No4 Ps, defined - Product (good or service), Price (dollar, value), Promotion (PR, advertising), Place (distribution). Marketing: Putting the right offering in the right place, at the right price, at the right time and telling people about it. Advertising: marketing cIf you want to learn more check out What does Agglutination mean?
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ommunication intended to modify or maintain attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors. PR: Strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics.In PR, the product equals a relationship. What is a consumer? A person who identifies a need or desire, makes a purchase, and then disposes of the product during the three stages of the consumption process. Consumption process 1. Pre-purchase issues a. Consumer’s perspective: i. How does the consumer decide he/she needs the product? What are the best sources of information to learn more about alternative choices? b. Marketer’s perspective i. How are consumer attitudes of products formed/changed? What cues do users use to see what products are inferior to another? 2. Purchase Issues a. Consumer’s perspective: i. Is acquiring the product a stressful or pleasant experience? What does the purchase say about the consumer? b. Marketer’s perspective: I. how do situational factors like time pressure or store displays affect the consumer’s purchase decision? 3. Post Purchase Issues a. Consumer’s perspective i. How is the product eventually disposed of and what are the environmental consequences. Does the product provide pleasure or perform its intended function? ii. b. Marketer’s perspective i. What determines whether a consumer will be satisfied and whether she will buy it again? ii. Does this person tell others about her experiences with the product and influence their purchase decisions? Demographics: The descriptive characteristics of a population. Marketer categorizes consumer in terms of age, gender, income, or occupation. Statistics to measure observable aspects of a population. Market segmentation: Organization targets its product, service or idea only to specific groups of consumers rather than everybody - even if it means that other consumers who don’t belong to this target market aren’t attracted to it. Think vanilla v chocolate ice cream Think 80/20 ruleUS v. Texas demographics from lecture ● Texas is younger than the US population ● Texas is poorer than the US population ● Texas has less Blacks/Asians than the US population ● Texas has more Whites than the US population ● Texas has more Hispanics than the US population ● Texas is less educated than the US population ● Gender is the same in Texas as the US population Picture a young, poor, white, uneducated, male or female who has a lot of hispanic friends. This person represents Texas compared to the US. (Imagery might help to remember all the statistics)- Nature campaign aimed at African-Americans: Catch-all, generic ads that aim to reach out to “everyone” with a single, blanket message are virtually bound to fail at the outset, primarily because there is no single “everyone.” → PSA by the ad council to encourage African American parents to spend time with their children in nature due to the low amount of time they spend outdoors compared to white children. Spending time outside has many health benefits. Impact of ad: 47% of parents of tweens search for national parks online versus 37% in 2011. Lifestyles (Also called psychographics) Personality, values, Attitudes, Interests, Sense of self, Sense of belonging, Activities we do in our spare time - Combine lifestyle with demographics to reach right audience (ex: Wine consumers from lecture) Wine consumers from lecture: ● Mostly women ● More open to new experiences, follow own path in life ● Info-savvy, confident consumers ● Desire intangibles ● Eschew brands as badges ● Have life priorities in order Love Marks: A brand that creates loyalty beyond reason. Kevin Roberts, former CEO of Saatchi & Saatchi, presented this concept. Meaning of consumption: Products are often not bought for what they do, but for what they mean. Self-concept attachment: One of the relationships that a consumer might have with a product. The product helps to establish the user’s identity User-generated content : everyday people voice their opinions about products, brands, and companies on blogs, podcasts, and social networking sites (FB and Twitter), and even film their own commercials on Youtube. This trend helps define Web 2.0, which is the rebirth of the internet to allow users to generate content and share their ideas on the web.Ex: blog posts, pictures, videos, ads made by consumers Tiger Woods example from lecture: Nike logo while he scores incredible shot (takes a life of its own) – famous on YouTube. (Example of UGC) Motivation: The processes that lead people to behave the way they do. Occurs when a need is aroused that the consumer wishes to satisfy. The need creates a tension, and the drives the consumer to attempt to reduce or eliminate the tension. Motivation is the driver of behavior. Drive theory: focuses on biological needs that produce unpleasant states of arousal (your stomach grumbles during a morning class). We want to solve this unpleasant sensation and return to a balanced state called homeostasis. 80/20 rule: 20% of users account for 80% of sales. It’s all about the heavy users (most faithful consumers) Needs (biogenic, utilitarian, etc.) ● Biogenic = needs to live: food, water, and shelter ● Psychogenic needs = emotional and psychological. ● Utilitarian = focus is on functional or practical need, not just purely biogenic. We focus on tangible attributes: ex. Miles/gallon of a car. ● Hedonic = focus is on emotional or experiential need, overlaps with psychogenic. -“Wikipedia: Hedonic goods are consumed for luxury purposes, which are desirable objects that allow the consumer to feel pleasure, fun, and enjoyment from buying the product. This is the difference from Utilitarian goods, which are purchased for their practical uses and are based on the consumer's needs.” ● The "Up" video, motivation chapter online slide 25 in "buying, having, being" Henry Murray’s needs: 27 psychogenic needs that were largely at the unconscious level. A few can dominate a particular person. 4 Key Needs = achievement, affiliation, power, uniqueness Maslow’s needs, drawbacks 1. Physiological – water, sleep, food 2. Safety – security, shelter, protection 3. Social – love, friendship, acceptance by others 4. Esteem– prestige, status, accomplishment 5. Self-Actualization – self-fulfillment, enriching experiences Drawbacks ● Western in focus, eastern cultures value the group over individual ● Not everyone needs to move in the order Up example: Used to explain Maslow's needs. Ethical business according to Ethisphere: “The world’s most ethical companies are leaders of their respective industries when it comes to key ethical criteria such as tone from the top, employee well-being, corporate social responsibility…”● Tone from the top: top leadership in organizations are visible and need to be seen as credible & honest & committed to the ideas the organization espouses Saatchi & Saatchi examples (diversity): Former CEO Kevin Roberts resigned after comments that there were no gender diversity issues at Saatchi & Saatchi. Came at a time when the company was settling $3 million dollar lawsuit in regards to gender diversity. His comments went against the company’s ideals; world’s first 100% gay sweater made with hair from actual gay people Women in advertising crisis ● Very little amount of women who have jobs higher up in the food chain it is starting to increase but still currently at ~30% Lush ● Doesn’t put money into packaging because the little money is put back into good quality ingredients ● The olfactory overload is a part of the brand ● Salaries at the top are never more than 17 times those at the bottom Social marketing: Use techniques that marketers normally employ to sell beer or detergent to encourage positive behaviors such as increased literacy and discourage negative activities like drunk driving. Two aspects of social marketing: ● Corporate Social Responsibility: the processes that encourage the organization to make a positive impact on the various stakeholders in its community including consumers, employees, and the environment. Ex: Toms gives a pair of shoes to a child in need with every purchase of their shoes. ● Cause Marketing: popular strategy that aligns a company or brand with a cause to generate business and societal benefits. Could an example of this be the At&t commercials about texting and driving? (Yes, this can be an example but the company and the cause do not necessarily need to be affiliated in some way, AT&T phone companies and texting while drunk. It can be any cause in general!) Materialism: the importance people attach to worldly possessions. Nader’s Unsafe at any Speed: Book written in 1965 that exposed the safety defects in General Motors’ Corvair automobile. Importance : Made way for the movement that consumers have a right to standard, high quality products in all types of products, Associated with consumer rights LOHAS “Lifestyles of health and sustainability”: segment of consumers labeled because they worry about the environment and want products produced in sustainable ways and spend money to advance what they see as their personal development and potential.(e.g. Organic foods, hybrids, yoga, ecotourism) - Lifestyles of health and sustainability - Social responsibilityConsumption (negative side): Some say advertising creates false needs and standards and encourages a materialistic society. Alcoholism, obesity, addiction, animal cruelty, environmental impacts Obesity example: https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html ● The rates of obesity in America’s children and youth have almost tripled in the last quarter century. ● 20% of our youth are now overweight ● Childhood obesity increases morbidity, mortality, and has substantial long term economic, and social costs ● Prevention must focus on reducing excess weight gain as children grow up Chris Jordan video- artist/photographer puts together a slideshow of pictures he took where he put actual statistics (plastic cup usage, breast augmentation, etc.) into images to make the concept of negative consumption much more effective. New Models of consumption: Collaborative Consumption: the shift in consumer values from ownership to access. Together, entire communities and cities around the world are using network technologies to do more with less by renting, lending, swapping, bartering, gifting and sharing products on a scale never before possible. From Airbnb to Zipcar to Taskrabbit, collaborative consumption is transforming business, consumerism and the way we live for a more fulfilling and sustainable quality of life. Shrinkage & Counterfeiting Shrinkage: industry term for inventory and cash loss from shoplifting and employee theft → leads to higher prices for consumers Counterfeiting: Companies or individuals sell fake versions of real products to consumers → leads to $600 billion in global loss annually Sensation, receptors: Sensory receptors: eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and fingers Perception: process through which sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted. How we interpret data through our schemas. k Perceptual process: Stimuli comes through our sensory receptors which leads to exposure (orient and allocate) → attention (engagement) → interpretation Exposure: occurs when a stimulus comes within range of someone’s sensory receptors. We can orient, concentrate, ignore, or completely miss stimuli. (lecture, need book) Orienting: The immediate response to a change in the environment (sound, smell, etc.). When that change is not sudden enough to elicit the startle reflex. (not in book)Allocation: can vary depending on the characteristics of the stimulus and the recipients. Although we live in an information society, consumers are often in a state of sensory overload. Sensory overload means consumers are exposed to far more information than they can process. Much of this comes from commercial sources. We are exposed to thousands of advertising messages each day in addition to the other types of stimuli we sense. This camera ad from Singapore reminds us that consumers do tune out stimuli. Attention: is the extent to which processing activity is devoted to a stimulus. We allocate resources as our attention increases. Consumers are often in a state of sensory overload. Marketers need to break through the clutter Multitasking: processing information from more than one medium at a time. Engagement: between attention and interpretation, something gets attention→ actively engage→ interpret (need book) Interpretation: refers to the meanings we assign to sensory stimuli. Depends on factors like socialization and language Schemas: Web of nodes (information) that comes to thought when you think of something. When a node gets activated, all of the nodes around it also get activated. Vision - think of the reptilian brain that processes visually--we often use our visual memory to recall things. specifically, the region of the brain that processes vision is the very back part of the brain in the cerebral cortex Color - color provokes emotion, which is influenced by both biology and culture. the colors in the US are becoming brighter and women are better at seeing color than men Colors may even influence our emotions more directly. evidence suggests that some colors (particularly red) create feelings of arousal and stimulate appetite, and others (such as blue) create more relaxing feelings. → black in western countries = mourning → white in eastern like japan = mourning → women are drawn toward brighter tones and are more sensitive to subtle shadings and patterns. FUN FACT → men are 16 times more likely to be color blind → darker colors are associated with males while brighter ones are with females Trade dress- certain colors tend to be associated with certain companies (think white with Apple, maybe red & yellow with McDonald’s, Burnt orange and UT) Color as commodity: color has become a commodity, largely thanks to Pantone (commercial printing) and being able to reproduce an exact colorPantone, Color of the year: 2015: Marsala 2016: Rose Quartz and Serenity 2017: Greenery Devil wears prada clip - Demonstrates how the 2000 “color of the year” Cerulean influenced trends of the fashion industry. (It took a while for the color of the year to trickle down and become popular) Odor, Scents - Smell is used heavily to sell things. Studies prove that when a product is displayed with the smells associated to it, it will sell more. Example of scents in lecture (coffee research) - Some studies show that the smell of coffee is potent enough to wake you up simply by smelling it. Sound - Many brands use sound to create a singular image for the brand. For ex. Hollister plays lots of indie music to express youth and fun = their demographic appeals to these themes. Mood Media, North face example: NF asked MM to created a certain music to play in all their stores so that any NF store you walk into you feel the same vibes Tempo: High tempo= stimulating Slow tempo= relaxing Haptic: touch senses that moderate the relationship between product experience and judgement confidence, most basic of senses we learn before vision and smell, affect product experience and judgment Taste: A food item’s image and the values we attach to it influence how we experience the actual taste. Food as trends: Pumpkin spice things, Sriracha, sushirritos, rainbow hot chocolate, etc. Ethnic food trends from lecture: Mexican food is the most popular, followed by Asian food, then Mediterranean food 5-second ads and examples: they’re so quick that there is no time for people to change the channel or form an immediate opinion; honda fit, coke Thresholds, JND:● Thresholds: ○ Sensory threshold - the point at which stimuli is strong enough to make a conscience impact on his/her awareness ○ Absolute threshold - the minimum amount of stimulation a person can detect on a given sensory channel ○ Differential threshold - the ability of a sensory system to detect changes in or differences between the two stimuli Is there a difference between differential threshold and JND? - i guess differential is the ability to detect whereas the JND is the actual amount of stimuli needed to activate that ability. ● JND: Just Noticeable Difference - the minimum difference we can detect between two stimuli Subliminal: stimulus below the level of the consumer’s awareness Embeds: tiny figures that are inserted into magazine advertising via high-speed photography or airbrushing (ex. Images hidden on cereal boxes) Perceptual Selection: people only attend to a small portion of the stimuli they are exposed to. Rory Sutherland Ted Talk: Argues that perception is everything. Sometimes all that’s needed is a shift in perception rather than an entirely new product. All value is relative. Creating intangible value to replace material value. (Shreddies cereal) Adaptation: the process that occurs when a sensation becomes so familiar that it no longer commands attention Multitasking and examples (also see later lecture’s examples)- allocating resources to multiple sources (ex. Watching tv while using your phone and doing homework) Priming: Deliberate attempt from advertisers to invoke a specific schema. Properties of a stimulus that evoke a schema that leads you to compare the stimulus to other similar ones we encountered in the past. (Deja Vu?) Stimulus organization = ● One factor that helps decide how we will interpret a stimulus is the relationship we assume it has with other events, sensations, or images in the memory. ● Nabisco made Teddy Grahams for adults, but adults resisted. Nabisco changed the packaging to bright yellow, and buyers positively associated a bright primary color with taste, and consumers started buying. ● We perceive ambiguous stimuli, and rely on our past experiences, expectations, and needs to determine meaning. ● We tend to project our own desires or assumptions onto products and ads. Semiotics= symbols, signs, and the assignment of meaning. 1. Object: the product (the thing you’re trying to make the message about) 2. Sign: the image (image you’ll be using in the development of that product) 3. Interpretant: meaning derived from the sign (that people are supposed to connect to the product) Kenzo ad (semiotics): in-class semiotic analysis of the ad. (Upcoming season is going to be crazy, androgynous, anyone can wear our clothes) Learning - is a relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience Perceptions maps and Lumene example (Lumene was the more expensive brand) - Look at where 2 brands lie on in the mass market vs premium and natural vs not natural graph. - Look at a brand in relation to other brands and identify close and far competitors Behavioral Learning Theories: assumes that learning takes place as a result of the responses to external events. “black box”: the mind of the consumer/ term used for the role of cognition in the stimulus response process Classical conditioning (Part of BLT): Stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicits a response.“Pavlov’s dogs” “The Office” example - dwight altoid experiment that represented an example of classical conditioning. Children as consumers How do children learn to be consumers? Over time. 1.Observing: onset < 1 year 2.Making requests: onset .5-2 years 3.Making selections: onset 1-4 years 4.Making assisted purchases: onset 2-6 years 5.Making independent purchases: onset 4+ years Music as a part of classical conditioning: ● Hips Don’t Lie - Example ○ Using a well known song because we already associate certain images, feelings, ideas, etc with it ○ Music video also provides a video ○ What can we use this song for? ■ Jean brands, pads/tampons, weight loss Instrumental conditioning ● Aka Operant Conditioning ● Occurs as the individual learns to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and avoid those that yield negative outcomes ● Occurs in one of three ways: ○ Positive reinforcement: process whereby rewards provided by the environment strengthens responses to stimuli and appropriate behavior is learned○ Negative reinforcements: process whereby the environment weakens responses to stimuli so that inappropriate is avoided. ○ Ex. Woman sitting at home when she could’ve wore the perfume and gone out with friends (think “avoid negative outcomes”) ○ Punishment:Learning that occurs when a response is followed by unpleasant events Reinforcement ● Fixed-interval reinforcement ○ After a specified time period has passed, the first response you make brings the reward ○ Ex. consumers may crowd into a store for the last day of its seasonal sale and may not reappear until the next one ● Variable-interval reinforcement ○ The time that must pass before you get reinforced varies based on some average ○ You don’t know when to expect the reinforcement so you have to respond at a consistent rate ○ Ex: Secret shoppers who periodically test for service quality ● Fixed-ratio reinforcement ○ Occurs only after a fixed number of responses ○ Ex. going to the same grocery store because once you collect 50 receipts you get a prize ● Variable-ratio reinforcement ○ You get reinforced after a certain number of response, but you don’t know how many responses are required ○ Ex. slot machines and how if you put in enough money you’ll eventually win Extinction: Process whereby a learned connection between a stimulus and response is eroded so that the response is no longer reinforced (association is forgotten) Wear out: The condition that occurs when consumers become so used to hearing or seeing a marketing stimulus that they no longer pay attention to it counter example: Example of celebrity matching gone too far, still associated with their brands well after parting ways. Ex: Tiger Woods & Nike, Jared the Subway guy Cognitive learning theory: Focused on the cognitions (thinking), not just the stimulus-response of the behavioral learning theories. Observational learning: (part of cognitive) the process by which people learn by watching the actions of others and noting the reinforcements they receive for their behaviors Albert Bandura video+: Showed cases of observational learning. Had an adult hitting a clown doll in front of a child and then when the adult left the room the child would hit the clown doll. The same thing happened when the children watched videos of adults people violent, the children would be violent with their friends. 6 Cognitive development: ● Limited: below age 6, children do not use storage and retrieval strategies ● Cued: between ages 6 and 10, children use these strategies, but only when prompted ● Strategic: Children ages 10 and older spontaneously employ storage and retrieval strategies Memory: process of acquiring information and storing it over time so that it will be available when we need it. Think of the mind like a computer: data are input, processed, and output for later use in revised form. 1. Encoding stage: information enters in the way the system will recognize 2. Storage stage: we integrate this knowledge with what is already in memory and “warehouse” it until it is needed. 3. Retrieval: during this process we access the desired information All Memory terms defined in lecture: ● Sensory Memory: temporary storage of sensory information. Capacity: high. Duration is less than 1 second. ● Attention: information is transferred to short term memory ● Short-Term Memory: brief storage of information currently being used. Capacity: limited. Duration: less than 20 seconds. ● Elaborative Rehearsal: the transfer to long-term memory ● Long-Term Memory: relatively permanent storage of information. Capacity: unlimited. Duration: long/permanent. Frank Longo lecture, slides: o Long term: Declarative and nondeclarative § Declarative: conscious memories, can consciously use · Events (episodic) – events, personal, experiences (graduate high school, got married, etc.) · Facts (semantic) – world, objects, language § Non-declarative: not conscious of it · Procedural – motor skills, cog skills (ex. Tennis skills) · Perceptual representation –priming (prime certain parts of the memory) · Classical conditioning (Pavlov dogs) · Non-associative- habituation, sensitization Narratives: description of a product that is written as a story, is often an effective way to convey product information Levi ad: uses a narrative of a guy and girl meeting in an elevator and each imagining the future life they could have together, all while wearing Levi’s -- they then just smile at each other and walk out of the elevator. - Nostalgia (make a retro brand new again) - Narrative in the ad to tell a story Memory systems ● Sensory memory- stores the information we receive from senses ● Short term memory (STM)- stores information for a limited period of time and it has limited capacity ○ Chunking● Long-term memory (LTM)- system that allows us to retain information for a long period of time, unlimited capacity ○ Elaborative rehearsal moves information from STM to LTM Schemas, nodes, activation, levels of knowledge - ● Schemas – organized collection of beliefs and feeling represented in a cognitive category ● Nodes- the words in the map of the spider web ● Activation – when a node is highlighted it activates and highlights the words around it that make it remember those things ● Levels of knowledge – the more information you know the more schemas and nodes and activation you will have Spreading Activation ● Allows us to shift back and forth among levels of meaning ● Store memory in following ways: ○ Brand-specific ○ Ad-specific ○ Brand identification ○ Product category ○ Evaluative reactions Forgetting - Duration of time - Displaced info - Interference - Decay Multi-tasking again: Multitasking results in messing with our working memory. page faulting, thrashing When you do one thing at a time, all attention goes to one thing. Gives all resources to learn one thing and helps you learn better Magic number 7? Or not? George Miller said that short term memories limited on average to about 7 items ( plus or minus 2 items) however it fades after 20 seconds if not rehearsed. This was debunked, as the average human cannot focus on 7 items at once, but rather 2 or 3 plus or minus 1 item. This idea is essentially testing the average number of things a person can multi-task on. Recognition and recall Recognition refers to our ability to “recognize” an event or piece of information as being familiar, while recall designates the retrieval of related details from memory Recalling is more difficult than recognizing (Ex: You recognize a person’s face but it’s harder to recall their name) Nostalgia & DDB Retro Brand guidelines Nostalgia: Marketers may resurrect popular characters to evoke fond memories of the past. Retro brand:- Facilitate rediscovery: make it new for younger audiences and nostalgic for older audiences - Connect with timeless values - Be true and contemporize - Build a community. - Ex. Furby In addition to Motivation concepts covered earlier in semester: Cognitive dissonance: based on the premise that people have a need for order and consistency in their lives and that a state of dissonance (tension) exists when beliefs or behaviors conflict with one another. The more dissonance we feel, the more motivated we are to change something to reduce dissonance. Trying to achieve internal consistency (homeostasis). - Ex. a man wants to help the environment, but he drives a gas guzzling truck; he can either sell his truck and get one with better gas mileage or reduce his emphasis on helping the environment. Doing one of these things would achieve homeostasis. Positive and negative affect 1. Affect - Raw Reactions (Crying during a sappy Tv commercial or writing an angry letter after a horrible stay at a hotel) 2. Types of Affective Responses a. Evaluations - are positive or negative reactions to events and objects that are accompanied by high levels of physiological arousal. b. Moods - involve temporary positive or negative affective states accompanied by moderate levels of arousal. (Could have “woken up on the wrong side of the bed this morning” or an incident caused a certain mood) c. Emotions - such as happiness, anger, or fear, tend to be more intense and often relate to a specific triggering event such as receiving an awesome gift. d. Negative State Relief - Helping others as a way to resolve one’s own negative mood e. Sadvertising - advertising toward inspirational stories that manipulate our emotions f. Emotional Oracle Affect - People who trusted their feelings were better able to predict future events, most likely because those with more confidence were better able to access information they had learned that could help them make an informed forecast. g. Mood Congruency - refers to the idea that our judgements tend to be shaped by our moods. (Why advertisers try and put ads after humorous tv programs) 3. Positive Affect - The positive association that a person has with a specific brand. The reason why many of us will pay more for a specific brand that has the same functionality as a less expensive alternative. (ex. Paying more for a coach purse instead of a lesser priced purse) a. LoveMark - A passionate commitment to one brand - termed by the head of Saatchi & Saatchi b. Happiness - is a mental state of well being characterized by positive emotions 4. Negative Affect - Negative associations we have with certain objects or brands. Example from the book - showing you a disgusting house/room/food to get you to buy cleaning products or the booger character for the cold and flu medicine commercial. a. Envy - a negative emotion associated with the desire to reduce the gap between oneself and someone who is superior on some dimension b. Guilt - is “an individual’s unpleasant emotional state associated with possible objections to his or her actions, inaction, circumstances, or intentions c. Embarrassment - is an emotion driven by a concern for what others think about us d. Happiness Economy - the belief that wellbeing is the new wealth, and social media technology is what allows us to accumulate it e. Sentiment Analysis (Opinion Mining) - a process that scours the social media universe to collect and analyze the words that people use when they describe a specific product or company. f. Word- Phrase Dictionary (Library) - Used to code data pulled to analyze what words we use in association with the emotions we feel. The program scans text to identify whether the words in the dictionary appear. Involvement (all types in book) ● Involvement: A person’s perceived relevance of the object based on their inherent needs, values, and interests. ● Product Involvement: refers to a consumer’s level of interest in a particular product. ○ Example: more closely marketers can tie a brand to an individual, the higher the involvement they will create. High risk=High involvement. ● Message-Response Involvement: Media Platforms possess different qualities that influence how motivated we are to pay attention to what they tell us. ○ Example: television is low involvement medium because it is passive. Print media is high involvement because it is active. ○ Times square in NYC ● Purchase Situation Involvement: Differences in motivation during the process of interacting with a store or web site. ○ Example: recommendation of other products based on the products you buy. Pushing hashbrowns when someone buys a coffee Stimulus generalization: refers to the tendency of a stimuli to a conditioned stimulus to evoke similar conditioned responses Stimulus Organization: ● One factor that helps decide how we will interpret a stimulus is the relationship we assume it has with other events, sensations, or images in the memory. ● Nabisco made Teddy Grahams for adults, but adults resisted. Nabisco changed the packaging to bright yellow, and buyers positively associated a bright primary color with taste, and consumers started buying. ● We perceive ambiguous stimuli, and rely on our past experiences, expectations, and needs to determine meaning. ● We tend to project our own desires or assumptions onto products and ads. The Brain+ The cerebellum is the baby blue under the occipital lobe, it controls balance, coordination, and control of voluntary movement Mapping senses on the brain: ● Smell- frontal lobe ● Taste & Touch- sensory cortex ● Sight- occipital lobe ● Hearing- temporal lobe Where memory processes take place: ● Where memories come in- hippocampus ● Semantic- temporal lobe ● Procedural- cerebellum ● Working memory- prefrontal cortexdoes anyone know the blanks to this slide, i completely missed it Here I deviate a bit from the book: •Learning is acquiring new (or modifying existing) knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences. –In the context of schemas, growing that schema. Knowing a bit about a subject and building onto it •Incidental learning: UNintentional acquisition of the above. Thank you!! No prob Wouldn’t it be unintentional? - Quiz 2 Q: Much learning takes effort and time, but some learning is so casual as to be unintentional. This type of learning is referred to as ________ learning. - A: incidental Agreed, it is Unintentional