file object as an argument to the constructor. ➢ Scanner scan = new Scanner(inputfile); ➢ Scanner fileScan = new Scanner(new File(“urls.inp”)); ❖ Use the Scanner class’ nextLine method to read a line from the file. ➢ Use nextInt for ints etc. ❖ Use the Scanner’s hasNext method to determine if there is more data to read. ➢ While (scan.hasNext()) { String name = scan.nextLine(); } ❖ When you’re done, use the Scanner’s close method to close the file. ➢ scan.close(); ❖ Tip: Make sure the file exists and can be found ➢ Create a copy of the file and place it in the same directory as your Java files. ❖ Text File contents: ➢ Hudson ➢ Tunde ➢ Bryan ➢ Petra ➢ Peaches ➢ Tammy ❖ Public class FileRead { Public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException { // open the file. File inputfile = new File(“MyFriends.txt”); Scanner scan = new Scanner(inputfile); // read lines from the file until no more are left While (scan.hasNext()) { // Read next name. String friendName = scan.nextLine(); // Display the last name read. System.out.println(friendName); }// Close the file scan.close(); } } Writing to a File ❖ Once again you will need to import the Scanner and File classes. ❖ You will also need to include a throws exception clause ➢ Any method that uses a PrintWriter object must have a throws IOException clause in its header. ❖ You create a PrintWriter object and pass the name of the file as a string to the constructor. ➢ PrintWriter outfile = new PrintWriter(“Movies.txt”); ➢ String filename = “Movies.txt”; PrintWriter outfile = new PrintWriter (filename); ➢ Warning: If the file you are opening with the PrintWriter object still exists, it can be overwritten. ❖ Use the PrintWriter’s print and println methods to write data to the file. ➢ outfile.println(movie); ❖ Close the file ➢ Outfile.close; ❖ Writing To A File - EXAMPLE // This program writes data to a file. import java.util.Scanner; // Needed for the Scanner class import java.io.*; // Needed for the File class public class FileWrite {  public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException  {  String movie; // for movie name  int numMovies; //Number of movies //For keyboard input  Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in);  //Get number of movies  System.out.print("How many movies will you enter? "); numMovies = scan.nextInt(); scan.nextLine(); // get newline character [Enter] // Open the file. PrintWriter outfile = new PrintWriter("Movies.txt"); // Get data and write to the file  for (int i = 1; i <= numMovies; i++)  {  // Get name  System.out.print("Enter movie name: ");  movie = scan.nextLine();  // Write to the file  outfile.println(movie);  }  // Close the file.  outfile.close();  } }Exception ❖ When something unexpected happens in a Java program, an EXCEPTION is thrown. ❖ An exception is an object that describes an unusual or erroneous situation. ❖ A program can process an exception in 3 ways: ➢ Not at all - program terminates abnormally ➢ Handle the exception where it occurs ➢ Handle the exception at another point in the program ❖ We thrown an exception so that it can be caught and handled by another part of the program. ❖ (We also do this as exception handling is to be covered in more advanced courses :)) ❖ An error is also represented as an object in Java, but usually represents an unrecoverable situation and should not be caught. ❖ We use the keyword THROWS to insert a throws clause and add the name of the expected exception. ❖ SCANNER and PrintWriter objects can encounter Input/Output issues like “file not found” and “disk full” so they throw an IOException.

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