Week 8 2/28/17: Conflict over Natural Resources
What are natural resources? Materials in the environmentor nature that are used by humans. (TB 109)
Necessary (air, water) or substitutable (alternative exists, can be synthesized). Renewable (supply that can be refreshed) or nonrenewable (limited supply, use it up gone). Bounded (exist in territorial space of one country ex. Mississippi river) or transboundary (exists in territorial space of more than one country in Africa ex. Nile river).
These characteristics drives competition and conflict over resources.
Types of Natural Resources
1. Drinkable water
2. Bodies of water (oceans, rivers, lakes)
4. Timber renewable
5. Oil and gas non renewable
6. Minerals non renewable
Renewable vs. Nonrenewable
Renewable: Plants, trees, animals, suller and wind. Given a short gap in time it can renew itself.
Nonrenewable: crude oil (fossil fuel), natural gas, coal (fossile fuel), uranium (nonfossil fuel). Energy from here. All extracted from ground as liquid gasses and solids. Propane, diesel. Minerals, fossil fuel, soils. Crude oil and coal are fossil fuels. If you want to learn more check out What ways is the social construction of gender the foundation of the oppression of women and transgender people via sexism, patriarchy and misogyny?
Stakeholders in Natural Resources
1. Local communities that forest is part of their culture as well as way of getting food and protection. Its part of their identity and economy.
2. Governments set a lot of policy, oversight of resources management, set rules of trade, decide licensing of extraction method. If not democracy the country owns the industry (oil field for example). Government can sell to outside sources. Less reliant on others. And staying power. Reduces likelihood of democracy. They decide to tax if they want. We also discuss several other topics like Why do people rape?
3. Rebel groups like to seize physical space where they can take the income of natural resources. Ex. ISIS targeted oil field in Iraq and Syria
4. Outside actors (NGOs, IMF/World Bank) NGOs often draw attention to human rights violations, press statements to social media.
Role of Natural Resources and Conflict
Malthusian population max out resources to feed people
NeoMalthusian rapid population growth, environmental degradation, resource depletion, unequal access to benefits of these resources. Profit goes to handful of elites or government officials. Benefits don’t trickle down to society. Population has grievances can be verbal We also discuss several other topics like What is the role of septal nuclei?
We also discuss several other topics like Who is the main character of the piece "an emily for rose"?
complaints and violent behavior against government can occur. Seen in low development states. We also discuss several other topics like What do we think about a stimulus?
Case Study: Water Wars between China and India
China proposed dam on Brahmaputra River for hydroelectric power. They say it won’t impact flow and environment. India and Bangladesh fear of reduced river flows and content of soil will change can affect agriculture. Don't forget about the age old question of Why comfort zone is dangerous?
Rerouting of northern waters at Great Bend: potential impact of lower river levels entering India. Impact to agriculture and fishing due to changing salinity.
International Efforts UN Sustainable Development Goal: 15
Goal 15: sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation, halt biodiversity loss.
Ways to accomplish this:
1. Conserve and restore freshwater ecosystems
2. Promote sustainable management of forests and reforestation
3. Support conservation of biodiversity ⅕ of animals prone to extinction 4. Combat desertification
5. Act against poaching (illegally hunt or catch) and trafficking of illegal wildlife against the law to traffick ivory tusks of elephant. China has a lot of remedies involving these tusks.
Tragedy of the Commons?
1. I lose out if I don’t participate
2. You get more if I don’t participate
3. Publicly accessible resource ex. Field not fenced in no one owns
4. Benefits to using it for free
5. Both of us want to use resource as much as possible. Free and get profit 6. The resource gets exhausted and no one can use it. Need some sort of arrangement so that we can continue to use the resource
Abundance, not scarcity is the problem
Corruption, economic stagnation (small group profits rest of the people don’t, no incentive for government to change they are making a lot of money) conflict over revenue streams ex. ISIS targeting territorial space where there are oil fields there, intentionally targeting an area with resources. Examples: oil, diamonds, natural gas. In cambodia they use Timber to fuel activity. Kurds and Sunni and Shiites all targeted oil in Iraq similarly to ISIS.
BBC Documentary: The curse of Oil
Presence of rare, non renewable resource ex. oil
Often non democratic government; limited accountability. They are not dependent of votes or taxes from public.
Government or small groups of elites control or own rights to the resource Little political power to local who get few gains and often suffer damages of environmental
Documentary The Curse of Oil: 42 min RECORD until 1 hour
Texaco, attorneys, environmental monitors, residents of the area, government )allowed Texaco to come and drill originally) this is a dictatorship government in ecuador. Texaco/Chevron have the power here. They were taken to court by individuals who claim health problems and damages to their property. If held accountable they could be sued in US by laws on interacting with other countries. Natural resources can be a curse.
Thursday 3/2/17 Media, International Politics, and Public Opinion
Key Concepts: Natural Resources materials found in the environment or nature that are used by humans. (TB109).
4 characteristics: necessary, substitutable, renewable (or not), bounded (or not). Know stakeholders: local population, government, rebel/terrorist groups, other nonstate actors. Two theories of conflict over natural resources. Neo malthusian (population size and scarcity of resources can create conflict over their use) and the “resource curse” abundant resource in r countires causes access and benefit problems in an unequal way
Tragedy of the commons. What is it? Need a coordination policy.
How media Influence Works:
∙ mental bridge between your assumptions and conclusions. Priming can get you thinking a certain way without even realizing it.
∙ stereotypes exist because of priming. They are a cognitive tool a tool your brain uses to quickly assess new information and digest it. Subconsciously and quickly. ∙ purpose of priming is to train your mind to build connections in a particular way. Ex. small child don’t touch hot stove. Touch it. Ouch you get burned. Now see stove know not to touch.
∙ Framing is how the story is presented. The goal of framing is to get one point of view to be seen as more favorable. Happens with visual, auditory, and text. Controls flow of 411 and gets audience to respond in a particular way that sender of information desires.
∙ In a manner of speaking, it is controlled flow of information that leads to the answer that is desired without the respondent knowing what is being asked of them.
∙ Twersky and Kahneman conducted a classical experiment to isolate the impact the framing.
Ex. Obama, playing with his dog, football.. Looks relaxed and looks like one of us.
Scenario 1 Tversky and Kahneman
600 people are afflicted with a new disease. 2 forms of Tx have been proposed. A. If program A adopted 200 people will be saved
B. If program B is adopted there is a chance all 600 people will be saved and chance ⅓ ⅔ no one is saved.
A. If program A is adopted 400 people will die.
B. If program B is adopted, there is a chance no one will die, and chance that ⅓ ⅔ everyone will die.
How it’s said can change your opinion or choice. Word choice important here.
Media Framing effects with Political Impact
“Migrant” vs. “refugee” terminology. What is the difference?
Picture of 3 year old Kurdish child washed up on the coast dead.Tried to cross ocean leaving areas of conflict to Europe.
Migrant UN defines migrant as someone leaves their home for economic reasons. More money or opportunity
Refugee removed or leaving country of origin because of harm, persecution, loss of statehood, or particular aspects of identity religion, race, ethnic group that causes them physical harm or detriment.
Social Media Impact
Who uses social networking sites and twitter?
69% admitted to getting a lot of their 411 from social networks (facebook,twitter, instagram). Republican and conservative least likely to get 411 from social media. Still do it in a large majority.
Democrats and Liberal more likely to get 411 from social media and to use Twitter.
Social Media Impact
Islamic state has a smartphone app that allows supporters to watch beheading videos and speeches
Facebook accounts are used to contact supporters and recruit for ISIS especially targeting teens and disenfranchised youth in the Western European states and the US. ISIS puts up some very graphic propaganda. Even if gets shut down they open a new account and put more 411 up.
Selective Choice: Choosing what we want to hear
Selective exposure “The tendency of media consumers to select information that is in line with their predispositions”.
Well informed and less wellinformed choose to get news using mobile devices from media. Do people choose media sources due to preferred bias?
39/50 get more traffic from mobile devices than desktop users.
10/50 news sites mobile visitors spend more times per visit on the site than desktop visitors.
Who watches TV news?
After presidential race looked at news sources for voters.
Trump: 40% through Fox news (conservative news outlet)
Clinton: 18% got their news from CNN
Desperate Media Coverage: 2 news outlets cover the exact same story 1. Coalition airstrikes in Syria
2. MexicoUS border wall
Media as a tool for nonstate actors
Politicians promote a message
Corporate figures gain support for ideas or products
Celebrity activists bring attention to key issues
Terrorist organizations solicit or recruit supporters, intimidate detractors
These agency know their typically viewers/users they perceive the audience want certains types of information and they deliver it.
Week 9: 3/7/17 International Norms and Human Rights
Priming a cognitive tool used to bridge past stereotypes with conclusions about new information. Do it subconsciously driven by us not others.
Framing presenting a story a certain way to get a particular viewpoint to be seen as more favorable. This is driven by others.
Selective exposure “the tendency of media consumers to select information that is in line with their predispositions”. Conservative voters watches Fox.
Who can use media as a tool? Politicians, corporate figures, celebrity activists, and terrorist organization.
What are Human Rights?
Rights inherents to all human beings without discrimination, regardless of nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or other characteristics. Origins over 2500 years ago put into practice. Started out called natural laws. Natural laws referred to by many world religions and historic documents. Talked about how one should be treated bc human dignity.
Codified more commonly in recent history. Begun to be codified in a legal manner human rights made a law.
Human rights are easier to endorse, than enforce (TB p. 84)
Video: UN to reaffirm human rights. 30 rights total. Apply to everyone Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Optional not law. Words on a page. Who will make those words a reality?
Examples of Human Rights Issues: adequate housing, civil cultural or political rights, death penalty, democracy, detention and disappearances, discrimination, economic, social , or cultural arenas, education, food. Don’t need to know all of them. See picture (slide) for more.
Three Stages of Human Rights Development
First generation more globally acknowledged than other types of human rights. Least debated in terms of validity.
Civil and Political rights:
∙ Life, liberty, property
∙ Equal protection, innocence presumed
∙ freedom of speech, press, religion to vote
Government gives rights to individuals. They decide what to protect. Should be filtered through state and culture.
Social and Economic Rights
∙ Right to job (we give up to high school public education and state education for college) ∙ Minimal standard of living. A society determines this ex. Poverty level ∙ Workplace unions and rights
∙ Could include minority group rights for culture and language (catalans in North Spain want to use their Catalan language, the school system should teach in their historic language, not state language).
More advance toward each generation the less acknowledged on a global scale.
∙ Require community cooperation
∙ Not as established.
Will tax wealthy so that everyone is brought to a minimal standard of living regardless of their level of employment. Least agreed upon.
International Norms tied to identity
Norms: rules that govern behavior and are often based upon human rights. ∙ Ethical principles about how actors should behave. Democracies should be less likely to go to war.
∙ Mutual expectation about how actors will behave
∙ Social identities, indication which actors are to be considered legitimate Who has power? Who decides what the identity is? United Nations has great power in International System, UN millennium goals to eradicate poverty.
Ways that Norms Spread
∙ Via international organizations ex. UN
∙ From one state to another state's a poor country might look for aids or loans. Countries giving money will ask what types of human rights do you have? We can pressure them to adopt a norm for us to give them money
∙ High level government experts ex. Climate change policies began with researchers/scientists. Agree on norms and promote the norms within governments ∙ Through cultural experience
∙ Norms activist/entrepreneurs – spread this through social efforts and social media and pressuring governments. Attempt to persuade their governments to adopt the norms.
International Regimes on a state level
Shared understandings about how states will behave on a particular issue. Often remain unwritten (democracies don’t go to war with each other, give their population the right to vote). NPT nuclear proliferation regime states that signed agreed nuclear weapons are bad and dangerous, destroy arsenal this was an expected behavior of states.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948
Most impt document about Human rights. Eleanor Roosevelt powerful actor here. Pressured husband and friends to do something about human rights.
Defined: essential human rights include life, liberty, security of person (not subject to torture, cruel, or inhuman tx) recognition before the law, not subject to arbitrary arrest or exile, freedom of movement to leave and enter his/her country, possess a nationality.
How it is applied: “Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedom set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status”.
What causes the difference on how someone gets access to this? Dependent on government to allow and enforce them. Either government can be unwilling to enforce or incapable of doing this.
Loss of rights= sources of migration
Security, economic opportunity, oppression (ethnic/religious), family reunification (as soon as established bring family with them), popular growth and environmental degradation, human trafficking
How to improve Human rights
Actors working to improve protection of human rights
∙ Transnational advocacy networks (TANS) org and movements across states and activist working together, common problem, link resources and social media together. Can be women’s rights, access to education.
∙ International organizations TREATIES (UN is an example of treaty treaty declaration of human rights)
∙ NGO’s and governments
Sovereignty vs Human rights
∙ Treat signatories must keep their commitments
∙ Westphalian system says that states control their own territory and citizens. If it happens in their border their government gets to decide what happens.
∙ Human rights assumes that people have rights that states cannot dent and must protect. Truth is state can deny it if they choose to.
∙ Focus on human rights is fundamental revision of Westphalian idea. Ex. Right to Protect R2P. At what point does international community have the obligation to step in and stop human right violations?
Only 3 times where we stepped in because genocide happened: Yugoslavia, Sudan, Libya (Obama)
Conventions on the Rights of the Child 1990
Russia and US signed it. For a child the most impt environment is a family. If can’t get it from family, then state steps in to protect rights of children. Family first mechanism state second mechanism. If can’t be cared for in country of origin, then outside the country foster and adoption should be considered.
Case Study: Rights of Children:
William Browder, Hedge Fund Manager: Dual Brit/Us citizen
Some missing money, so Bowder hired Magnitsky in 2005. Russia govt put pressure on Browder to stop investigation. Browder moved from Russia to London in 2007 because security was being threatened. Banned form Russia. Mag. continues to investigate and arrested on accusations of tax fraud (no proof) In jail for one year died at 37 they claim to a rare kidney disease. Browder believes Magnitsky was tortured in prison to release sources. Browder tells this to US government believes Russia violate treaty on Human rights. US responds with US Mag Act Dec 2012 puts a hold on the assets of the Russian officials that Mag felt were culpable (deserving blame) in the disappearance of these hedge funds. Seizes the assets and bans them from entering US. Russia doesn’t like this.
Atlanta Family tried to adopt Bogdan and Yura (brothers)
To the Moon and Back (2015). They met the boys in Russia. Mag Act passed in 2012. Trying to get them off the nonadoptive stop list and advocate for the kids. Able to get the boys placed on the russian list one boy got adopted.
Dima Yavoklev Act:
Americans banned from international adoption of Russian children. Regardless of whether they had already been approved and were in process. Children were removed from being secured. Children were not opened to russian adopters. No legal recourse. B/c one example of a russian baby that adopted and died in a hot car of american family. Likelihood of being adopted in russia was low and couldn’t even be adopted in russia. Left these children (the ones in middle of adoption process with US) on a nonadoptive list. No one could adopt them.
Point: russia supposed to look out for best of these children. Because of diplomatic disputes they are compromising the welfare of these children.
Thursday 3/9/17 International Law
Human Rights: Rights inherent to all human beings without discrimination Three generations of human rights
Key Treaty: UN Declaration of Human Rights (1948), Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990) **EXAM
Magnitsky Act, 2012
Video: Complementarity Principle
No financial support, no collaboration, no further negotiations with other governments
3 ways case gets to International Criminal Court (IGO)
A member on the case refers it
The prosecutor can open an investigation on his own
UN security council makes a referral to the court.
What is international law?
Set of rules and obligations that states recognize as binding on each other law among states not individuals per se
only rules that states recognize are considered international law
no presumption that state relations are fully regulated by international law International law started by states but nonstate actors have pushed it further
Sources of international law:
Treaty obligations prime sources of international law
Conduct of war what is acceptable behaviour during times of war
History of International Law
Grotius and the Theory of Just War. When go to war? What accepted in prosecution at war? Based on christian theology. Based answers on natural law.
there must be just cause to go to war
war must be declared by legitimate authorities (War must be declared by legitimate authorities. US congress can declare war. President can’t declare war without congress). the means used in war must not be inhumane
the means used in war must be proportional to the ends obtained. Rwanda 800,000 killed in 100 days
When go to war?
If at war what behaviour acceptable?
Based his book on Christian theology. Based on natural laws.
He concluded: Just cause for war and Just conduct in war.
More History of International Law
International law of the 20th century
league of nations after WWI needed something to prevent war. did not survive fell apart KelloggBriand Pact 1928 15 states signed won’t go to war to solve conflict didn’t survive WWII declaration of Human Rights signed in 1948.
Nuclear Weapons treaties NPT. signed in 60’s and 70’s.
EU/ ASEAN have international laws in those areas
GATT/WTO trade components of international law
The Hague Conventions
Hx: The drago doctrine US secretary State Elihu Root and the Hague Peace conference 1907 Outcome: recognition of border sovereignty regardless of nation size, inclusion of international law, and arbitration to solve international disputes. Can’t use mustard gas or balloons. Impact: New norms of military interventions.
Sources and Impact Of International Law:
Charter of the International Court Justice, Article 38
Three major sources of Int law:
General principle of lawwhat's acceptable behaviour in international community
All based on voluntary compliance by states. States sign these agreements but no one can force them to do it. State sovereignty trumps.They have to choose to comply. Enforcement is the problem.
Not International Law: UN General Assembly resolutions are nonbinding. UN Security Council yes binding if members agree and no veto.
Who enforced IL?
∙ Enforcement by UN organs
∙ Enforcement by specific treaty org. WTO Dispute settlement Body. sometimes have to pay fines.
∙ Blended enforcement leads to uneven enforcement, some states will enforce more than others
∙ Enforcement by individual states self enforcing mechanisms state to state
Enforcement of International Law
2 ways to determine Judgment
1. ICJ. World court. 15 judges P5 and other 10 judges elected and serve 9 year term. States don’t like to be brought before court. There is no higher court for states. Only states can go to court and be held as litigants in ICJ. No state wants to be the crazy state. They avoid going to court. States can choose not to comply in ICJ.
2. Unilateral determination by a country. States decide if law or treaty has been violated
Principle justice body of the UN, est. 1945
Purpose: to settle disputes submitted by states.
Only body of UN not in NY. located in Hague netherlands.
Judges serve 9 year terms. Addresses state to state disputes.
Is International Law really law?
CON: tool used by strong states to control weak states. Realist and economic structuralism say international law is irrelevant.
PRO: international laws are established bc states need them. We don’t want repeat holocaust. Liberals and constructivists say law provides mutual assurances. System not perfect but better than no system at all.
Let’s look at ICJ Case: Whaling in the Antarctic and Japan
Australia accuses Japan of violating whale laws. Japan lost the case with ICJ and ordered by UN to stop. They didn’t stop.
International Criminal Court
Based on principle of complementarity the ICC only considers cases that domestic court can’t or won't take. Litigants are individuals not states.
Tries war crimes
US and China did not sign agreement: US feared ICC would be used as a political tool to persecute individual members of the US
Controversial; African states charge court with bias. Most cases about military wars in Africa. They say it is biased against them.
US, China and Israel 3 didn’t sign. Not participant in ICC. US believed it would be a political tool to persecute members of US.
Structures of the Court: 4 organs presidency, chambers, office of the prosecutor, registry UN Security council could bring a case to ICC.
Nuremberg trials 19451946 WW2 tribunal
Former Yugoslavia 19932004 tribunal
Rwandan Genocide 1994present
120 states signed and ratified it by now.
Week 10: Tuesday March 3/21 Refugees in Crisis: A Human Security Dilemma
International Law A set of rules and obligations that state’s recognize as bind on each other Grotius Just Theory of War : just reason and just means for going to war 3 sources of Intl Law: Convention, customs, general principles of law
Define ICJ and ICC
ICJ world court, organ body of UN, only states can be taken to court, misbehaviour concerning treaty obligations
ICC newer, litigants are individuals, brought for war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide. ICC more controversial with African states
Important definitions: IMPT SLIDE
People who move not die to threat of persecution or death, but to improve their lives through work, education, family reunification, or other socioeconomic reasons. Voluntary move. Life is not in danger want life improvement.
Persons suffering persecution or harm related to their: race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership of a particular social groups”which causes them to leave their country or area of origin. Main perpetrator of this is the state. Either state incapacity or unwillingness to stop threat.
When refugee you can request Asylum: request for protection from a person who has left their state of origin.
Historical Context for Refugee Asylum
16th/17th Centuries: refugees received care based on religious faith
1920’s to 1945: refugees receive care based on type of persecution and size of refugee population. 1941 Geneva convention defined who was a refugee.
Post WWII: 1951 refugees receive care based upon persecution or harm 1967 Protocol: Refugees receive protection against refoulement (can’t be returned to origin state if harm is likely) long term potential problem
Key Figures In change
Fridtjof Nansen phd in neuroscience, after WWI upset at volume of displaced people by awr and russian famine. Appointed from Norway to League of Nations. Set up committee to decide what to do with these people. People have no documents. So he created an organization to give a Nanson passport to go to country and show you are refugee and need asylum.
Eleanor Roosevelt pushed to get declaration of Human rights to be all encompassing. State normally provides rights. But what if I don’t have a state? Who protects me?
Competing Norms=Coordination Problems
Sovereignty: states determine who inside their borders can receive care, nationality, or citizenship.
Human Security and Rights: Implied protection for individuals, regardless of their statehood. If you enter a new state, that state’s sovereignty rules. There can be conflict between obligation to protect citizens and obligation to protect human security and rights.
International and Regional Acceptance Codified (don’t need to know dates) 1948 UN Declaration of Human rights
1963 European convention on human rights
1969 African unity
1980 US refugee act
1984 cartagena declaration on refugees.
Key Refugee Care organizations
1. UNHCR united nations high commisions for refugees. Created Dec 1950 by UN Gen Assembly. Mandated to resolve worldwide refugee problems work in 120 countries today 2. Individual States and regional institutions: EU, UK,US
3. NGOs approximately 25% of UNHCR’s budget given to >600 NGOs working in refugee assistance. British refugee council. Caritas sweden. Refugee council USA. Kamagawa refugee association (Japan). NGO can apply for consultative status for UN
Refugee Facts and FiguresUNHCR
65.3 million people displaced worldwide
21.3 million are refugees at risk for their life. ½ are kids
10 million stateless people state not acknowledging them or protecting them. 107,1000 out of 21.3 refugees settled into long term solution
Hardest Hit Regions IDP
Internally displaced persons people who moved outside of ares they were born, haven't exited their own state yet.
Areas largest sending location of refugees/ 53% of refugees worldwide come from three countries: somalia, afghanistan, syria. All areas have internal conflict (civil war) and unstable governments.
Top hosting: jordan, lebanon turkey, pakistan, ethiopia, islamic republic of Iran
Case Study: The Stateless Rohingya
Rohingya a minority ethnic group living in Myanmar/Burma, Bangladesh, and Thailand Social Context: Poverty, Low education, Muslim minority. Approx. 800,000 in groups. 50,000 left in BangladeshMyanmar in 2014. A law that makes it illegal for them to get full citizenship.
Rohingyan Crisis: Provision
Shortage of supplies: tent cities, filled to capacity
Water scarcity due to demand
Sanitation risks due to congested living conditions
Case Study: European Refugee Crisis
Some facts: 1. Most asylumseekers come form syria, afghanistan, iraq
1.3 million requested asylum in EU in 2015, less than 1 million in 2016
Proportional to general population, sweden had largest % of applications Sweden has been a good provider for protection.
European System of Asylum Request Don’t need to know
Dublin Regulation 1990 asylum requests processed by country of entry into EU Amsterdam Treaty 1999 justice and home affairs council decides migration and refugee policies.
EU Asylum Approvals
In the whole EU only 292,540 were granted asylum out of 1.3 million. Alot went to Germany, sweden, italy, france, netherlands, UK
Death by sea travel
Smugglers exploitation of migrants sold extra tickets way more than life boat can hold Victimization during travel
Data: 3770 died trying to cross mediterranean in 2015. 800 died trying to cross Aegean sea from Turkey/Greece
Crossstate movement…..the struggle to smuggle
Calais Jungle, France: illegal migrants. Attempt to jump aboard cargo trucks. Smuggle themselves into UK. Mainly subsaharan African migrants. Security and economic risk to locals.1/10 are children unaccompanied minors. They tried to get them to fill out applications but they wouldn’t apply. They all wanted to go to UK and they believed they would be paired with another country.
Based upon Robert Putnam’s Two Level Games Article on FP (1988)
State policy makers facing institutional policy decisions will consider both their international commitments and their domestic demands. Hasn’t been an effective longterm solution to the problem.
Week 10: Thursday March 3/23 NonGovernmental Organizations (NGO)
KNow definitions of migrant, refugee, apply for asylum
Refugee protection can create conflict btwn state sov and human security 1952 Geneva Convention defines refugees and ascribed international responsibility
What is NGO?
Definition: diverse category of organizations with transnational concerns and organizational structure, working within civil society (anything outside of government)
Interact with “stakeholders” anyone who has a tied interest ot particular outcome Beneficiaries
Donor: individuals, groups, corps, govt, that gives funds or other resources to an NGO. not just money could be other resources access, political or legal connections, time. Beneficiary: the targeted recipient of the NGO resources and mission. Can be a location.
Transnational activism: networks of activists, sharing central principles or ideas that motivate the formation of their relationship (Keck and Sikkink, 1998)
How and why?
1. Govt and public relationship
2. Activists see networking as key NGOs use a lot of social media
3. Conference links
How do they operate?
1. Organizational bureaucracy need ppl highly trained (social work, medical, public policy degrees)
2. Local , national, regional, global can be local Atlanta, nationalized
3. Variety of Missions
Examples of NGOs
Care headquarters in atlanta, antipoverty programs reach 65 million people Brac headquarters in bangladesh , poverty reduction
Responsibilities to Donors
Expect funds to be responsibly managed
Expect funds to go to where they say it will go. If new need comes up can we divert funds towards that? Other expectations?
Responsibilities to Beneficiaries
1. Not violate human rights
2. Recognize dignity of each person
3. Be sensitive to moral, religious, traditional, or cultural values
4. Respect integrity of families (or community structure) and support family based life Financial
1. Budget input?
2. Project input?
Should NGO let beneficiaries have a say in it?
Does location matter?
Darker countries larger NGOs over 6,000 ex. US, western europe
Light blue not a lot of NGOs
Which is better: native or outsidein assistance?
Outside assistance: Professionally educated, Efficient accounting and accountability, Connections with media and donors to raise longterm funds. One burst of donation in year one won’t help in year 15.
Native assistance: Familiar with local culture and political system, Trusted by local residents, Can match funds to changing needs
Michael Shay : Guest Speaker about 33 minutes on RECORD
Director of Operations: Peace Building Solutions
Week 11: Tuesday, 3/28/16 The Environment and Climate Policy
NGO: diverse category of organizations, with transnational concerns and organizational structures, working from within civil society.
Know definitions of donors and beneficiaries
Transnational activism networks of activists, sharing central principles, or ideas that motivate the formation of their relationship (Keck and Sikkink, 1998)
Be able to explain the notions of outside vs. native assistance.
Resources Concept Review
Tragedy of the commons: publically accessible resource, but gets exhausted and no one can use it.
Malthus’ Principle of population: there is a point at which population outgrows resources; this is the tipping point creates a crisis of resources. Acknowledges that there is a limited amount of resources.
International Environmental Collaboration: Solutions and Barriers
Solving international collective action problems
Number of actors more people involved more people’s opinions that need to be considered Break global problems into regional ones
Times horizons perspective that drives policy decisions. Value of future.
Value of future costs Pay cost today for future benefits.
Free rider problem one person benefits without actually contributing to the cause. Taking advantage of what someone else is supplying.
Selective incentives maybe some countries prioritize one national interest above another. Solving international collective action problems continuation.
Hegemony One actor is disproportionately powerful. Ex US
Privatization won’t work for atmosphere, ocean . pour money into a particular sector you want to grow.can’t be done with ocean, private actors can’t control environmental resources. Quotas and Trading cap and trade provision. Allow certain company to have tax benefits if they manipulate their pollution or emission. Reach a set balance point that is healthier. Assuming state can monitor and control corporations to get to do what they say they will do. Regulation we have obligations as citizens. Alot state driven
Barriers to cooperation:
Conflict with free trade agreements
Competing economic priorities
Equity don’t want to unfair advantage to one group or country
Scientific uncertainty: intergovernmental panel on climate change
Case Study: Bangladesh
Pop: about 152.4 million 33.5% urban 45% womencollege
Are: 143,998 sq km (55,598 sq miles)
Major religion: Islam and Hinduism
Life expectancy 69 years men 70 women
Living off of agriculture and fishing . Now flooding and loss of useable water. Some farm land now adapted to shrimping.
Guest speaker from Bangladesh
Week 11: 3/30/17 Thursday : Environmental Policies and sustainable Development
Climate policy is a collective action problem
1. Reducing number of actors
2. Incentives for free riders or low capacity states
3. Quotas and trading
4. Regulations – set up agency that will monitor companies and govt
Greenhouse effect: solar radiation bombarding the earth some of which is absorbed and other is reflected back into space
Result: Trapped solar radiation increasing temperatures
Global warming: the process in which feedback loops occur for increasing temp. on earth
Results: increased precipitation in some areas increased drought in others
Major international climate treaties: Montreal Protocol (1987)
Reduced ozone damaging
CFC Phaseout 19911996
HCFC Phase OUT by 2013
HFC Reduction Ongoing – hydrofluorocarbons
Initially only 24 states participated plus the EU. Easier to come together on consensus. Time horizon ppl saw the damage it was clear and provable. Two ppl Margaret Thatcher and President Regan played role here. Over 180 countries signed here. This was very successful. Didn’t need renegotiation could alter it without meeting again. A lot going for it in terms of details.
Kyoto Protocol (1997)
Treaty to limit greenhouse gas emissions. US concerned with cost didn’t sign it. After Kyoto, other countries developed economically and becomes competitors: China, Brazil, India Terms here didn’t apply to everyone. There was non equity of the terms here. US, China said this was unfair. They had higher standards of low emission outcomes and others are violating this. US did not ratify this.
Blame game: industrialized North or developing south? Had a north south divide here. Do developing states have a responsibility to industrialize and meet international environmental standards? Should already developed states give money to help them?
Problem: also inequity here. Congress not behind it here. China pushes back because standards being demanded by US being unfair.
Cop 21 Paris (2015)
End fossil fuels subsidies. Create global tax for carbon pollution. Green tech investments getting it to take off into other countries. Can phase rules in like Montreal. Countries could decide how they were going to do it. There was not as much micromanaging like other treaties. No sanctions in place for violators. If 55/195 states ratify they considered it a success. They had 14/195 ratify it. Much more successful than prior two. China and Brazil all EU and India, Israel, Mexico, Philippines, US and UK all ratified it. Al focus on state level.
State Action on Climate Change
Create/add focus within IGOS, Conferences to exchanges information, Pressure through monitoring, utilize expertise of epistemic (professional communities), Shrink or Bear responsibility.
Initiated can also be backtracked. Seen with trump canceling Obamas executive orders on environmental policies.
Defined: Economic development + ecological health
1. Manage consumption of depletable resources. Fossil fuels oil coal natural gas, water all nonreplaceable. Wood yes replaceable.
2. To reduce waste creation
3. To protect the environment for future generations
Mechanisms for Sustainable Dev
UN: Millennium Goals
Adopted by UN General Assembly in 2000 promote development, reduce poverty, 8 major goals.
1. Half property and hunger
2. Achieve universal primary education (age 6)
3. Promote gender equality
4. Reduce child mortality (5 and under)
5. Reverse spread of HIV/AIDS
6. Improve access to safe drinking water
7. Environmental sustainability
8. Global northsouth development partnerships
Did they Work? YES
Extreme poverty rate in developing countries (1.25$/day or less) 1990 47% to 14% 2015 Primary school net enrollment rate in subSaharan Africa 52% to 80% (2015) 90% of countries have more women in parliament since 1995
UN Sustainable Development Goals
Created by govt in 201314. Focused on shared challenges.
1. End poverty and hunger
2. 2. Three types of sustainable development
a. Inclusive economic growth
b. Protect environment
c. Promote social inclusion
Top goals like millennium goals. Other 8 goals designed to benefit all other countries not just poorer states. IGOstate level now hold business accountable.
How do states and nonstate actors work together?
Corporate Social Responsibility a business approach to get companies tobe more mindful of their impact upon the rest of society, including impact to other stakeholders and the environment.
UN Global Compact: Intentional strategies to promote
a. Human rights
b. Labor protection
c. Environmental awareness
d. Anticorruption practices
e. Advance societal goals
How does global compact work?
Register with the UN global compact agree to several things. Company leadership participate in global compact and attend key meetings. Company focuses on 10 major goals related to the compact. Company reports annual report on progress of sustainability posted to global compact website.
They have to protect environment. Not support child labor etc. Apple and Starbucks had an issue with this. They report to COP. 9,000 companies signed this contract.
Participants of UN Global Compact: coca cola and Starbucks
Nonparticipants: McDonalds, Walmart
Coke Video: featured poorer countries, women. North Korea doesn’t sell coke only country.
Week 12: Shifting Power Balances
Key Concepts: Greenhouse effects and global warming (TB 315)
Be familiar with major climate policy treaties, Montreal, Kyoto, Copenhagen, COP21 (Paris) Sustainable development
Define corporate social responsibility and UN Global Compact **EXAM read What are the drivers of global political change?
∙ Rise of transnational terrorism
∙ Globalization of trade and finance
∙ Shift toward system with one military superpower
∙ Dramatic change in global inequality
∙ Widespread acceptance of democracy
∙ Erosion of state power relative to other actors
Change factor #1 Terrorism
Past: international security focused on dangers posed by other states
Today: terrorism broadened focus of international security and politics. Now we worry about threats within our states
How political actors deal with international security threats is changing has had to be adjusted. Widespread economic, cultural. Political effect. Provoked invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq Blurred differences between international and domestic security.
Global war on terror: undermined longheld notions about human rights and international law Example: act of terrorism in Norway. Bredick committed act at 32 in 2011.went to Oslow and set up bomb in public area and then strapped in bombs to young adults summer camp and opens fire. 77 deaths between two attacks. Over 100 injured. No capital punishment here. Conditions of confinement weren’t a problem but needed some type of human communication. Change Factor #2 Globalization
Most important longterm change
Undermines fundamentals assumptions
Reduced barriers and increased movement = distance less relevant
Relevant market is global, not local
Elements of continuity and change
Change Factor #3: Decline of US Power
Rise of US after WW2 pegged to US dollar US military was strong. When cold war and Russia declined US alone in power.
Erosion of US Power
Only dominant in military position
US economy accounts for 1/5 of global GDP
Diminished “soft power”
Rise of China will they supersede US power? They have 23Xs our population Skeptical of who the hegemon is
Relative military and economic strength
Usable power how a country is able to influence other in international system US or China?
1. China rises and US overcomes problems and strops decline bipolar 2. US continues to decline but China does not rise far enough to dominate multipolar 3. US reestablished its hegemony
How well can states cooperate?
Change Factor #4: Gaps in Wealth
Gaps in Wealth
Changes in politics if distribution of wealth changed significantly. Increasing influence of BRICS states. Before was more high and low disparity GINI.
Change Factor #5: Spread of democracy
Spread of democracy
∙ Arab spring
∙ Collapse of communism: third wave of democratization
Effect on international affairs
∙ Zone of peace
∙ Source of new conflicts
∙ Rise of china
Democratic peace theory, well if fewer democracies will we have more conflict? Is the sovereign state dead?
Changing role of the state:
∙ Problems extend beyond geographic boundaries
∙ Threats come from many actors
∙ State losing power
View that states getting more powerful
∙ Advanced in communication and technology
∙ Can take authority back
∙ International collaboration strengthens states
Power is shifting
Diffusion of power: privatization of war, finances, technology
Transition of power: Greece, Rome, Britain, US, China?
TED Talk Joseph Nye:
Soft Power: countries can influence each other and lure them towards a type of behavior without carrot or a stick. Using other means.
Loss… or Opportunity?
Soft vs. Hard Power
Soft power: influence through other means than military might; can be economic, cultural, or technological.
Positive sum game many winners, not winner take all.
Leadership changes over time and people change.
Thursday 4/6 Terrorism
Main drivers of global political change: terrorism, one military superpower, global inequality, erosion of state power
Definition of Soft power (J. Nye)
Be able to explain the difference between the diffusion of power (nonstate actors) and transition of power (hegemonic power in past and now)
What is Force?
Force: Use or threat of violence to achieve a desired end, often ties to a political goal. Works if aggressors is considered credible can be used by state or nonstate actors. Credibility has 2 conditions:
1. Aggressor needs to have ability to carry out threat
2. Have to have the will to carry out the threat.
State use of force
3 primary types:
1. Coercive diplomacy: explicit or implicit threat used to persuade another actor to change behavior. F=discussion and sanction.
2. Defense the ability to repel attack. Pearl harbor we immediate want into attack. Retaliation.
3. Deterrence the ability to convince opponents not to attack based off of cost of attack. NATO. The cost to attack one is very high because other states will attack as well. Risk: security dilemma. Only works if you have certain amounts of weapon stockpiles. And other will try to match weapons.
Insurgency and Counterinsurgency
Can be used by state and nonstate actors.
Goal: deter invasion or convince an invader to leave.
Ex. Military in Vietnam. Syrian govt army against rebels Boko Haram in Nigeria insurgent group tried to overthrow Nigerian government.
Defined: use or threat of violence non nongovernment actors to create fear. Primary goal here if fear.
Three key points:
1. Method not goal adjust behavior if something doesn’t work
2. Violence by government can lead it to be labeled terrorism? Debate if government can do terrorism.
3. Target not always the immediate victims. Ex. Boston marathon. Civilians suffer casualties many times.
History of Terrorism
1. Phase 1: religious roots roman, Jewish or Shi sects C.E. 1001100
2. Phase 2: Nationalism/Anarchy France and Russia 17001800
3. Phase 3: Terrorism against state Serbia, Germany, Italy, late 1800s early 1900s 4. Phase 4: Nationalist and Ideological globally since 19402000 ex. PLO Israel and Palestine. IRA in Northern Ireland.
5. Phase 5: Contemporary Terrorism global and ideological and political since 9/11/2001. Can be nonstate attacking nonstate actors. Example Sony in china
Reasons for Terrorism
Desire to change government
Reasons above are found in nonacademic sources and research.
Statistical Evidence (per GTI): (academic sources)
1. Statesponsored violence can erupt into civil war can be retaliation 2. Group grievances groups disenfranchised or religious aspect
3. High levels of criminality – when culture is the norm for violence as response to frustration. Increases risk for terrorist activity.
Date formed: 1970’s formed
Location: Sri Lanka, India
Method of violence: Suicide bombs, human shields
Numbers of deaths: 30 100,000
Funding: millions of $$ Drug Money, taxes, bank robbery, extortion
Goal: selfdetermination, want their own state, statehood
Date formed: 2000
Location: Pakistan and Iran
Method of violence: Suicide attacks, kidnappings and bombs
Numbers of deaths: 150300
Funding: opium trade, fuel smuggling, Iran government
Goal: Sunni Muslim protection
Date formed: 2002
Method of violence: shootings, bombs, kidnaps.
Numbers of deaths: 7000
Funding: black market, bank robbing, ransoms, oil, ISIS
Goal: Islamic state caliphatz/antiwest do not believe in western education for women Shining Path
Date formed: 1970’s
Method of violence: Bombs, assassinate, target urban area highly dense population Numbers of deaths: 30100,000
Funding: robbing, ransoms, seize assets
Goal: no democracy they hate it, MarxistLeninist
Who participates in terrorism?
1. Terrorists: private actors who use violence to achieve goals.
2. States: can use terrorism against their own citizens.
3. Citizens: victims of violence or the fear of violence.
Norm: Only states can legitimately use of force.
Where is terrorism happening now?
High Areas: Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, middle east and Jandallah, Boko Haram (Nigeria) shining path
Patterns of Terror
Iraq had highest total attacks in 2015
Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nigeria, Egypt, Philippines, Bangladesh
ISIS State of Iraq and Syria
1. Formed in 2009
2. Wants Islamic state or caliphate(Islamic state) in Iraq and Syria
3. Uses public beheadings executions and crucifixions
4. Recruits using social media YouTube Facebook twitter
5. Fighters destroy historic and holy sites, yet promote a return to historic Islam 6. Revenue from oil, smuggling, kidnappings, stolen artifacts
7. Current leader: Abu Bakr alBaghdadi. Gone through many leaders through the year. Clip: How has the 2003 invasion of Iraq fueled terrorism? US criticized about how we went into Iraq and Afghanistan.
Effects on US “War on Terror”
Tension in the regions
Cause splits taking sides US or others
Fueled anti west recruitment by terrorist groups.
Summary: Common themes for terrorist groups
Use of nonsanctioned force
Victims are usually civilians
Seize power using illegal means
Don’t honor international laws regarding use of force or treatment of people Seek to redefine a political or religious structure
Desire for power
Fear is used to subjugate enemy.
Tuesday April 11th Lecture
ISIS and The War In Syria Main Facts about Syrian State:
• History: Controlled by Ottoman Empire(Turkey), then France (after WWI) until 1946 became an independent state
• "Presidential Republic" you would think democratic but actually authoritarian regime • Elections: Every 7 years. Unicameral house president and prime minister • Current President: Bashar alAsad his father was also president
• Population: before civil war: 17 million, Median age: 24 (really young population), 57% urban, 2.5 fertility rate, 35% unemployment (before civil war. Almost 4 times what we have in US), Economy: 62% contraction since 2011 (big problem), Main industry: Petroleum (oil), textiles, a little manufacturing
Syria War Participants: Visual/Map
• Began in 2011
• Amidst Arab Spring. Experiencing protest movement and attempts to overthrow government. Egypt. Tunisia. In syria started with teens and preteens who wanted to publicly protest and spray paint graffiti antigovernment. They got arrested and brutally beat the kids. Caused more public protest. Peaceful protest and government shot public crowds.
End 2015: government controls (pink) rebel in green. Hezbollah (red) Kurdish in purple. ISIS areas controlled.
Vlad Putten : President of Russia. One of supporters of regime and helped back military efforts. Potential Contributing Factors: Visual/Chart
• Domestic Political Factors: Civil War. People in the population that are unhappy with rulership.also religious factors that contribute.
• Syrian Government vs. Rebels
State actors. Offer support: Russia, iran, Hezbollah (Nonstate actors ISIS, rebel groups all non state)
Rebel groups: about 13 different ones. Back by US.
• Religious Sectarian Factors Shiite vs. Sunni both part of larger Muslim faith. Extremist vs. less violent
• International Political Factors Proxy War. US and Russia going in opposition like the cold war but happening on Syrian territory. Mess. The public isn’t behind any one group. Changes in War in Syria over Time
Early Years (20112014)
Government security cracks down on protesters
May September 2011
U.S. imposes sanctions against President AlAssad. EU bans import of Syrian oil.
Russia & China (part of P5) veto UN Security Council attempts to condemn crackdown by Syrian government Arab League sanctions Syria
UN Gen. Assembly and Arab League pass resolutions asking alAsad to step down
AlAsad refuses to step down
Al Asad uses Sarin chemical warfare against people (his own population) US and Russia agree this is not the norm. In violation of International Human rights.
USRussia plan to eliminate chemical weapons in Syria; Syria agrees to dismantle stockpile
AlAssad reelected 88.7%. Chemical bombing people and re elected???!!?!
More recently (20142017)
U.S. and Russia target ISIS inside Syria with airstrikes. (we are bombing these areas)
Temporary ceasefire into effect, to allow in humanitarian aid
Civilians hit in airstrike Russia and U.S. blame each other
Ceasefire brokered by Turkey and Russia, lasts only one day
April 4, 2017
Civilians killed in suspected chemical attack in rebelheld areas, Russians blame munitions depot explosion
April 6, 2017
U.S. launches air strike into Syrian airbase, from naval warship, Pres. Trump cites human rights violation against civilians
The Results of the Conflict: Human Costs (Visual/Chart)
More than 240,000 dead.
The Results of the Conflict: Military Results (Visual/Chart)
Targets damaged destroyed: 20,352
Video: Syria: The World's Largest Refugee Crisis Syria:
The World's Largest Refugee Crisis Full Episode. 5 million people are displaced. The ability for the society to get up and rebuild infrastructure and rebuild economy would be comparable to WWII. Would take generations.
ISIS /ISIL/ Daesh: In the Middle East
Why has ISIS been so successful?
o The Syrian Civil war attracted fighters from Iraq
o Some of Saddam Hussein's former officers helped professionally train ISIS forces. o Poor leadership of Iraqi Prime Minister alMaliki (Shia), who disenfranchised many Sunni Muslims who then are looking for some political outlet so they aligned with ISIS who were listening to their concerns.
o Fearful Iraqi Army often fled, rather than fought ISIS in early days
ISIS Expansion and Evolution into the West (Chart Audio)
• Recruitment of immigrant youth, or native youth, both socially or politically isolated. • Successful propaganda war using YouTube, etc.
• Active Social Media recruitment
ISIS: Human Costs
• Taking territory from existing populations in Syria & Iraq
• Targeting of other religious communities Yazidi, and Christian groups in Iraq. In Syria: Jewish groups.
• 18,802 civilians killed in Iraq in ISIS linked violence, 2013 2015
• Cultural sites destroyed: Palmyra, Mari royal palace, DuraEuropos. Museums, Historically important sites, and religious sites.
U.S. Strategy to fight ISIS:
Past: Coalition partnership of air bombs to strategic locations, arming, and advising rebel groups, humanitarian assistance. Disorganized.
Today: "By, With, Through" continue advisement of Iraqi military, perhaps try to engage Turkish military, antipropaganda in U.S. and elsewhere, to reduce recruitment from the West. Consider putting american military on the ground to fight ISIS and overthrow Syrian government.
Take the long view: CSIS Report
What CAN be done for the future?
o Address needs of youth: • Education • Jobs • Services so they don’t feel isolated and not heard
o Support good governance institutions, with local, regional, international support: Arab league, UN, etc.
o Address low economic development tie to unemployment.create compromise so that its not outgroup vs. outgroup.
o Engage wider Islamic community in reducing tribal and sectarian conflict o Longterm humanitarian aid from international community long time to rebuild hospitals, schools, buildings.
Thursday 4.17.17 Women in Politics
What does it mean: female political participation? Females seeking office? How does it differ from peers? Who do they represent? Women? Age? All? How are they treated?
Domestic Participation: US Women Suffrage (right to vote) don’t need to know dates here just evolution and how far we’ve come
US: first women's right convention: 1848
Wyoming adopts woman suffrage : 1869
15th amendment: enfranchise black males, but avoid female suffrage 1870 Proposed female suffrage amendment fails 1878
Transcontinental tour gathers 500,000 signatures for woman suffrage 1915 Showed a lot of public support for this. Give into pressure.
Alice Paul confined to mental ward, protesters go on hunger strikes 1917 The female prisoners were on hunger strike to bring awareness and show we will not be ignored. Women were forced fed and choked, aspirated liquids.
19th amendment passes women vote 1920
Lady Gaga: video about women’s suffrage. No people of color there.
Global Woman Suffrage
Globally: first granted in New Zealand in 1893
Europe/US origins: Antislavery movement 19001930
Spread to Middle East, 1930’s (Turkey, Pakistan)
Asian adoptions begins 1949 (China, India)
Latin America, African States: 1940’s1990’s
Saudi Arabia 2011 just allowed women to vote.
Convention on the elimination of all forms of discriminitaion against women: (CEDAW) 1979
Adopted by UN General assembly , 64 initials signatories , now 189 states participate today Commit to oppose restriction or exclusion based upon sex, irrespective of marital status” on basis of equality of men and women of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political economic, and social, cultural, civil, or any other field. Also, not allowed to sex traffic women at all.
In practice: includes freedom and equal opportunities in political public life, right to vote, and stand for election.
As it is today: Women in Parliaments MAP
Russia, India, Botswana, Turkey: 515% legislature is females
Diverse pattern here.
Women in Office Statistics:
1:5 Legislators are women
“Mommy Penalty exists: less likely to run for office and get elected in office Socialization matters how idea of women running for office is seen/are treated Electoral rules matter: proportional mandates lead to more female legislators. In countries that have a quota for % of women, doesn’t matter if party selects or mixed or people select, end up with larger number of women in office.
Regional Differences in Political Leadership
Asia and Pacific
HIstorically: women held office, AFTER male family member held office, but died Now:
1. Many get western higher education
2. Often have careers before politics
3. Frequently single, no kids
Africa and Middle East
HIstorically: limited political participation, voting or holding office
Now: Differs by region
1. MENA states: 15.9% officeholders are women
2. Subsaharan Africa: quota systems and 2063% of legislators are female. Africa is making significant strides.
Historically: leadership in female HR, not females elected (U.S.)
1. Glass ceiling? US 20% of congress is female, hilary lost election
2. Success in parts of Latin america, but rigid expectations?
Historically: Margaret Thatcher, first European head of state, 1979
1. Europe leads world, women at heads of government/state (18 since 1980) 2. 24% of legislators are female
Quote based on party not on gender.
RCII Findings: Women in Legislation
Brazil good job overtime
China china huge up (2012) and down
Russia good job over time
South Africa down up and back down
What is representative? What is gained by female political leadership? Political representation: speak, advocate symbolize or act on behalf of others Delegate or trustee? Delegate: just follows what opinion of constituents want Trustee: representatives of the public but use their best discretion.
Descriptive: Looks like, has common interests, shares similar experiences.
Data (National Bureau Economic Research)
Female legislators do cooperate more than their male colleagues (esp. Republican legislators) Health, education, or social welfare areas, most successful collaborations by females legislators
HOw are female politicais treated by male colleagues?
PhD Physical Chemistry, Private sector 19781990
Entered politics in 1989
Elected German Chancellor 20015 reelected in 2009, 2013
Next election september 2017 4th term sought in office
Allowed a lot of refugees into Germany. Taken a lot of heat.
Video with Vlad Putten and Trump and Merkel.
Tuesday April 18
Cybertech & Politics
Overview: What is Cybersecurity?
∙ Defined: Measures taken to protect computers or digital technology (as on the internet) from unauthorized access or attack. Can include protection of systems, networks, and data
Cyber Victimization: How does it work?
o Malicious hackers use all kinds of tricks to access and exploit your personal information. o Like phishing (e.g. a fake bank email asking for your personal information), spamming hacked accounts and the classic "Nigerian Prince" email (also called a "419 scam") o Healthy skepticism is your best friend on this front.
o Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horses…
o These nasty little programs are designed to infect your machine to cause damage, steal personal information, spy or force ads on you
o Avoiding malware means being smart about where you click
∙ Network and Computer Attack
o Websites and networks are vulnerable to attacks from the simple to the very sophisticated
o This threat is the hardest to prevent
o But you can put a few more barriers between yourself and the attackers Cyber Actors Who is involved?
o Make laws
o Use Cybertech
o Target some actors
∙ Private Sector:
o Use Cybertech
o Make Cybertech products
o Can be targeted
∙ Citizens/Product Users:
o Use Cybertech
o Can be victimized
o Target state and nonstate actors
∙ Cyber activists:
o Political activists using cyberbased media for information warfare Governments & Our Privacy: U.S. Picture
∙ Edward Snowden NSA Surveillance
o Bulk Data Monitoring
o Involved coercion of nonstate actors, like Verizon
o Used for Security Reasons?
o Snowden accused of espionage 2013
Video: Cybersecurity 101 NOVA PBS official YouTube
∙ How should our data be protected?
o FTC with 20 laws in U.S.
o No geographic transfer limits
o Security breach notifications required 47 states
o Cybersecurity Act of 2015, signed by President Obama
Cyber Protection: Georgia Press Release Article (Audio)
∙ Site: Governor Nathan Deal : Office of the Governor
o HomePress ReleasesDeal announces new Georgia Cyber Innovation and Training Center
∙ January 13, 2017
Cyber Legislation: Global
∙ EU Digital Single Market
o Set of rules and guidelines to coordinate policy, 2015
∙ UN Internet Governance Forum (IGF)
o Established 2006
Private Sector: Victimization
∙ Cybercrime Timeline, Early Years:
o 1989, Morris Computer Worm
o PC Viruses 1990s
o 2000s Credit Card breaches
o Many private actors targeting other private sectors
Private Sector as State Targets
∙ North Korea vs. U.S. ;
o Sony is hacked before release of The Interview (2014)
∙ U.S. Office of Personnel Management hacked by China
o 21.5 million social security numbers taken (2015)
Video: (Netflix) Cybercrimes with Ben Hammerly (s1e5)
State Interference in Domestic Politics *Accidently deleted the pic for this one and she went too fast so I don’t have this slide (If you can get it please send it to me* ∙ U.S. vs. Iran 2008
∙ U.S. Presidential
Cyber Criminals: Dark Web
∙ What it is :
o Hidden network of websites where users are anonymous
o Uses random paths to encrypt location and identity
∙ Who uses it and Why:
o Terrorists, criminals, hacktivists
o Used to evade law enforcement and participate in illegal activity
o Most famous case: Silk Road, cocaine network worth $80 billion
o Global cyber activist group, with open membership
o "Antioppression" : freedom of speech and oppose government controls ∙ Activities:
o Targeting websites, crashing Webservers, leaking private information it has hacked ∙ Past Targets:
o Syrian Government
o U.S. Government
o Cincinnati Police
o Church of Scientology
o Louis Vuitton
o Kanye West
Video(s) Anonymous official YouTube
Cyber Activism? WikiLeaks
U.S. army prisoner treatment
Sarah Palin emails
Private Manning gives classified documents, additional release of Afghanistan and Iraq wars; WikiLeaks site suffers attack by private actor
DNC hacked emails released during presidential race
"Vault 7" : leaks on +8000 CIA documents
Began with private actor as
perpetrators and victims
Difficult to control : reactive policies
Expanded to use by states
Ideal for actors wishing to remain
disconnected from outcome
All risk… or some benefits?
o Loss of privacy
o Economic costs
o Identity theft
o Reduced production/profit
o State Security compromised
o Technology advancements
o Collaboration between private and public sectors
o Creative solutions lead to innovation
∙ "CAPTCHA" explanation (Audio start : 58: 50)