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nari jeter fsu

nari jeter fsu

Description

School: Florida State University
Department: Family Services
Course: Contexts of Adult Development
Professor: Nari jeter
Term: Spring 2017
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: FAD 3343 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers chapter 11-14 for the final exam
Uploaded: 04/19/2017
20 Pages 151 Views 1 Unlocks
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What is robust aging?




What is the fastest growing portion of the older population?




Typically what is described as “oldest old”?



Questions             Chapter 11 1. Typically what is described as “oldest old”? What is the fastest  growing portion of the older population?  2. What is robust aging?  3. How is the physical health of the oldest old? When do physical  losses begin to take a toll? What are some of the critical measures of  health?  4. What are the Don't forget about the age old question of psy101 handouts
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living arrangements of most oldest old adults?  5. What are is the marital status of most oldest old adults?  6. What is a big concern for many older adults regarding  Medicare?  7. What is informal caregiving?  8. What is formal caregiving?  9. What are the typical caregivers? 10. What are some of the obligations that adult children feel to  their parents?  11. What are some of the things that could decrease adult  children caregiving?  12. What is a modified nuclear family? What are  intergenerational norms?  13. How common is it for spouses to care for one another? What  are the types of husband caregivers?  14. How is the drop in fertility rate affecting caregiving in the  future?  15. What is caregiver distress? What is coping?  16. What is a psychological intervention?  17. What is respite care?              Chapter 12 18. What is the suicide rate of older adults compared to the  general population?  19. Who is more likely to commit suicide? What are the causes of older adults suicide? 20. What are the norms of crimes against older people? Why are  they targeted? What are the majority of crimes committed against  older people?  21. What are neighborhood watch programs?  22. Are younger or older people more likely to commit crimes?  What are the most common crimes committed by old people?  23. What is elder abuse? Who is most elder abuse done by?  Why?  24. What is the most common form of elder abuse?  25. What is battered parent syndrome?  26. Why is fraud common among older people? What are the  types of fraud?  27. What are the norms of drug abuse among older people? Why  are the vulnerable? What is the most widely used drug for older adults? What are often abused?              Chapter 13 28. What are minorities?  29. By 2030 how many people will be over 65 in the United  States? 30. What ethnic groups are currently the fastest growing elderly  population in the United States?  31. What does ethnicity involve?  32. Are women considered minorities? Why or why not?  33. What are the double standards of aging? What is age  terrorism? What is midlife astonishment?  34. What is currently the largest minority group in the United  States?  35. Compared to whites, African Americans…….?  36. What is Familism?  37. What are some of the norms of elderly Hispanic Americans?  38. What are some of the norms of elderly Asian Americans? 39. Who are possibly the most deprived of all the ethnic groups?  40. What are some of the norms of elderly Native Americans?             Chapter 14 41. What does it mean when people say we are a death-denying  society?  42. What percentage of American deaths occur in hospitals?  43. Do older or younger people typically fear death more?  44. What is fear of death? What is death anxiety? What is death  competency?  45. What are some of the specific fears of death and dying?  46. What are the parts of the life review? Describe each.  47. What are the stages of grief? What did Elizabeth Kubler-Ross  find out about grief?  48. What is Bereavement? What is grief? Mourning?  49. What are the awareness contexts of dying (for terminally ill  patients)? 50. How do health care professionals often deal with death?  51. What is the hospice model? What is Palliative care?  52. What is the right to die?  53. What is an advanced directive? What are the kinds of  advanced directives?  54. What are the norms of elderly suicides?   Answers             Chapter 11 1. Researchers have begun separating the older population into  different groups.  ∙ Oldest Old: typically ages 85 and older  ∙ People 85 years and older are the fastest growing portion of  the older population.  2. Robust aging: known as successful aging ∙ Greater social contact ∙ Better health and vision ∙ Experienced fewer life events o Fewer stressful negative life events 3. Physical health of the Oldest Old ∙ This age group is much healthier and happier than  stereotypes would have us believe.  ∙ Physical losses do not begin to take a heavy toll until after 85  years old.  ∙ Critical measure of health is daily activities: o Activities of daily living (ADL): bathing, eating, dressing,  toileting, walking, getting around the home  Less than half of the oldest old need help  performing ADLs o Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL): shopping,  housework, money management, meal preparation  60% of the oldest old need help with IADLs  ∙ Chronic disabling conditions: bone and joint problems; mental  impairment; drug intoxication; falls; urinary incontinence ∙ Largest functional impairments for oldest old are physical (not mental and social) 4. Living status of oldest old: ∙ More than 50% of the oldest old still live at home ∙ Age in place ∙ About 35% live alone ∙ About 25% live with relatives ∙ About 21% live in nursing homes 5. Marital status of oldest old: ∙ 75% are widowed  ∙ Women are dramatically more likely to be widowed and living  alone.  6. Much of the help needed for the oldest old to live alone is not  covered by Medicare 7. Informal caregiving: comes from relationships that exist  naturally in a person’s environment, such as family, friends, church,  and organizations that are not professional or financed by the  government ∙ Often the difference in being able to live at home or living in a nursing care or assisted living facility  8. Formal care: given by professionals and paraprofessionals,  such as health care professionals, hospitals, day-care centers, and  nursing homes 9. The typical caregiver is a 46 year-old working woman who  spends 18 hours a week caring for her chronically ill 77-year-old  mother who lives nearby ∙ Phenomenon: “Sandwich generation” middle age adult caring  for children but also caring for older parents  10. Obligations:  ∙ There are no clear cultural guidelines and no specific norms  for intergenerational relationships between elderly parents  and adult children, especially for caregiving ∙ Research has shown that adult children feel a strong moral  obligation to provide care for their disabled parents ∙ Daughters are expected to be caregivers, and are most likely  to be caregivers.  ∙ Affection, gratitude, guilt, or desire for parental approval still  motivates adult children to care for their aging parents.  11. Being married and employed decreases adult child  caregiving; Geographical distance reduces caregiving12. Modified Nuclear Family- describes the typical American  situation Great deal of family interaction, but on extended family  households  Intergenerational Norms- standard, expected behaviors of one  generation towards another  13. About 40% of all caregiving is provided by spouses; wives are more likely to be caregivers Types of husband caregivers:  ∙ The worker: planning and educating himself; staying  organized ∙ Labor of love: provides caregiving out of a deep feeling of love and devotion, not duty ∙ Sense of duty: caregiving stemming from commitment, duty,  and responsibility ∙ At the crossroads: a new caregiver is isn’t oriented to the role 14. The drop in fertility rate now will impact care and caregiving  for adults in their later years  15. Caregiver distress: negative stresses associated with  caretaking, including role strain, subjective burden, depression,  anxiety, hostility, fear, frustration.  Coping- conceptualized as a response to the demands of specific  stressful current situations  Many adults want to care for their parents, but experience  enormous financial and emotional burdens. 16. Psychological interventions for caregivers have been shown  to be moderately effective ∙ Individual counseling, family counseling, support groups  educational groups, problem solving groups for the caretaker  and patient, social workers visits, and family consultants  17. Respite care: time off for the caregiver, by having temporary  paid help or placing the older adult in a nursing home temporarily             Chapter 12 18. The suicide rate of older adults is more than 50 percent  higher than that of the general population ∙ Higher suicide rate in this age group then middle or younger  adulthood age groups  19. Older white men are more prone to suicide ∙ Older women have more suicide attempts, but older men are  more “successful” at completing suicide Causes:  ∙ Loss of loved ones ∙ Aversion to bodily changes from illness  ∙ Dysfunctions in their bodies, physical changes ∙ Worry over medical bills ∙ Social isolation  20. Crimes Against Older People ∙ A majority of victimizations against older people occur in their homes∙ Targeted because: o Social isolation, physical vulnerability, emotional or  social vulnerability  o Perceived vulnerability- A belief that one is vulnerable has psychological, physical, and lifestyle consequences  for the elderly.  ∙ A majority are property crimes: burglary, auto theft, etc.  ∙ Older, women, Black, poorer, and urban people are more  fearful of crime than younger, male, White, wealthier, rural  people ∙ The “fear of crime” may cause older individuals to not want to leave their homes 21. Neighborhood Watch Programs- emphasize crime awareness  in residents of all ages, and have resulted in crimes being spotted  while in progress 22. Younger adults are ten times more likely to commit crimes  than older adults ∙ Crimes committed by older people most commonly include:  o Petty theft o Sleeping on the sidewalk o Alcohol violations o Traffic violations  o Grand theft and narcotic charges are the highest  common felony charges  23. Elder Abuse ∙ Most elder abuse is done by someone with whom the elder  lives, most often an adult child ∙ Substance abuse, cognitive impairment, economic stress,  caregiver inexperience, family violence, blaming personality,  unrealistic expectations, and economic dependence on the  elder are all factors that increase risk of caregiver being  abusive to the older adult24. Neglect 25. Battered Parent Syndrome- parents are attacked and abused, sometimes fatally, by their adult children  26. Fraud ∙ Older people are “good targets” for fraud because they have  assets, are isolated and lonely, may want to increase their  retirement income ∙ Types of fraud: o Social referral o Land and home-equity fraud o Mail order fraud and phishing o Telemarket/telephone fraud (top complaints filed)   Say things like “your grandsons in jail, please send money” or “your credit card was validated, give us your card number so we can shut it off”  o Credit care fraud o Investment fraud o Medical and health care fraud  ∙ Important for older individuals to know that they are targeted  for fraud and have people in their support network to look out  for them  27. Drug Abuse ∙ Older people are vulnerable to the effects of drugs because of the changes of the mind and body with age ∙ Multiple drug usage can cause adverse reactions and drug  abuse.  ∙ Aspirin is most widely used drug for older people (for arthritis,  especially) but can negative side effects∙ Sleeping pills and laxatives are often abused              Chapter 13 28. Minorities: ethnic elders who have experienced unequal  treatment in certain segments of society based upon their physical or  cultural characteristics ∙ Not well represented ∙ Culture, where your from, physical characteristics, ability  level, age 29. By 2030, about 70 million people will be over 65 in the U.S.  ∙ 25% will be minority populations ∙ This will increase to 33% by 2050, which 40% will be White ∙ Asian and Hispanic populations will have the most drastic  increase 30. Current fastest growing elder population in the United States  31. Ethnicity Involves ∙ 1. A culture and an internalized heritage not shared by  outsiders ∙ 2. A social status  ∙ 3. The composition and function of support systems 32. Women are considered minorities because of the sexism that  is part of society ∙ Older women are among the most poor in the U.S. ∙ More than 25% of women 65 and older who live alone or with  non-relatives live below the poverty level 33. Double standard of aging: the standard of aging for women  progressively destroys her sense of her beauty and self-worth, while it  is less wounding on men ∙ Anti aging creams for women, hair dye, ads to “stop aging”,  see far fewer ads for these things for men  ∙ Society doesn’t show older women as being sexy or attractive  ∙ Ageism, standards of ageing, beauty and worth  Age terrorism: the exploitation of women’s fears of growing older Midlife Astonishment: a developmental crisis in which women  aged 50 to 60 become aware of an begin to work through societies  devaluation of their physical appearance  34. African Americans  35. Compared to Whites, African Americans:  ∙ Have shorter life expectancy ∙ Have lower retirement incomes, and more largely based on  Social Security ∙ Are in nursing homes less (more likely to be cared for by  family) ∙ Are in lower quality housing ∙ More likely than older whites to reside in decaying central  cities and to live in substandard housing 36. Familism- a notion of family extending beyond the immediate household ∙ Strong in African American and Cuban cultures  37. Hispanic Americans ∙ Hispanic elders are twice as likely (compared to total  population) to live with other relatives.  ∙ Likely to be poor, less educated, have inadequate healthcare,  and have high illiteracy rates ∙ Tend to live in urban areas ∙ Tend to underutilize services that could be helpful to them  because of lack of education and money, and suspicion ∙ Adult children provide a great deal of support to their aging  parents ∙ Two largest Hispanic subgroups are Mexicans and Puerto  Rican, whose proportion totals 76% of all Hispanics 38. Asian Americans  ∙ Large amounts of diversity between different Asian ethnic  groups o Different cultural values with Chinese Americans vs.  Korean or Japanese Americans  ∙ Filial piety: eldest son assumes responsibility for his parents  after he marries  o Reinforces idea that Asian American shouldn’t be put  into a retirement home, they should be taken care of by  their children  ∙ Have a tradition of respect and care for elders ∙ Value of education and hard work ethic provides higher family  incomes and wealth being passed down from older  generations 39. Native Americans 40. Native Americans Elders∙ Low employment rates, low literacy rates, and substandard  housing o Culture that lived largely off the land, hunting and  gathering, etc.  ∙ Strong beliefs in attaining harmony between human beings  and nature ∙ Lower life expectancy than Whites ∙ Higher rates of alcoholism and suffering from alcohol- related  health problems o Genetic predisposition o Lots of Native American land has been exploited and  linked to casinos  o When people don’t have opportunities this is a  predisposition to substance abuse  ∙ Native American elders constitute a very small percentage of  American society              Chapter 14 41. Death-Denying Society  ∙ Use “euphemisms” for the process of dying o As someone’s dying, we may say “their not doing well”  or “they’ve passed on” instead of “they are dying”  ∙ Funerals present an embalmed and painted body o Presents the body as if they were alive  ∙ “Sensitive” television dramas depict unrealistic death  experiences ∙ Death is perceived as fearful, lonely experience:  o Life-extending medical procedures o Hospital and insurance bureaucracies o Secularism 42. 85% of Americans deaths occur in hospital rooms and  convalescent hospitals  43. Older people as a group appear to be less fearful than  younger persons ∙ Feel that they have completed most important tasks of life ∙ View death as an escape from pain and chronic illness ∙ Lost many friends and relatives, which makes death more of a reality 44. Fear of death: specific source of apprehension Death anxiety: unidentifiable source of apprehension Fear death even though they are healthy and young  Death competency: capability and skill in dealing with death 45. Specific fears of death and dying:  ∙ Pain and suffering  ∙ The unknown ∙ Of nonexistence ∙ Eternal punishment ∙ Loss of control∙ What will become of loved ones  Most people have relatively painless deaths Health does not deteriorate until close to death  46. Reminiscence: recollecting memories from the past helps to integrate past experiences with the present and make reasonable  projections about the future.  ∙ A source of life satisfaction for older adults.  Life review: form of reminiscence in which the reviewer actively evaluates the past and attempts to resolve conflicts ∙ Takes a step further beyond reminiscing, where you are trying  to make change out of what they remembered  Interiority: common in middle and later life, a focus on internal  messages and stories and less on outside, social issues  47. Stages of Grief ∙ Elizabeth Kubler-Ross found that people who are approaching  death themselves are going through their own grief process ∙ The stages are not sequential and individual may be in  several stages simultaneously.  o Denial and shock o Anger o Bargaining   Try to make a deal with life or god, to say if I can  only avoid this dying process can I have more  time   Gain back something by giving something to a  higher power or the universe  o Depression  o Acceptance 48. Bereavement: experienced loss of someone important in  our lives and the adjustment to that loss.  Grief: emotional response to bereavement.  Mourning: behavioral response to grief  What you actually do with the feelings of grief that you have  49. Awareness contexts of dying (for terminally ill patients):  ∙ Closed awareness: does not know he/she is going to die, as  medical staff decides to keep it from patient.  ∙ Suspicion awareness: no one will confirm patient’s suspicion  of death; patient will not ask, but look for “evidence.”  ∙ Ritual drama of mutual pretense: both patient and staff know  that death is impending, but both choose to act as it is not.  ∙ Open awareness: both patient and staff know and  acknowledge patient is dying 50. Health Care Professionals  ∙ Can be distant or tense with dying people o Disconnection  ∙ Can stereotype or label as “the dying patient.”  ∙ Can offer hope to patients, if even just to live a little longer ∙ Some medical schools offer/require courses in death and  dying for medical staff  51. Hospice model: stresses effective pain relief for the dying  person and to care for the person, not the disease.  ∙ Hospice strives to support dying patients and their families. Palliative care: medical specialty focused on relief of pain, stress, and other debilitating symptoms of illness.  ∙ Movement towards allowing people to die at home, instead of  institutionalized hospitals or nursing homes  52. Right to Die ∙ Choice to ask for life to end, instead of being kept alive and  miserable  ∙ Now we indicate whether extraordinary life measures should  or should not be taken if needed 53. Advance Directive- instructs doctors regarding what kind of  care people want to have if they become unable to make medical  decisions  ∙ Living will- Written document, that describes the kind of life sustaining treatments you would want if you were terminally  ill ∙ Durable Power of Attorney (DPA)- Person you trust makes the  decision for you  ∙ Do Not Resuscitate (DNR)- requires that in the case that your  heart stops beating or you are not breathing, you do not want  CPR 54. Suicides:  ∙ The proportion of successful suicides to attempted suicides is  far greater in old age than in younger age  ∙ Twice as prevalent in western states than in the East and  Midwest

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