SAMPLE QUESTIONS Probably Answers Exammette 6 Book page reference
1 A study of 3000 individuals aged 15 to 24 indicated that young people with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) began developing fatty streaks within their arteries by this age… 25 – p.g. 388
2 ____arteries___ carry blood away from one’s heart (myocardium or heart tissue), while __ veins____ carry blood to the heart. –p.g. 390
3 Chest pain resulting from insufficient oxygen in a portion of the heart is referred to as this. Angina Pectoris p.g. 391
4 Atherosclerosis is one form of arteriosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis can be described as this… A p.g. 391
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the prosocial value orientations?
a Hardening of the arteries
b Softening of the arteries
c Narrowing of the arteries
5 The procedure to remove plaque from the inside of an artery is called… D p.g. 394
6 Reconstruction of a damaged blood vessel is called a/an C p.g. 393 a. Embolus
7 List five warning signs an individual is having a heart attack… Shortness of breath, profuse sweating, weakness, anxiety, nausea p.g. 397
8 Regarding a stroke, what does the acronym F.A.S.T represent? Face drooping, Arm weakness, Speech difficulties, Time to call 911
9 Define the following terms…stenosis; aneurysm; atrial fibrillation;
thrombosis; embolism; TIA or transient ischemic attack
o Stenosis abnormal narrowing 399 If you want to learn more check out What is interactome?
o Aneurysm a swollen, weakened
blood vessel – 398
o Atrial fibrillation a type of
arrhythmia in which the upper
chamber of the heart contract with no
set pattern 398
o Thrombosis the formation of a
blood clot inside a blood vessel –
o Embolism – the blood clot, or object
of debris, becomes lodges in an
artery blocking blood flow 398
o TIA “mini stroke” temporary
restriction of flow of blood to the
10 List 10 risk factors for CVD.
o Cigarette smoking
o Diabetes mellitus
o Physical inactivity
o Family history of cardiovascular
o Heavy alcohol use
o Anxiety disorders If you want to learn more check out What is the size of africa?
o High levels of LDL p.g. 401
11 If one’s HDL is 38 mg/dl what would you suggest to that person? They are at major risk for heart disease p.g. 402 We also discuss several other topics like What are the environmental impacts of the pre-industrial systems?
12 If one’s LDL is 100 mg/dl what would you suggest to that person? They are near or above optimal level p.g. 402
13 More than ___50____% of American adults do not get enough physical activity to provide health benefits. –p.g. 404
14 What is happening to the incidence of stroke among young Americans? It is rising p.g. 400 Don't forget about the age old question of What are the characteristics of a glacier?
15 When the body does not immediately use all energyyielding nutrients, it converts them to what? Triglycerides p.g. 403
16 Among people who smoke, they tend to have _____increased____ levels of LDL, and ___decreased_____ levels of HDL. –p.g. 403
17 This hormone tends to raise an individual’s HDL levels by about 20%. Estrogen p.g. 402
18 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggests at least this many minutes of physical activity per week to help reduce the likelihood of cardiovascular disease and stroke. 150 minuets p.g. 404
19 Why is homocysteine important regarding damage to artery walls? Increased homocysteine levels damage artery walls and encourage the formation of blood clots and plaque p.g. 406 Don't forget about the age old question of What is a forensic entomologist?
20 Smoking will increase the likelihood for coronary artery disease. Once the individual stops smoking, what happens (almost immediately) to the risk? Risk of CAD is cut in half p.g. 408
Word of The Day
1. Angina a condition marked by severe pain in the chest, often also spreading to the shoulders, arms, jaw, and neck, caused by an inadequate blood supply to the heart 2. Stroke volume the volume of blood pumped from the left ventricle in one contraction 3. TIA (Transiant Ischemic Attack) a temporary blockage of blood flow to the brain also known as “ministrokes” and are precursors and warnings for serious strokes 4. Dean Ornish, MD is big on lifestyle changes as a preventative health care measure 5. Angioplasty surgical repair of unblocking of a blood vessel (angi/o vessel, plasty – surgical repair)
6. Atherectomy removing plaque (atherosclerosis) from blood vessels (ather plague, ectomy – removal)
7. Hyperplasia the enlargement of an organ or tissue caused by an increased rate of cell reproduction
8. Thrombus a blood clot formed within the vascular system obstructing blood flow 9. Embolus an object, often a thrombus, that has been carried through the bloodstream and lodged in a vessel
10. Atherosclerosis condition of abnormal hardening of the arteries (ather – plaque, sclerosis – condition of hardening)
11. Bradycardia abnormally slow heart rhythm (brady – slow, cardia – pertaining to the heart)
12. Tachycardia abnormally fast heart rhythm (tachy fast, cardia – pertaining to the heart)