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UD - HDFS 201010 - Study Guide - Midterm

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UD - HDFS 201010 - Study Guide - Midterm

School: University of Delaware
Department: Human Development
Course: Life Span Development
Professor: Robin Palkovitz
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: perceptual, cognitive, information, and processing
Name: Exam Study Guide
Description: Part I - Chapters 5-7
Uploaded: 04/17/2017
0 5 3 91 Reviews
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background image Exam 2 Study Guide: Chapters 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11 (Textbook Notes) Chapter 5: Perceptual Development  Section 5-1: Motor Development  Dynamic Systems Theory – a theory proposed by Ester Thelen that  explains how infants assemble motor skills for perceiving and acting  o Infants are motivated; they might create new behavior --> the  result of new behavior is the development of the nervous system, 
the body's physical properties and possibilities for movement 
o Example: babies learn to walk once maturation of nervous  system allows them to control certain muscles  Motor development is NOT a passive process 
 
Reflexes  o Allow infants to respond adaptively to environment  o Rooting reflex - infants cheek is stroked or side of mouth  is touched and in response infants turn head toward side that 
was touched looking to find something to suck.  
o Sucking reflex - newborns suck an object placed in their  mouth  Change nourishment; self soothing  o Moro reflex - startle response occurring after  sudden/intense noise or movement. In response they arch back,
throw head back, fling arms, and legs open and rapidly close 
o Grasping reflex - when something touches an infants palm,  they respond by grasping it tightly  Gross Motor Skills 
o
Involve large-muscle activities (ex: walking)  o Development of posture  o Dynamic process (linked with sensory information in skin, joints,  muscles, etc.) o Infants 3 weeks Hold heads erect 2 months Can sit while supported  6-7 months Sit independently  8-9 months Pull themselves up and hold onto 
something 
10-12 
months
Stand alone  o Learning to walk  o Alternating leg movements - young infants 
background image o Balancing on 1 leg long enough (difficult)  o Navigating surfaces safe to walk or crawl on  o 1st year - motor development milestones o Dependent on context  o 2nd year  o Increasing independence  o 13-18 months: pull toy attached to sting, hands and legs to  climb stairs  o 18-24 months: walk quickly, run short distance, walk backwards, stand and kick or throw balls, jump in place  o Cultural variations  o Mothers in developing countries stimulate infants motor skills  more than mothers in developed countries  o Childhood  o 3 years Hopping, jumping, running  4 years Same things but more adventurous  5 years Even more adventurous -- climbing, run  hard (races) 10 
years
Mastered running, climbing, jumping, etc. 11 
years
Rope, swimming, etc. playing sports  o Adolescence and Adulthood  o Peak: 19- 26 years old  o Age 30: biological functions begin to decline Cardiovascular functioning, muscle strength, balance,  flexibility Risk of falling increases with age  2/3rds of people fall again w/in 6 months  Leading cause of injury deaths for people and older  Fine Motor Skills 
o
Involve more finely tuned movements  o Infants  o Palmer grasp- grip w/ whole hand  o Pincer grip - grip w/ thumb and forefinger Experience plays a role. o Childhood  o 4 years Precise 5 years Hand, arm,  finger 7 years Steady hands 
background image 12 
years
Ability of 
adults  
o Girls outperform boys  o Adult development  o Decreases in middle and late adulthood, weakness   
 
Section 5-2: Sensory and Perceptual Development 
Sensation  vs. Perception  o Occurs when information interacts with sensory 
receptors  
The interpretation of 
sensation 
Ecological View 
o
Created by Gibbons  o States how people directly perceive information that exists in the world o Perception --> brings people in contact with the environment  (interact and adapt to environment)  o Affordances --> provide opportunities for interaction  Visual Perception 
o
Infant's First Year of Life --> visual acuity increases dramatically  o 4 weeks- 8 
weeks 
Can distinguish some 
colors 
3 months Show size and shape 
constancy 
6 months Depth perception  o Both biological and environmental factors  o 40 - 59 years old: time period when eye accommodation decreases the most  o 3 diseases that can impair the vision of older adults  o Cataracts  o Glaucoma  o Macular degeneration  Hearing  o Fetus can hear mother's voice during 
last 2 months of pregnancy 
  Immediately after birth Can hear, threshold is higher than adults  During infancy  Changes occur in perception of loudness, 
pitch, and localization of sound
Age of 40 Hearing can start to decline, especially 
sensitivity to high pitched sounds 
Other Senses 

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School: University of Delaware
Department: Human Development
Course: Life Span Development
Professor: Robin Palkovitz
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: perceptual, cognitive, information, and processing
Name: Exam Study Guide
Description: Part I - Chapters 5-7
Uploaded: 04/17/2017
10 Pages 49 Views 39 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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