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435 towson way

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• What does accessibility mean?




• What is usability testing?




➢ How do people with DS make food choices at restaurants when living independently?



Exam 2 Study Guide Lecture: User-Centered Design • About UCD ➢ User-centered design: a series of structured activities to involve  the user in development of computing systems ➢ Also, known as:  ▪ Human-Centered Design ▪ Usability Engineering ▪ Inclusive design (w/ underrepresented users) ➢ Different from: ▪ Usability We also discuss several other topics like uta information systems
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Testing (one step of UCD) ▪ Experimental Design/Research Design • About UCD- 3 core principles ➢ Early focus on users and their tasks ➢ Empirical measurement: ▪ Measure quantitatively (not “did you like it?”) ▪ Determine trends…is user performance going up after  each iteration of an interface? ➢ Iterative design: ▪ Have multiple potential designs; there are millions of  potential designs, you need to try different approaches! ▪ Design is not an optimization problem! • Why do UCD? ➢ The earlier you discover a problem related to the interface, the  cheaper it is to fix ➢ Large interactive systems take a lot of time and money to  develop▪ But small techniques to clarify user needs related to the  interface and to the tasks, can result in big return on  investment ➢ Lessen the likelihood of project failure, or user rejection • But you can find lots of different models of UCD:   • Understanding human-centered design (technology isn’t even  mentioned!) ➢ Understand and specify the context of use: ▪ the characteristics of the intended users and other  stakeholders ▪ the tasks the users will perform ▪ the environment in which users will use the system ➢ Specify the user requirements: ▪ Provide a clear statement of the human-centered design  goals ▪ Set appropriate priorities for the different requirements ▪ Include statutory or legislative requirements ▪ Provide measurable benchmarks against which emerging  designs can be tested➢ Produce design solutions: ▪ Develop outline design proposals with multi-disciplinary  input ▪ Make the design solution(s) more concrete using  simulations, mock-ups, etc. ▪ Show the design solution(s) to users and allow them to  perform/simulate tasks ➢ Evaluate designs against requirements: ▪ Assess whether user and organizational objectives have  been met ▪ Provide feedback to improve design ➢ Iterate the process until design objectives are met • Hesitation ➢ There may be some hesitation in involving users: ▪ Not previously done in the organization ▪ Developers do not have experience with UCD ▪ Developers are not comfortable with users ▪ There are costs involved (and as we know, the benefits  can sometimes be hard to measure) ▪ Contracts did not specify it, so there is no way to enforce  it ▪ Not sure how to do UCD • User involvement ➢ Users must be involved in the development of any type of  computer interface ➢ Don’t use proxy users, use real users ➢ In the past, users weren’t always involved in systems  development ➢ This led to many failed IT projects (some estimates are 70% of  IT projects fail) ➢ Proxy Users: Activities for substitute users. (Ex. - Taking  blindfolds to students)• Benefits of user involvement: ➢ For designers and developers: ▪ better understand system and UI requirements ▪ include all essential features ▪ don’t include superfluous features (feature creep) ➢ For users: ▪ gain a sense of ownership (it’s harder to reject something  that you helped to build!) ▪ have realistic expectations of the system being developed • Are customers always users? ➢ People who make IT procurement decisions may be customers,  even though they may never actually use the product ➢ Ask yourself if the users are different from the customers who  make the purchasing decisions! • Stages of user involvement ➢ There are many different methods for user involvement and  UCD activities: ▪ Early-stage involvement ▪ Late-stage involvement ▪ All-stage involvement • Requirements Gathering: ➢ It is important to understand who the users are, and what they  need ▪ Users ▪ Tasks ▪ Environment/context ➢ Without UCD, you may have a bad interface with the right  tasks, or vice versa ➢ Put another way: ▪ Functional requirements, data requirements,  environmental (social/org/context) requirements, user  requirements • Druin’s Model of User Involvement: • One way to think of it: ➢ User involvement activities are the “ingredients” ➢ Lifecycle models are the “recipes” ➢ You must balance the user needs and the business needs ▪ But you first must understand the business needs ▪ No business will knowingly do something that hurts • Example- Healthcare info systems: ➢ Most designers don’t really understand what goes on in a  hospital ➢ Doctors are often against full computerization of records  (change!), but the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) is starting  to require this ➢ There are multiple privacy laws • You’ve heard this elsewhere: ➢ Something like 70% of information technology projects fail▪ Never make it to completion OR ▪ Are rejected by the users ▪ Even scope creep is sometimes due to not understanding  the needs ➢ You must really understand who users are, what they want to  accomplish, and what environment/context they are in • Early-stage Involvement: ➢ Surveys ➢ Focus Groups ➢ Interviews ➢ Ethnography ➢ Time Diaries ➢ Scenarios ➢ Personas ➢ Analyzing existing documentation ➢ JAD sessions-Meetings with all stakeholder groups ➢ Cultural probes • Surveys ➢ Can be paper, web-based, or e-mail ➢ Good at getting shallow data from lots of people ➢ Must pick a good sampling methodology ➢ Make sure that questions are clear and unambiguous ➢ Lots of web-based tools to help • Focus groups and interviews: ➢ Good for getting deep data from few people ➢ Focus groups: multiple people ➢ Interviews: one or two people ➢ Must have an experienced moderator ➢ Be willing to change line of discussion ➢ Focus groups: synergy is good, domination by one group  member is bad ➢ Anonymity is especially important• Ethnography: Participation in the workplace ➢ Traditionally used in the social sciences ➢ Needed when the context of usage (groups, organization,  politics, environment) is complex ➢ Spectrum of participant/observer ➢ Use when there is a high chance of failure ➢ In HCI, used most often in understanding homes, workplaces,  and schools • Contextual Inquiry: ➢ Gathering detailed descriptions of user or customer work  processes and environments ➢ Interviews with users/customers AND ➢ Observations of work practice occurring in real-world context ➢ The user is more in control, and helps  interpret the observations  ➢ Think of MTV’s “the Real World” • Scenarios: ➢ are day-in-the-life stories of what happens when users perform  typical tasks (storyboarding) ➢ can represent common or emergency situations, novice or expert users ➢ Help define user requirements, or help users understand what  is possible, or help other stakeholders understand important  issues ➢ Scenarios are typically fictional, use cases/best practices are  similar, but usually real • Personas ➢ are rich descriptions of the typical users of the project, to help  the designers understand who to design for➢ Not real users, but a synthesis of several real users who have  been involved in data gathering ➢ You may have multiple personas if there are multiple targeted  user groups ➢ Includes user skills, attitudes, tasks, and environment • UCD doesn’t need to be formal or expensive: ➢ Start with an interface that needs redesign ➢ Give users post-it notes, and ask them to write 3 notes for  each: ▪ What you like about the current design ▪ What you don’t like about the current design ▪ Ideas for the next design ➢ Facilitator organizes them into common theme areas • Informal post-it note sessions: ➢ Moderator takes the post-it notes and groups them into  common themes, and they are discussed ➢ Users are broken into a few groups, given a bag of arts and  crafts, and asked to make non-technical prototypes ➢ Moderator takes the best ideas from each of the prototypes ➢ ALWAYS BE OPEN TO DIFFERENT IDEAS • Medium-to-Late Stage Involvement: ➢ Paper Prototyping ➢ Card Sorting ▪ Used to discover user mental models ➢ Both focus on information structuring ➢ Both are known as “guerilla HCI” or “quick and dirty usability” ➢ Cheap methods to gain useful feedback• Card Sorting ➢ Card sorting helps developers understand how users structure  information in their own minds ➢ Card sorting is quick and cheap • Prototyping: ➢ Low-Fidelity (sketch or wireframe) ▪ Abstract (paper, poster board, sticky notes, etc.) ▪ Very general feedback about terminology and navigation ➢ Medium-Fidelity Electronic  ▪ Include simple widgets ➢ High-Fidelity Electronic ▪ More interactive ▪ Include complex widgets • Low fidelity - Paper prototyping: ➢ Provides substantial user feedback, rapid iterative  development, maximum feedback for minimal effort, when it’s  still easy to change the entire approach • Annotating your drawings (“call-outs”) ➢ Necessary to help communicate with others ➢ Explain the meaning ➢ Explain the reasoning ➢ 2 different ways to do this: ▪ Arrows and bubbles ▪ Numbering and itemized list • Basics of Usability Testing ➢ Representative users performing representative tasks ➢ Task-based, not inspection-based ➢ Can take place with early prototypes or fully functional versions➢ Can have more impact, with early versions of interfaces, and  early usability testing, when it’s easier to make changes • All-Stage Involvement ➢ Participatory Design (PD) ▪ Users are involved in all stages of design, on the design  team ▪ Originated in the Scandinavian countries ➢ Commonly used when: ▪ Tasks are not well-understood ▪ Application/interface is life-critical or mission-critical for an  organization ▪ Special user population (e.g. users with severe  impairments) • Participatory Design ➢ Reasons used in Scandinavian countries and US are different: ▪ Worker rights (Northern Europe—think IT, tools, windows,  vacations) ▪ High-risk projects (healthcare, education, nuclear power  plants, etc.--US) • Example of PD ➢ Development of a Smartphone App to help People with Down  Syndrome Manage their Nutritional Habits ➢ Requires knowledge of UCD, interface design for people with  DS, persuasive computing, nutrition ➢ How do people with DS make food choices at restaurants when  living independently? • Evaluation ➢ Evaluation is very important ➢ Different usage of the term:▪ Evaluation before the finished product (e.g. usability  testing) ▪ Evaluation after the finished product (e.g. consumer  surveys, feedback form, more usability-like testing) ➢ When people talk about evaluation, they often mean after-the fact, but it doesn’t necessarily mean re-design • User Support ➢ User support should not be an afterthought (as it usually is!) ➢ It should be included as part of requirements gathering e.g.: ▪ Wizards ▪ Context-sensitive help ▪ Searchable help ▪ Help videos ▪ Online help documents (used less often) • Re-design of interfaces ➢ Many times, now, we’re not building a new interface, we’re re designing an existing interface ➢ It’s a good opportunity to get good UCD practices in place  (you’re never far from another new development cycle) ➢ Example: MTA web site, first re-design in 7 years (2003/2010) • Different types of cost-justification ➢ Internal organizational systems ▪ The value of employee time ➢ Off-the-shelf products ▪ Increased sales of the software or hardware ➢ E-commerce web sites ▪ Increased sales of items on the site (fewer dropped carts) ➢ Informational web sites ▪ Fewer phone center calls, fewer paper materials• What is usability testing? ➢ The process of testing and improving the ease of use of a  specific interface ➢ There are structured methods for testing an interface ➢ In a usability test, a set of representative users attempt to  perform a set of representative tasks ➢ Evaluators record data (or watch) as the users attempt tasks,  and problems are noted to be fixed later Lecture: Accessibility • What does accessibility mean? ➢ Accessibility in the context of digital technology and content,  means that a person with a disability can secure the same  information and engage in the same transactions as a person  without a disability with a substantially equivalent ease of use. ➢ Is about ADDING flexibility and new features to web sites,  applications, and OS, never taking anything away. ➢ Accessibility means making people more productive! • Different types of impairments ➢ Perceptual impairments ▪ Blind, low vision, Deaf or Hard of Hearing, color blind ➢ Motor impairments ▪ Limited use of speech, hands, fingers, RSI, CTI, spinal  cord injury, paralyzation ➢ Cognitive impairments ▪ Down syndrome, Autism, Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, TBI,  Amnesia, Dementia (very broad category and harder to  design for)• Exceptions to Impairments ➢ People with perceptual impairment need different types of  output ➢ People with motor impairment need different types of input ➢ But both groups want access to the same applications and the  same content! ➢ People with cognitive impairment may want content  transformed into an easier to understand format ➢ Or people with cognitive impairment may need an assistive  technology ➢ Or people with cognitive impairment may not need ANY  assistive technology or modifications… ➢ Realize that a few people may also have multiple impairments • Designing for flexibility ➢ For all of the various input and output devices that people with  disabilities use, content and services must be designed to be  flexible so that it can be presented in many different formats ➢ Flexibility helps all users, including those with no disabilities,  who may be in situations where they cannot see their screen  (e.g. they are driving a car), or cannot play audio out loud ➢ Captioning on videos is useful not only for Deaf users, but also  hearing users in loud places like airports, bars, and gyms ➢ Accessibility makes everyone safer • Keyboard Issues ➢ Are the keys big enough for hands and fingers? ➢ Do the hands shake? (e.g. Parkinson’s) ➢ Can someone use their wrists but not fingers? ➢ Do they cause a RSI? ➢ Where is the keyboard placed on the desk?• Be Ergonomic: Example below • Ergonomics for Input ➢ Repetitive strains in using keyboards and pointing devices ➢ Angle of keyboard must be proper ➢ Pointing device must not be far out of the way ➢ Chair needs to be adjustable and provide lumbar support • Images of Ergonomic Keyboards      • Scanning for blind users ➢ Kurzweil readers (they scan/recognize text in the environment or on  paper, like very advanced OCR) • Speech Recognition ➢ Getting a computer to understand spoken language for BOTH: ➢ Dictating text and controlling the system ➢ Works best when people are committed to it—training themselves and the  SR engine ➢ Simple version now built into most phones ➢ More advanced SR built into Windows and Mac OS ➢ Used by everyone, but especially people with motor impairments including  RSI • Speech recognition challenges ➢ Separating speech from background noise ➢ Variability in individuals’ speech ▪ Vocal range, accent, voice quality ▪ Recognizing emotion—that changes the meaning ▪ Out-of-vocabulary words ➢ Speaker-dependent systems ▪ User pronounces some key words to “train” SR ➢ Speaker-independent systems ▪ Limited use, limited language• Word Prediction ➢ Often used by people with little or no use of hands ➢ Lowers the amount of typing needed ➢ Used by the general population, as well • Physiological input—often used in computer gaming research ➢ EKG (heart rate): mental effort and stress/anxiety ➢ EEG (brain waves): 128-256 electrodes, measuring electrical activity  compared to a baseline, and WHERE it occurs ➢ EMG (muscle movement): a proxy for emotion, both positive and negative) • 3-D Printers ➢ Models for printing, often created with a CAD package ➢ Can be utilized for: ▪ Building rapid prototypes of ideas ▪ Customizing assistive devices for an individual with disabilities ▪ Tactile models that can be utilized in education ❖ For items that can’t be “touched” such as historical artifacts ❖ For items that a blind student needs to “feel” ❖ Topographical maps, biological organs, engineering models,  chemical molecules ❖ Artistic purposes ▪ A growing area, unclear legal status ▪ Can help reduce transportation costs/energy usage, too! • Screen readers ➢ Read in computer synthesized speech the text (or equivalents) on the  screen ➢ Major screen reader brands: JAWS and Window-Eyes, NVDA, VoiceOver,  Kurzweil 1000 ➢ Most common assistive technology for the blind ➢ Now built into many smartphones and tablets (VoiceOver in iOS) ➢ Versions for blind users don’t highlight the text on the screen• User behavior with Screen Readers ➢ Tend not to listen to the entire page ➢ Blind users tend to: ▪ Browse through headings ▪ Listen to the links list ▪ Use keyword searching ➢ Listen at very high rates of speed ➢ Tend to stick with sites that they know are accessible • Screen readers for other purposes ➢ Screen reader software for people with learning disabilities—Kurzweil  3000 ➢ Reads the text in computer-synthesized speech, at the same time that the  text is being highlighted • Assistive Tech for Communication ➢ For people who are unable to communicate using speech or a sign  language ➢ Often known as augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) ▪ Communication boards and devices ▪ Proloquo2go on the iPhone ▪ Speech pathologists are the experts • Sonification ➢ Deals with the fact that Information Visualizations are one of the few types  of interface modes that are challenging to make accessible ➢ Non-textual sound (tones), can be as simple as “earcons” (audio  equivalent of icons) ➢ Uses pitch of sound to provide a user with an overview (or drill down  information) about a data set (often map-based data) ➢ Still uses “overview first, zoom and filter, details on demand” ➢ E.g. population or weather data• Tactile output--Refreshable braille displays ➢ Thumbwheel moves line by line ➢ Great if you are fluent in Braille, but only approx. 10% of Blind adults are  fluent in Braille ➢ Very expensive ($5-10k, but getting cheaper) • Tactile and pin displays ➢ Very expensive…mostly still under development, very useful for certain  tasks   • Screen Magnification ➢ Used for people with partial visual impairment ➢ Can use standard computer screen or specialized device (or a portable  device!) ➢ Built into Macs and some other OS   • Captioning of video presented ➢ Designed for Deaf and/or hard of hearing ▪ Also, used at gyms, bars, and noisy/quiet places ▪ And used by ESL learners to learn English▪ Improves the searchability of a video ➢ Must be accurate and synchronous ➢ Must be verbatim, not edited ➢ Google automated captioning isn’t enough! ➢ There’s also video description for movies and video ASL • Assistive Tech. to work • Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) ➢ The international standard for creating accessible interfaces ➢ The most well-accepted, well-documented accessibility guidelines in the  world ➢ WCAG issued by W3C’s Web Accessibility Initiative ➢ WCAG 1.0 issued in 1999 ➢ WCAG 2.0 issued in 2008 ➢ WCAG2ICT—guidance for applying WCAG 2 to non-web information  technologies (sfw, OS, apps) • What does WCAG consist of? ➢ 12 core guidelines: POUR ▪ P: Perceivable ▪ O: Operable ▪ U: Understandable ▪ R: Robust ▪ 1. Perceivable ▪ 1.1 Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it  can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print,  braille, speech, symbols or simpler language. ▪ 1.2 Provide alternatives for time-based media.▪ 1.3 Create content that can be presented in different ways (for  example simpler layout) without losing information or structure. ▪ 1.4 Make it easier for users to see and hear content including  separating foreground from background.  ▪ 2. Operable ▪ 2.1 Make all functionality available from a keyboard. ▪ 2.2 Provide users enough time to read and use content. ▪ 2.3 Do not design content in a way that is known to cause  seizures. ▪ 2.4 Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and  determine where they are.  ▪ 3. Understandable ▪ 3.1 Make text content readable and understandable. ▪ 3.2 Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways. ▪ 3.3 Help users avoid and correct mistakes.  ▪ 4. Robust ▪ 4.1 Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents,  including assistive technologies. • Implementing Accessibility ➢ Accessibility features are not technically hard ➢ WCAG requires, for instance: ▪ all graphics have ALT text describing the image ▪ that a web page not have flashing that could trigger seizures ▪ that tables and forms be marked up with appropriate labels (such  as first name, last name, street address, instead of FIELD1,  FIELD2, FIELD3) to allow for identification ▪ all content on a page can be accessible even if you cannot use a  pointing device, through keyboard access ➢ Creating accessible digital content is simply good coding, and it doesn’t  change, in any way, how information is visually presented  • Other accessibility guidelines ➢ Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) for developer tools (W3C) ➢ User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG) for browsers (W3C) ➢ Accessible Rich Internet Application (ARIA) ➢ EPUB3 for e-books ➢ PDF accessibility (Adobe) ➢ MS-Office Accessibility• Laws related to IT accessibility ➢ Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act—covers all U.S. federal technology  (web, sfw, hdw, public and private)—New version of Section 508 was  finalized in Jan 2017 ➢ Americans with Disabilities Act—covers state and local government, and  the 12 categories of public accommodations (including universities,  libraries, museums, stores, and hotels) ➢ Some state and local laws also apply ➢ Communications and Video Accessibility Act (CVAA) ▪ One of the newest laws related to IT accessibility ▪ Covers manufacturers of telecommunications devices ▪ Smartphones, tablets and perhaps e-book readers, must all be  accessible ▪ Covers telecom topics like VOIP and 911 services ➢ Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act prohibits discrimination by any  recipient of federal funding ▪ It’s often a legal basis for fighting discrimination, but doesn’t directly  discuss technology • Laws related to IT accessibility outside of the United States ➢ European Union Mandate 376 (http://www.mandate376.eu/) requires  procurement and development of accessible technologies by EU  governments ➢ Prior to EU Mandate 376, many European countries, such as the UK, Italy,  and Germany, and other countries around the world, including Australia  and Canada, also had information technology accessibility requirements.  • United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities ➢ The CRPD, an international human rights treaty, also addresses  accessible technology ➢ Article 9 of the CRPD calls upon countries to “Promote access for persons  with disabilities to new information and communications technologies and  systems, including the Internet” ➢ Article 21 encourages countries to “[provide] information intended for the  general public to persons with disabilities in accessible formats and  technologies appropriate to different kinds of disabilities”• Model of assistive technology ➢ Separate, single-purpose devices are more expensive, used by  fewer people, and often, not made by well-known companies ➢ Often paid for by the government/rehab agencies (or NOT! See NYT  article) ➢ There are economies of scale • AT must be socially acceptable ➢ People with disabilities, or older users, tend to only regularly use assistive  devices that do not LOOK like assistive devices. ➢ People want to use mainstream technology, so you need to embed  assistive functionality in mainstream device s ➢ The more we can integrate accessibility features into existing hardware  devices, (like iPhone and iPad), it’s better for allExam 2 Study Guide Lecture: User-Centered Design • About UCD ➢ User-centered design: a series of structured activities to involve  the user in development of computing systems ➢ Also, known as:  ▪ Human-Centered Design ▪ Usability Engineering ▪ Inclusive design (w/ underrepresented users) ➢ Different from: ▪ Usability Testing (one step of UCD) ▪ Experimental Design/Research Design • About UCD- 3 core principles ➢ Early focus on users and their tasks ➢ Empirical measurement: ▪ Measure quantitatively (not “did you like it?”) ▪ Determine trends…is user performance going up after  each iteration of an interface? ➢ Iterative design: ▪ Have multiple potential designs; there are millions of  potential designs, you need to try different approaches! ▪ Design is not an optimization problem! • Why do UCD? ➢ The earlier you discover a problem related to the interface, the  cheaper it is to fix ➢ Large interactive systems take a lot of time and money to  develop▪ But small techniques to clarify user needs related to the  interface and to the tasks, can result in big return on  investment ➢ Lessen the likelihood of project failure, or user rejection • But you can find lots of different models of UCD:   • Understanding human-centered design (technology isn’t even  mentioned!) ➢ Understand and specify the context of use: ▪ the characteristics of the intended users and other  stakeholders ▪ the tasks the users will perform ▪ the environment in which users will use the system ➢ Specify the user requirements: ▪ Provide a clear statement of the human-centered design  goals ▪ Set appropriate priorities for the different requirements ▪ Include statutory or legislative requirements ▪ Provide measurable benchmarks against which emerging  designs can be tested➢ Produce design solutions: ▪ Develop outline design proposals with multi-disciplinary  input ▪ Make the design solution(s) more concrete using  simulations, mock-ups, etc. ▪ Show the design solution(s) to users and allow them to  perform/simulate tasks ➢ Evaluate designs against requirements: ▪ Assess whether user and organizational objectives have  been met ▪ Provide feedback to improve design ➢ Iterate the process until design objectives are met • Hesitation ➢ There may be some hesitation in involving users: ▪ Not previously done in the organization ▪ Developers do not have experience with UCD ▪ Developers are not comfortable with users ▪ There are costs involved (and as we know, the benefits  can sometimes be hard to measure) ▪ Contracts did not specify it, so there is no way to enforce  it ▪ Not sure how to do UCD • User involvement ➢ Users must be involved in the development of any type of  computer interface ➢ Don’t use proxy users, use real users ➢ In the past, users weren’t always involved in systems  development ➢ This led to many failed IT projects (some estimates are 70% of  IT projects fail) ➢ Proxy Users: Activities for substitute users. (Ex. - Taking  blindfolds to students)• Benefits of user involvement: ➢ For designers and developers: ▪ better understand system and UI requirements ▪ include all essential features ▪ don’t include superfluous features (feature creep) ➢ For users: ▪ gain a sense of ownership (it’s harder to reject something  that you helped to build!) ▪ have realistic expectations of the system being developed • Are customers always users? ➢ People who make IT procurement decisions may be customers,  even though they may never actually use the product ➢ Ask yourself if the users are different from the customers who  make the purchasing decisions! • Stages of user involvement ➢ There are many different methods for user involvement and  UCD activities: ▪ Early-stage involvement ▪ Late-stage involvement ▪ All-stage involvement • Requirements Gathering: ➢ It is important to understand who the users are, and what they  need ▪ Users ▪ Tasks ▪ Environment/context ➢ Without UCD, you may have a bad interface with the right  tasks, or vice versa ➢ Put another way: ▪ Functional requirements, data requirements,  environmental (social/org/context) requirements, user  requirements • Druin’s Model of User Involvement: • One way to think of it: ➢ User involvement activities are the “ingredients” ➢ Lifecycle models are the “recipes” ➢ You must balance the user needs and the business needs ▪ But you first must understand the business needs ▪ No business will knowingly do something that hurts • Example- Healthcare info systems: ➢ Most designers don’t really understand what goes on in a  hospital ➢ Doctors are often against full computerization of records  (change!), but the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) is starting  to require this ➢ There are multiple privacy laws • You’ve heard this elsewhere: ➢ Something like 70% of information technology projects fail▪ Never make it to completion OR ▪ Are rejected by the users ▪ Even scope creep is sometimes due to not understanding  the needs ➢ You must really understand who users are, what they want to  accomplish, and what environment/context they are in • Early-stage Involvement: ➢ Surveys ➢ Focus Groups ➢ Interviews ➢ Ethnography ➢ Time Diaries ➢ Scenarios ➢ Personas ➢ Analyzing existing documentation ➢ JAD sessions-Meetings with all stakeholder groups ➢ Cultural probes • Surveys ➢ Can be paper, web-based, or e-mail ➢ Good at getting shallow data from lots of people ➢ Must pick a good sampling methodology ➢ Make sure that questions are clear and unambiguous ➢ Lots of web-based tools to help • Focus groups and interviews: ➢ Good for getting deep data from few people ➢ Focus groups: multiple people ➢ Interviews: one or two people ➢ Must have an experienced moderator ➢ Be willing to change line of discussion ➢ Focus groups: synergy is good, domination by one group  member is bad ➢ Anonymity is especially important• Ethnography: Participation in the workplace ➢ Traditionally used in the social sciences ➢ Needed when the context of usage (groups, organization,  politics, environment) is complex ➢ Spectrum of participant/observer ➢ Use when there is a high chance of failure ➢ In HCI, used most often in understanding homes, workplaces,  and schools • Contextual Inquiry: ➢ Gathering detailed descriptions of user or customer work  processes and environments ➢ Interviews with users/customers AND ➢ Observations of work practice occurring in real-world context ➢ The user is more in control, and helps  interpret the observations  ➢ Think of MTV’s “the Real World” • Scenarios: ➢ are day-in-the-life stories of what happens when users perform  typical tasks (storyboarding) ➢ can represent common or emergency situations, novice or expert users ➢ Help define user requirements, or help users understand what  is possible, or help other stakeholders understand important  issues ➢ Scenarios are typically fictional, use cases/best practices are  similar, but usually real • Personas ➢ are rich descriptions of the typical users of the project, to help  the designers understand who to design for➢ Not real users, but a synthesis of several real users who have  been involved in data gathering ➢ You may have multiple personas if there are multiple targeted  user groups ➢ Includes user skills, attitudes, tasks, and environment • UCD doesn’t need to be formal or expensive: ➢ Start with an interface that needs redesign ➢ Give users post-it notes, and ask them to write 3 notes for  each: ▪ What you like about the current design ▪ What you don’t like about the current design ▪ Ideas for the next design ➢ Facilitator organizes them into common theme areas • Informal post-it note sessions: ➢ Moderator takes the post-it notes and groups them into  common themes, and they are discussed ➢ Users are broken into a few groups, given a bag of arts and  crafts, and asked to make non-technical prototypes ➢ Moderator takes the best ideas from each of the prototypes ➢ ALWAYS BE OPEN TO DIFFERENT IDEAS • Medium-to-Late Stage Involvement: ➢ Paper Prototyping ➢ Card Sorting ▪ Used to discover user mental models ➢ Both focus on information structuring ➢ Both are known as “guerilla HCI” or “quick and dirty usability” ➢ Cheap methods to gain useful feedback• Card Sorting ➢ Card sorting helps developers understand how users structure  information in their own minds ➢ Card sorting is quick and cheap • Prototyping: ➢ Low-Fidelity (sketch or wireframe) ▪ Abstract (paper, poster board, sticky notes, etc.) ▪ Very general feedback about terminology and navigation ➢ Medium-Fidelity Electronic  ▪ Include simple widgets ➢ High-Fidelity Electronic ▪ More interactive ▪ Include complex widgets • Low fidelity - Paper prototyping: ➢ Provides substantial user feedback, rapid iterative  development, maximum feedback for minimal effort, when it’s  still easy to change the entire approach • Annotating your drawings (“call-outs”) ➢ Necessary to help communicate with others ➢ Explain the meaning ➢ Explain the reasoning ➢ 2 different ways to do this: ▪ Arrows and bubbles ▪ Numbering and itemized list • Basics of Usability Testing ➢ Representative users performing representative tasks ➢ Task-based, not inspection-based ➢ Can take place with early prototypes or fully functional versions➢ Can have more impact, with early versions of interfaces, and  early usability testing, when it’s easier to make changes • All-Stage Involvement ➢ Participatory Design (PD) ▪ Users are involved in all stages of design, on the design  team ▪ Originated in the Scandinavian countries ➢ Commonly used when: ▪ Tasks are not well-understood ▪ Application/interface is life-critical or mission-critical for an  organization ▪ Special user population (e.g. users with severe  impairments) • Participatory Design ➢ Reasons used in Scandinavian countries and US are different: ▪ Worker rights (Northern Europe—think IT, tools, windows,  vacations) ▪ High-risk projects (healthcare, education, nuclear power  plants, etc.--US) • Example of PD ➢ Development of a Smartphone App to help People with Down  Syndrome Manage their Nutritional Habits ➢ Requires knowledge of UCD, interface design for people with  DS, persuasive computing, nutrition ➢ How do people with DS make food choices at restaurants when  living independently? • Evaluation ➢ Evaluation is very important ➢ Different usage of the term:▪ Evaluation before the finished product (e.g. usability  testing) ▪ Evaluation after the finished product (e.g. consumer  surveys, feedback form, more usability-like testing) ➢ When people talk about evaluation, they often mean after-the fact, but it doesn’t necessarily mean re-design • User Support ➢ User support should not be an afterthought (as it usually is!) ➢ It should be included as part of requirements gathering e.g.: ▪ Wizards ▪ Context-sensitive help ▪ Searchable help ▪ Help videos ▪ Online help documents (used less often) • Re-design of interfaces ➢ Many times, now, we’re not building a new interface, we’re re designing an existing interface ➢ It’s a good opportunity to get good UCD practices in place  (you’re never far from another new development cycle) ➢ Example: MTA web site, first re-design in 7 years (2003/2010) • Different types of cost-justification ➢ Internal organizational systems ▪ The value of employee time ➢ Off-the-shelf products ▪ Increased sales of the software or hardware ➢ E-commerce web sites ▪ Increased sales of items on the site (fewer dropped carts) ➢ Informational web sites ▪ Fewer phone center calls, fewer paper materials• What is usability testing? ➢ The process of testing and improving the ease of use of a  specific interface ➢ There are structured methods for testing an interface ➢ In a usability test, a set of representative users attempt to  perform a set of representative tasks ➢ Evaluators record data (or watch) as the users attempt tasks,  and problems are noted to be fixed later Lecture: Accessibility • What does accessibility mean? ➢ Accessibility in the context of digital technology and content,  means that a person with a disability can secure the same  information and engage in the same transactions as a person  without a disability with a substantially equivalent ease of use. ➢ Is about ADDING flexibility and new features to web sites,  applications, and OS, never taking anything away. ➢ Accessibility means making people more productive! • Different types of impairments ➢ Perceptual impairments ▪ Blind, low vision, Deaf or Hard of Hearing, color blind ➢ Motor impairments ▪ Limited use of speech, hands, fingers, RSI, CTI, spinal  cord injury, paralyzation ➢ Cognitive impairments ▪ Down syndrome, Autism, Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, TBI,  Amnesia, Dementia (very broad category and harder to  design for)• Exceptions to Impairments ➢ People with perceptual impairment need different types of  output ➢ People with motor impairment need different types of input ➢ But both groups want access to the same applications and the  same content! ➢ People with cognitive impairment may want content  transformed into an easier to understand format ➢ Or people with cognitive impairment may need an assistive  technology ➢ Or people with cognitive impairment may not need ANY  assistive technology or modifications… ➢ Realize that a few people may also have multiple impairments • Designing for flexibility ➢ For all of the various input and output devices that people with  disabilities use, content and services must be designed to be  flexible so that it can be presented in many different formats ➢ Flexibility helps all users, including those with no disabilities,  who may be in situations where they cannot see their screen  (e.g. they are driving a car), or cannot play audio out loud ➢ Captioning on videos is useful not only for Deaf users, but also  hearing users in loud places like airports, bars, and gyms ➢ Accessibility makes everyone safer • Keyboard Issues ➢ Are the keys big enough for hands and fingers? ➢ Do the hands shake? (e.g. Parkinson’s) ➢ Can someone use their wrists but not fingers? ➢ Do they cause a RSI? ➢ Where is the keyboard placed on the desk?• Be Ergonomic: Example below • Ergonomics for Input ➢ Repetitive strains in using keyboards and pointing devices ➢ Angle of keyboard must be proper ➢ Pointing device must not be far out of the way ➢ Chair needs to be adjustable and provide lumbar support • Images of Ergonomic Keyboards      • Scanning for blind users ➢ Kurzweil readers (they scan/recognize text in the environment or on  paper, like very advanced OCR) • Speech Recognition ➢ Getting a computer to understand spoken language for BOTH: ➢ Dictating text and controlling the system ➢ Works best when people are committed to it—training themselves and the  SR engine ➢ Simple version now built into most phones ➢ More advanced SR built into Windows and Mac OS ➢ Used by everyone, but especially people with motor impairments including  RSI • Speech recognition challenges ➢ Separating speech from background noise ➢ Variability in individuals’ speech ▪ Vocal range, accent, voice quality ▪ Recognizing emotion—that changes the meaning ▪ Out-of-vocabulary words ➢ Speaker-dependent systems ▪ User pronounces some key words to “train” SR ➢ Speaker-independent systems ▪ Limited use, limited language• Word Prediction ➢ Often used by people with little or no use of hands ➢ Lowers the amount of typing needed ➢ Used by the general population, as well • Physiological input—often used in computer gaming research ➢ EKG (heart rate): mental effort and stress/anxiety ➢ EEG (brain waves): 128-256 electrodes, measuring electrical activity  compared to a baseline, and WHERE it occurs ➢ EMG (muscle movement): a proxy for emotion, both positive and negative) • 3-D Printers ➢ Models for printing, often created with a CAD package ➢ Can be utilized for: ▪ Building rapid prototypes of ideas ▪ Customizing assistive devices for an individual with disabilities ▪ Tactile models that can be utilized in education ❖ For items that can’t be “touched” such as historical artifacts ❖ For items that a blind student needs to “feel” ❖ Topographical maps, biological organs, engineering models,  chemical molecules ❖ Artistic purposes ▪ A growing area, unclear legal status ▪ Can help reduce transportation costs/energy usage, too! • Screen readers ➢ Read in computer synthesized speech the text (or equivalents) on the  screen ➢ Major screen reader brands: JAWS and Window-Eyes, NVDA, VoiceOver,  Kurzweil 1000 ➢ Most common assistive technology for the blind ➢ Now built into many smartphones and tablets (VoiceOver in iOS) ➢ Versions for blind users don’t highlight the text on the screen• User behavior with Screen Readers ➢ Tend not to listen to the entire page ➢ Blind users tend to: ▪ Browse through headings ▪ Listen to the links list ▪ Use keyword searching ➢ Listen at very high rates of speed ➢ Tend to stick with sites that they know are accessible • Screen readers for other purposes ➢ Screen reader software for people with learning disabilities—Kurzweil  3000 ➢ Reads the text in computer-synthesized speech, at the same time that the  text is being highlighted • Assistive Tech for Communication ➢ For people who are unable to communicate using speech or a sign  language ➢ Often known as augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) ▪ Communication boards and devices ▪ Proloquo2go on the iPhone ▪ Speech pathologists are the experts • Sonification ➢ Deals with the fact that Information Visualizations are one of the few types  of interface modes that are challenging to make accessible ➢ Non-textual sound (tones), can be as simple as “earcons” (audio  equivalent of icons) ➢ Uses pitch of sound to provide a user with an overview (or drill down  information) about a data set (often map-based data) ➢ Still uses “overview first, zoom and filter, details on demand” ➢ E.g. population or weather data• Tactile output--Refreshable braille displays ➢ Thumbwheel moves line by line ➢ Great if you are fluent in Braille, but only approx. 10% of Blind adults are  fluent in Braille ➢ Very expensive ($5-10k, but getting cheaper) • Tactile and pin displays ➢ Very expensive…mostly still under development, very useful for certain  tasks   • Screen Magnification ➢ Used for people with partial visual impairment ➢ Can use standard computer screen or specialized device (or a portable  device!) ➢ Built into Macs and some other OS   • Captioning of video presented ➢ Designed for Deaf and/or hard of hearing ▪ Also, used at gyms, bars, and noisy/quiet places ▪ And used by ESL learners to learn English▪ Improves the searchability of a video ➢ Must be accurate and synchronous ➢ Must be verbatim, not edited ➢ Google automated captioning isn’t enough! ➢ There’s also video description for movies and video ASL • Assistive Tech. to work • Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) ➢ The international standard for creating accessible interfaces ➢ The most well-accepted, well-documented accessibility guidelines in the  world ➢ WCAG issued by W3C’s Web Accessibility Initiative ➢ WCAG 1.0 issued in 1999 ➢ WCAG 2.0 issued in 2008 ➢ WCAG2ICT—guidance for applying WCAG 2 to non-web information  technologies (sfw, OS, apps) • What does WCAG consist of? ➢ 12 core guidelines: POUR ▪ P: Perceivable ▪ O: Operable ▪ U: Understandable ▪ R: Robust ▪ 1. Perceivable ▪ 1.1 Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it  can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print,  braille, speech, symbols or simpler language. ▪ 1.2 Provide alternatives for time-based media.▪ 1.3 Create content that can be presented in different ways (for  example simpler layout) without losing information or structure. ▪ 1.4 Make it easier for users to see and hear content including  separating foreground from background.  ▪ 2. Operable ▪ 2.1 Make all functionality available from a keyboard. ▪ 2.2 Provide users enough time to read and use content. ▪ 2.3 Do not design content in a way that is known to cause  seizures. ▪ 2.4 Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and  determine where they are.  ▪ 3. Understandable ▪ 3.1 Make text content readable and understandable. ▪ 3.2 Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways. ▪ 3.3 Help users avoid and correct mistakes.  ▪ 4. Robust ▪ 4.1 Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents,  including assistive technologies. • Implementing Accessibility ➢ Accessibility features are not technically hard ➢ WCAG requires, for instance: ▪ all graphics have ALT text describing the image ▪ that a web page not have flashing that could trigger seizures ▪ that tables and forms be marked up with appropriate labels (such  as first name, last name, street address, instead of FIELD1,  FIELD2, FIELD3) to allow for identification ▪ all content on a page can be accessible even if you cannot use a  pointing device, through keyboard access ➢ Creating accessible digital content is simply good coding, and it doesn’t  change, in any way, how information is visually presented  • Other accessibility guidelines ➢ Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) for developer tools (W3C) ➢ User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG) for browsers (W3C) ➢ Accessible Rich Internet Application (ARIA) ➢ EPUB3 for e-books ➢ PDF accessibility (Adobe) ➢ MS-Office Accessibility• Laws related to IT accessibility ➢ Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act—covers all U.S. federal technology  (web, sfw, hdw, public and private)—New version of Section 508 was  finalized in Jan 2017 ➢ Americans with Disabilities Act—covers state and local government, and  the 12 categories of public accommodations (including universities,  libraries, museums, stores, and hotels) ➢ Some state and local laws also apply ➢ Communications and Video Accessibility Act (CVAA) ▪ One of the newest laws related to IT accessibility ▪ Covers manufacturers of telecommunications devices ▪ Smartphones, tablets and perhaps e-book readers, must all be  accessible ▪ Covers telecom topics like VOIP and 911 services ➢ Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act prohibits discrimination by any  recipient of federal funding ▪ It’s often a legal basis for fighting discrimination, but doesn’t directly  discuss technology • Laws related to IT accessibility outside of the United States ➢ European Union Mandate 376 (http://www.mandate376.eu/) requires  procurement and development of accessible technologies by EU  governments ➢ Prior to EU Mandate 376, many European countries, such as the UK, Italy,  and Germany, and other countries around the world, including Australia  and Canada, also had information technology accessibility requirements.  • United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities ➢ The CRPD, an international human rights treaty, also addresses  accessible technology ➢ Article 9 of the CRPD calls upon countries to “Promote access for persons  with disabilities to new information and communications technologies and  systems, including the Internet” ➢ Article 21 encourages countries to “[provide] information intended for the  general public to persons with disabilities in accessible formats and  technologies appropriate to different kinds of disabilities”• Model of assistive technology ➢ Separate, single-purpose devices are more expensive, used by  fewer people, and often, not made by well-known companies ➢ Often paid for by the government/rehab agencies (or NOT! See NYT  article) ➢ There are economies of scale • AT must be socially acceptable ➢ People with disabilities, or older users, tend to only regularly use assistive  devices that do not LOOK like assistive devices. ➢ People want to use mainstream technology, so you need to embed  assistive functionality in mainstream device s ➢ The more we can integrate accessibility features into existing hardware  devices, (like iPhone and iPad), it’s better for all

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