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School: University of Texas at Austin
Department: Advertising
Course: Psychology of Advertising
Professor: Close-schienbaum
Term: Summer 2015
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Cost: 50
Description: ADV 319 Exam 2 Study Guide Thursday, March 30th https://quizlet
Uploaded: 04/21/2017
22 Pages 348 Views 0 Unlocks
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● Who is Apple and what do they stand for?




● Castration anxiety: boys afraid of losing their penis (what happened to girls’?




Nike often appeals to what?



ADV 319 Exam 2 Study Guide Thursday, March 30th https://quizlet.com/198818073/adv-319-kahlor-exam-2-flash-cards/?new Self  Video re: self-concept development  ● In early childhood, children tend to describe themselves by describing their physical  environment and their material possessions ● In middle childhood,Don't forget about the age old question of 14the amendment
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Don't forget about the age old question of What did the Communication Decency Act propose?
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children tend to describe themselves by the social groups they're in and their more abstract qualities and personalities Collective self ● A process of self definition, whereby an individual’s identity is largely derived from his or her group memberships ● Important element in the self-concept of eastern societies.  Self-concept, structure/parts ● Self-Concept = summarizes the beliefs a person holds about his or her own attributes  and how he or she evaluates the self on these qualities ● Different parts: the different parts of self concept include self efficacy, self image and self esteem.  ○ content (facial attractiveness vs. mental aptitude) ○ positivity (self-esteem) ○ intensity & stability over time ○ accuracy (degree to which one’s self assessment corresponds to reality);  ● Schema of the self ● Contains self efficacy (nike focuses on this), self image, self esteem Self Image, roles ● How you perceive yourself and how you think others perceive you  ● Contains roles, personality, physical characteristics, skills/abilities, occupation(s) and  hobbies ● Impacted by social and personal norms.  Self-esteem ● The positivity of a person's self-concept ● How you feel about yourself (emotional). ● High self-esteem is a positive evaluation of the self. ● Low self-esteem is a negative evaluation of the self. ● Can trigger social comparison; marketers utilize this ● Global self esteem = feelings about “who we are” (pretty constant) ● Situational self esteem = feelings about “what we do” (fluctuates)  ○ (situational self-image: the role a person plays in a specific social context that  helps to determine how he or she feels) 1Dove example from lecture on self esteem ● The ad featured young girls sharing what they wish they could change about their  physical appearance  ● Part of Dove's campaign to help girls gain confidence and combat low self-esteem issues Self-efficacy, influences on ● Self-efficacy: a person's judgement about being able to perform a particular activity ● High self efficacy in one area doesn’t always coincide with another area ● Four main sources of influence ○ Mastery ■ Successes build efficacy ■ Failures undermine it ○ Vicarious experience ■ If they can do it, I can do it  ○ Social persuasion ■ Verbal from others: ● “You can do it!” likely to mobilize greater effort  ○ Stress ■ Positive mood enhances perceived self-efficacy  Nike often appeals to what? ● Nike appeals to self-image, self-esteem, and self-efficacy ● Mostly appealed to self-efficacy - “Just do it” Social comparison ● Basic human tendency to compare his/herself to others ● Marketers can take advantage of this  Ideal and actual/real self ● Ideal self = a person's conception of how he or she would like to be ● Actual self = our more realistic appraisal of the qualities we do and don't have ● We choose some products because we think they are consistent with our actual self,  whereas we buy others to help us reach an ideal standard ● Because of this we often engage in impression management where we work hard to  manage what others think of us ○ example from the textbook: the “prayer bump” which shows how pious a person  is; pg.180 Extended self, levels ● Extended self = the external objects we consider a part of us (part of our self-identity)  ● Four levels of the extended self: ○ Individual level: consumers include many of their personal possessions in self definition (includes your car, clothes, jewelry, etc. supports idea “you are what  you wear”) ○ Family level: includes a consumer's residence and the furnishings in it (the place  we live is often a central aspect of who we are) 2○ Community level: common for consumers to describe themselves in terms of the  neighborhood or town from which they come (especially important to people  from farm families or residents with close ties to a community-sense of  belonging)  ○ Group level: we regard our attachments to certain groups as a part of the self  (could include subcultures or connections to landmarks, monuments, or sports  teams) Embodied cognition, enclothed cognition ● Embodied Cognition = the perspective that our behaviors and observations of what we  do and buy shape our thoughts rather than vice versa (“states of body modify states of  mind”) ex. Standing in a confident way when we don’t feel confident affects brain  activity ● Enclothed Cognition = symbolic meaning of clothing changes how people behave (a  more general form of embodied cognition) ex. Wearing a lab coat led to enhanced  performance versus being told it was a painter’s coat which led to effect going away Self-consciousness, monitoring ● Awareness of self ● Public self-consciousness = a personality trait that makes a person very aware of how he  or she appears to others ● Self-monitors = more attuned to how they present themselves in their social  environments; individuals who are very conscious of their behavior in social situations  ○ If you’re a high self-monitor, you study other people, are self-conscious and more likely to invest in clothing and cosmetics ○ If you’re a low self-monitor, generally oblivious to how others see you. March to  your own drumbeat.  ○ Their estimates of how others will perceive their product choices influence what  they choose to buy  Multiple selves, roles, examples ● Marketer's pitch products needed to facilitate our role identities  ○ Can apply to multiple roles simultaneously ● Each of us have many selves and roles ● Achieved role identities: freely chosen, freely forfeited  ● Ascribed role identities: gender, racial, ethnic  ● Ex: “Dad Mom” Tide Ad - achieved role identity  Multi-tasking ads vs. science ● Sprint Multitasking Ad: People who multitask seem like they have their life together and  can do several things all at once, so Sprint made a phone with “multitasking capabilities” to mirror such “accomplished” people ○ The Science: humans were not made to multitask, it’s more efficient to  concentrate on one thing at a time (last exam) 3○ We are presented with ads that encourages us to enjoy our multiple selves and  that try to persuade us to purchase products that allow us to experience/perform the roles/be our multi-selves.  ● “We should enjoy multiple selves”- the product advertised in the ad is setting us up for  failure because we suck at multitasking therefore cannot handle multiple roles/selves at  once East-West conceptualizations of the self ● Think of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs - Very Western focused (Individual > community) ● Emphasis on individual identity in Western societies  ● Emphasis on group identity or collective self in Eastern societies ○ place in society very important to that self-concept Identity marketing, - Girls in STEM Commerical ● Marketing references to specific identities which will increase purchase likelihood ● **However, this kind of marketing can backfire and reduce purchase likelihood  ● Ad shows a group of girls doing science in a feminine way, showing girls are only  interested in cosmetology and makeup  Self-image Congruence ● Research suggests that we choose a product when their attributes match some aspect of the self ○ Assume a process of cognitive matching between product attributes and the  consumer's self-image ○ We are attached to an object to the extent we rely on it to maintain our self concept ● This leads to negative reactions from people dissing brands that others have made  emotional connections to ● We infer things about people based on their activities and possessions Symbolic interactionism (in the book) ● Stresses that relationships with other people play a large part to form the self ● people live in a symbolic environment and the meaning attached to any situation or  object is determined by a person’s interpretation of these symbols  Body image ● Consumer's subjective evaluation of his or her physical self ○ Some marketers exploit consumers' tendencies to distort their body images  when they prey on our insecurities about appearance  Beauty ideals over time, examples ● Sports Illustrated Article: Plus-size models are becoming more accepted and appreciated as a more accurate representation of the average American woman, contemporarily ● Article/Video about Christian Siriano: Used plus size models at his fashion show even  though he did it as if it should be a normal thing; made a big impact on fashion industry;  4shows increasing push towards the including of all sizes in the world of fashion and  beauty ideals ● Men’s Beauty Ideals = “Chiseled” jawline, toned, muscular body, “v” line look preferred  on males; masculine appearance ● Open discussion of women’s bodies and how norms are unrealistic  ● Plus size models more normal  ● Normalization of women's reproductive/menstrual health, more open  discussions/campaigns ● Non-gender clothing lines and products ○ Toy-industry Gender identity, roles, socialization, sex-typed products ● Gender identity = the elements of self-concept that reflects sex roles ○ State of mind as well as body  ○ A person's biological gender does not determine whether he or she will exhibit  sex-typed traits ● Sex roles = a culture's expectations about how members of the male or female gender  should act, dress, or speak ● Gender socialization = elements of culture, including advertising, that provide guidelines  regarding "appropriate" sex role behavior for members ● Sex-typed products = reflect stereotypical masculine or feminine attributes and  consumers associate them with one gender or another ○ “Goldieblox” Ad: Toys for girls that aren’t typical of the sex roles assigned to  them; shows move towards gender neutral toys  ○ Zara introduces gender-less clothing line Personality ● refers to a person's unique psychological makeup and how it consistently influences the  way a person responds to his or her environment; remains fairly consistent in life. The  patterns of thought, feeling and behavior that make a person unique.  Freud’s Structural Model ● Sigmund Freud proposed that much of one's adult personality stems from a  fundamental conflict between a person's desire to gratify his or her physical needs and  necessity to function as a responsible member of society. Conflict between ego, super  ego and id.  ● Male focused; Hetero-normative ● Origin of personality is in the childhood and carries through adulthood Ego, id, superego ● Id: the Freudian system oriented toward immediate gratification ○ Operates according to the pleasure principle ○ Pleasure principle: our basic desire to maximize pleasure and avoid pain  5● Superego: internalizes society’s rules and tries to prevent the id from seeking selfish  gratification ○ Essentially the person’s conscience ○ Counterweight to the id ● Ego: system that mediates between the id and the superego ○ Tries to balance these ongoing opposing forces according to the reality principle ○ Reality principle = find ways to gratify the id that the outside (society) will find  acceptable Cat in the Hat ● Id = Cat in the Hat ● Superego = Fish ● Ego = Kids Reality principle, Lynx ad from class ● Reality principle = find ways to gratify the id that the outside (society) will find  acceptable ● Lynx Ad = Image of an “angel” on a screen in a train station -> men started pelvic  thrusting and making fake sexual advances towards the woman on the screen in humor  as woman is not actually there.  60s Freud video ● Illustrates tensions between id and superego ● We are ruled by relationships with our mother and father ● We respond unconsciously to these relationships when we interact w/ others ● David represents ego ● His boss is the father figure  ● Peggy is the mother figure and represents his sex drive Iceberg 6Freud and sexuality, complexes, slips ● Oedipus Complex: boy’s first love is for his mother ● Electra Complex: girl’s first love is for her father ● Freudian slip: subconscious thoughts related to sexuality that slip out during  conversation (we watched video of news reporters accidentally saying sexual words) ● Penis envy: girls develop desire for what they don’t have; accounts for some “female”  behaviors  ● Castration anxiety: boys afraid of losing their penis (what happened to girls’?)  ● Eros: Freud said eros is one of the tensions that we must deal with constantly; the sex  -drive Motivational research ● A qualitative research approach, based on Freudian concepts with heavy emphasis on  unconscious motives for consumption ● We channel socially unacceptable needs into acceptable outlets including product  substitutes  ● Clotaire Rapaille use this kind of research to explore perceptions of luxury - focused on  unconscious motivations Clotaire Rapaille video clip ● Use childhood memories in advertisements to appeal to consumers (this is when  schemas are formed) ● Redefined coffee advertisement to go back to smell imprinting to remind people of  childhood memories Archetypes (healthy relationships to shadows, Jung, video) ● Archetypes come from the “collective unconscious” (storehouse of shared memories  from ancestors) - Carl Jung ● Can be embodiment of character or story at the center of any human experience ● Rags to Riches:  ○ Ex: Cinderella, Harry Potter ● Rebirth: realize their errors before it is too late  7○ Ex: Batman, A Christmas Carol, The Salvation Army ● Quest: painful journey of redemption ○ Ex: Wizard of Oz, Pirates of the Caribbean, Lord of the Rings ● Voyage and Return  ○ Ex: Alice in Wonderland, Goldilocks and the 3 bears, Chronicles of Narnia ● Comedy  ● Tragedy ○ Ex: Romeo & Juliet, Breaking Bad, Julius Caesar  ● Overcoming the monster:  ○ Men in Black, Hansel and Gretel Trait theory, problems (in the book?) ● “...Focuses on the quantitative measurement of personality traits, which we define as  the identifiable characteristics that define a person” ● Grew out of research on abnormal people - a flaw with the research ● Approach to personality that focuses on quantitative measurement of personality traits ● Research firm claims that personality traits are better predictors of the type of media  consumers choose than are demographic variables such as race, gender, and income  ● TV shows can offer markets insights into your personality and the types of brands you’re  likely to prefer, based on your dominant personality traits and the perceived match-up  with a brand’s image ● Problems:  ○ Views are generalized into a group of personalities that may not always match ○ There may be outliers  ○ Scales aren’t always reliable to measure/unstable over time ○ Marketers don’t always administer tests under appropriate conditions  ○ Sometimes researchers make changes so that the study suits their own situations or needs which dilutes validity of measuring personality Brand personality, 5 general categories ● Key to brand loyalty ● Brand personality= a set of traits people attribute to a product as if it were a person ● Sincerity  ● Excitement ● Competence  ● Sophistication ● Ruggedness Examples from class (Blue Bell, etc.) ● Northface = ruggedness, sometimes sophisticated (ex: lost gringos trailer, talks about  traveling and shows guy travel w/ Northface products) ● Blue bell = sincerity (depicts family with a song about family and country w/ memories) ● Red Bull = excitement[ppt? (linking red bull with music scene) 8Equity ● Strong, favorable, and unique associations for a brand in memory ● Builds over time ● Extent to which one is willing to pay more for a brand than a generic version ● Blue Bell lost equity when people got sick from the ice cream Lifestyles, marketing, group identities ● Lifestyle = pattern of consumption reflecting how one spends time and money  ● People sort themselves based on what they like to do, how they spend their leisure time, how they spend their disposable income ● This marketing strategy allows consumers to pursue chosen ways to enjoy lives and  express social identities Brand storytelling ● Emphasizes the importance of giving a product a rich background to involve customers  in its history and experience ○ Based on the tradition of reader-response theory ○ Reader-response theory = widely accepted perspective in literature that focuses  on the role of the reader in interpreting a story rather than just relying upon the  author's version Psychographics ● Involves the "use of psychological, sociological, and anthropological factors… to  determine how the market is segmented by the propensity of groups within the market - and their reasons - to make a particular decision about a product, person, ideology, or  otherwise hold an attitude or use a medium" ● Helps determine market segments ● Determine reasons for choosing a product Big 5 Traits (in the book -pg.228) ● Kahlor really wants us to know bc a big thing in marketing ● Set of five dimensions that form the basis of personality (Acronym: OCEAN) ○ Openness to experience: the degree to which a person is open to new ways of  doing things ○ Conscientiousness: the level of organization and structure a person needs ○ Extroversion: how well a person tolerate stimulation from people ○ Agreeableness: the degree to which we defer to other people ○ Neuroticism (emotional instability): how well a person copes with stress AIO ● Activities, interests, and opinions ● (Falls in the category of) Psychographic, variables researchers use to group consumers VALS2 – know the 8 categories ● Best-known lifestyle/ psychographic segmentation system that SBI International  developed  9● VALS (Values And LifeStyles) Groups (I think about eating bread so much seriously; I  think all ex beliebers seek musical sounds ):  ○ Innovators= Successful consumers, many resources ○ Thinkers = have sufficient resources; satisfied, reflective, and comfortable ○ Achievers = have sufficient resources; career-oriented and prefer predictability ○ Experiencers = have sufficient resources; impulsive, young, and enjoy offbeat or  risky experiences ○ Believers = fewer resources; strong principles and favor proven brands ○ Strivers = similar to Achievers but with fewer resources; concerned about  approval of others ○ Makers = fewer resources; action oriented and focus energies on self sufficiency ○ Strugglers = bottom of economic ladder; most concerned with meeting needs of  the moment and have limited ability to acquire anything beyond basic needs for  survival Values ● Belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite; plays a role in person’s  consumption activities 10○ Products often purchased because it is believed that these products will help  attain a value-related goal ability to acquire anything beyond basic needs for  survival (for us visual learners) Core values ● Common general values held by a culture  Apple video on Values ● Who is Apple and what do they stand for?  ○ It’s not about making boxes for people to get their jobs done,  ● Core value = people with passion can change the world--- for better ● We seek others that share our values/beliefs ● Tend to be exposed to information that supports our values Attitudes Attitude defined ● Lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or  issue ○ Lasting because it tends to endure over time ○ General because it applies to more than a momentary event ● Inclination to respond to something favorably or unfavorably ● Tend to be predictive of behavior ABC model (Components of Attitude) ● Affective/Affect: feelings or emotions that something evokes, e.g. fear, sympathy, hate ○ Without affect/feelings, we make either bad decisions or no decisions at all. ○ When we create a memory, we also store that moment’s affect with it. When we  recall the memory, we recall the affect/memory alongside the memory itself. ○ Positive affect help consumers buy products again if they had a good experience  the first time around.  ● Behavioral: disposition to act in certain ways, INTENTION to act. ACTION.  ● Cognitive: thoughts, beliefs, and ideas ○ Emotion plays a role ○ Order depends on situation AFFECT ● behavior that is observable representation of emotion ● Evokes a memory ● Lack of emotions = you make bad decisions or none at all  Attitude Object ● Anything towards which one has an attitude 11Attitude commitment (consumers vary in their commitment to an attitude;the degree of  commitment relates to their level of involvement with the attitude object) ● Internalization = highest level of involvement, part of value system, hardest to change,  deep-seated attitudes become part of our value system ● Identification = attitudes formed to conform to another person or group; mid level  involvement ● Compliance = attitudes formed to gain reward/avoid punishment, easiest to change;  lowest level of involvement  ○ ex: politicians "flip-flopping" attitudes The four theories of attitudes (functionalist, cognitive dissonance, self-perception,  balance) ● Functionalist: states that attitudes exist because they serve some function for the  person; change when they no longer serve their function. These are Utilitarian, Value expressive, Ego-defensive and knowledge function.  ○ Example: change in social status may lead to changes in attitude towards where  you live and your old car ○ Formed by Daniel Katz  ● Cognitive Dissonance: when a person is confronted w/ inconsistencies among  attitudes/behaviors, he will take action to resolve it. Conflict motivates us to reduce  dissonance. ● Self-perception: Assumes that we observe our own behavior to determine just what our  attitudes are. “I must be into facebook big time.” Explains the use of the foot in the door  technique--I must really hear what this salesman had to say that is why I let him in the  door. We act and then infer from our actions. ● Balance: how people develop relationships with people/things in their environments;  person’s tendency to change relations among elements in order to make them  consistent or balanced ○ Triad attitude structures: ■ Person and his perceptions ■ An attitude object ■ Some other person/object  ○ We want relations among elements in a triad to be harmonious. If unbalanced,  creates tension that's motivated to be reduced by changing perceptions to  restore balance  We act and then infer our attitudes  ● High Involvement hierarchy = Think -> Feel -> Do (Cognition - affect - behavior) ○ Assumes consumer is high involved in making purchase decision ● Low Involvement hierarchy = Think -> Do -> Feel (Cognition - behavior - affect) ○ Assumes consumer doesn’t initially have strong preference for one brand  over another ○ Makes evaluation after buying product 12○ Easily swayed by simple stimulus-response learning ● Experiential (not experimental stop writing that) hierarchy = Feel -> Do -> Think  (Affect - Behavior - Cognition) ○ Leads with moods ○ Can trigger impulse decisions ○ Intangible product attributes may shape our attitude to the brand ○ Emotional contagion = messages delivered or advertised by happy people enhance our attitude towards product attitudes from our behavior  Persuasion and compliance ● Persuasion - the attempt to change attitudes often in hopes of changing or encouraging  behavior ○ Six approaches to persuasion ■ Reciprocity = more likely to give if we first receive ● Ex: Free food samples at Costco ■ Scarcity = things not readily available are more desirable ■ Authority = we believe authoritative sources ■ Consistency = try not to contradict what we’ve said before ■ Liking = we will agree with those we like or admire ■ Consensus = we will consider what others do before we decide what to  do ● Compliance - attitude formed because it helps us to gain rewards or avoid punishment Bem and self-perception - theory ● Bem says we infer our attitudes from our behavior (behave then think about it) ● Behavior serves as informative purpose ○ Ex) “I was so rude to him… I must not like him.” Foot in the door video- ( DON’T NEED TO KNOW about video, need to know foot in door  concept)> in textbook ● Starts with small tasks like handshakes and build their way up to asking for phone  numbers. More successful than just asking for numbers off the bat. ● ?Video of kids going to the mall? ● Video is about reciprocity and getting people to do things by starting off with simple  tasks and growing from there Heider and balance  ● Fritz Heider originated the Balance Theory- shows how people develop their  relationships with people/things in the environment. We feel pressure to find balance by changing our perceptions in order to restore order.  Fishbein’s models, including reasoned action, social pressure example video re: smoking ● Fishbein Model: Measures 3 Components of Attitude ■ Salient beliefs people have about an attitude object (Beliefs about A0) ■ Object attitudes linkages = probability that a particular object has an  important attribute (Attributes of A0 ) 13■ Evaluations of each of the important attributes ○ Marketing applications ■ Capitalizing on relative advantage ■ Strengthen perceived product/attribute linkages ■ Add a new attribute ■ Influence competitors ratings ○ Problem: Low correlation between reported attitude and actual behavior ● Theory of Reasoned Actions  ○ Updated version of the Fishbein multiattribute attitude theory that considers  factors such as social pressure and the attitude toward the act of buying a  product, rather than simply attitudes toward the product itself  ○ Looks at intentions because behavior is hard to predict ● Smoking Ad: Dad is not meeting the expectations of being a good father to his kids by  causing them further stress and disappointment. The ad also appeals to a feeling of guilt. Norms ● standards of proper or acceptable behavior Behavior ● a consumer’s actions with regard to an attitude object Celebrity endorsements ● Works in marketing because celebrities embody cultural meanings (symbolize important  categories like status and social class) ● Celebrity chosen based on what advertiser wants product to convey and if that celebrity  embodies that meaning ELM and route to persuasion (book and lecture) ● Elaboration likelihood model = the approach that one of two routes to persuasion  (central vs peripheral) will be followed, depending on the personal relevance of a  message; the route taken determines the relative importance of the message contents  vs other characteristics, such as source attractiveness ● ELM = when motivated and able to pay attention (high involvement), our information  processing follows the central government route processing in decision-making ○ More motivated ○ This involves logical, conscious thinking and careful consideration ○ We carefully consider the message content ○ We elaborate on the message with existing knowledge, integrate it into schemas ○ Impacted by perceived relevance ○ This can lead to a permanent change in our attitude ● When unmotivated or overtaxed (low involvement), we follow the peripheral route ○ Less focused on careful evaluation of message, more on cues and heuristics ○ Surface characteristics more important (ex: packaging, colors, etc) ○ Only temporary change; susceptible; but not predictive of behavior ○ Emotional or behavioral decision making rather than cognitive  14Communication models ● Specifies the elements they need to control to communicate with their customers ○ Source = where the communication originates ○ Message = there are many ways to say something, and the structure of the  message has significant effect on how we perceive it ○ Medium = platform in which we transmit the message  Source, source characteristics, risk, source examples including Sex Pistols, Sean John,  cough syrup (didn’t watch cough syrup) ● Cough syrup Ad = type of ad that may experience performance risk, it’s not about if it’s  cool or not, it’s about whether 高 it works or not (no social risks) - Jeans is an example of social risk.  ● Source-  ○ Perceived source of the message ○ It may be perceived as the person or people shown in the ad ○ Has huge impact on likelihood that consumers will receive the message ● What makes a good source?  ○ Credibility- expertise, objectivity, trustworthiness, consumers beliefs that source  is competent  ■ Ex: saddled with cough name then gives guy Glycodin [performance risk] ○ Attractiveness- likeability, social value, relates to sources physical appearance,  personality, social status etc ■ Sex Pistols: Johnny Rotten then: movement focused on anti-conformity,  shouldn’t follow old british traditions, need to question authority. Now:  iconic, nostalgia, poking fun at British culture ■ Sean John: social risk, black identity in fashion  15Two factor theory ● Explains the fine line between familiarity and boredom ● Proposes that two separate psychological processes operate when we repeatedly show  an ad to a viewer ● Repetition increases familiarity and thus reduces uncertainty about the product, but  over time boredom increases with each exposure, and at some point the amount of  boredom incurred begins to exceed the amount of uncertainty reduced, resulting in  wear out ● Can eliminate by shortening ads or slightly varying the ads over time  Message factors - last 5 slides in Attitude Lecture ● Should we use pictures or words? ○ Pics can capture emotion more quickly, require less resources to process ○ But words can explain ○ Together they can achieve both ● How often should a message be repeated? ○ Boredom pronounced with longer ads  ○ Two factor theory  ● Should it arouse emotions? ○ Depends what is at stake ● Should it be concrete or based on imagery? ○ Depends on the target, the product and the impact you are looking for Content factors  ● Should it draw an explicit conclusion? ○ Depends on how motivated they are to do the thinking themselves… ● Should it show both sides of argument? ○ Effective, but hard to get clients to do this. ● Should it explicitly compare product to competitors? ○ Works as long as not too nasty – and as long as the competition is well-known  already Arguments, two-sided messages (examples and why works, nike/adidas) ● Shows + and - info, effective but rarely used, do it with competitor when people already  know they’re your main competition  ● ○ Ex: nike and adidas  ○ Doesn’t work if you’re too mean. Emotional appeals and examples ● Emphasize the (-) ● Fear appeal: negative consequences that can occur unless the consumer changes a  behavior or an attitude ○ Can’t be too scary 16○ Need to offer a means to alleviate the threat through action or else you’ll get  backlash or people will shut it out ○ xex) Nature Valley commercial: encouraging kids to reconnect with nature and  not be the generation that’s dependant on tech ○ ex) scary insurance super bowl ad - shows a young boy not getting to do all the  things he wanted to do b/c he died in a car crash. didn’t offer means to alleviate  the threat Reality engineering ● Occurs when marketers appropriate elements of popular culture and use them as  promotional vehicles ○ Example: “used” vintage jeans look by applying chemical washes and sandpaper  to jeans Guerilla marketing ● Promotional strategies that use unconventional means and venues to encourage word of mouth about products ○ Example: putting an advertisement in a public restroom Product placement, advergaming ● Product placement: insertion of real products in fictional movies, TV shows, books, and  plays ○ Example: Apple products in a lot of movies ● Advergaming: where online games merge with interactive advertisements that let  companies target specific types of consumers Sex Appeals ● Marketing communications for products that feature heavy doses of erotic suggestions  that range from subtle hints to blatant displays of skin ● Female nudity -> positively perceived by men and negatively by women ● Although it draws attention to ad it can be counterproductive; people become less likely  to buy it. ● Sexual appeals ineffective when used as a “trick” to grab attention HOWEVER, if product  itself is related to sex then it can work Humor Appeals ● Marketing message relying on humor to sell product ● Funny commercials grab our attention; mixed ideas if they are effective or not ● Inhibits counterarguing ( where a consumer thinks of reasons why they disagree or agree with product) Decision Making Stages in decision making  1. Problem recognition 17○ When we experience a significant difference between our current state of affairs  and some state we desire ○ A problem arises in one of two ways: ■ Need recognition - experiences a decline in the quality of his/ her actual  state ● Ex.: when your car runs out of gas ■ Opportunity recognition - moves his/her ideal state upward 2. Information search ○ Process by which we survey the environment for appropriate data to make  reasonable decisions 3. Evaluate alternatives ○ Evoked set = alternatives a consumer knows about ○ Consideration set = the ones the consumers seriously considers 4. Product choice 5. Postpurchase Evaluation ■ Occurs when we experience the product or service we selected and  decide whether it meets (or exceeds) our expectations Emotion, Antonio Demasio video ● Emotions often play an important role in decision making ○ Antonio Demasio ■ Impaired emotional capacity can lead to bad decisions ■ Emotions help call on prior decision-making experience and how we felt  then ■ Emotions also serve as an impetus for action ■ Video: It is emotion that allows you to decide whether something is good, bad or indifferent. How we felt in our past experiences help shape the  choices we make in the present. Consumer hyperchoice (Detailed description in the book) ● Forces us to make repeated decisions that may drain psychological energy while  decreasing our abilities to make smart choices Rationality ● Some argue rational decision making is preferable or ideal because good decisions  require careful processing of alternatives ● Others argue, we make some decisions informally, using shortcuts or heuristics to act  quickly because we cannot weigh all our options, product knowledge ● Stage 2 in decision making ● Process by which we survey our environment for appropriate data to make reasonable  decision here are too many (consumer hyperchoice) ● Cognitive psychology- researchers thought decision making needed to be  rational- over time, not actually true, we use shortcuts (heuristics), habits  Directed v. incidental learning 18● Directed – existing knowledge and seeking more knowledge to go on top. ● Incidental (Accidental) – getting exposed to something over and over slowly  makes you learn about it or from it. You didn’t originally seek this knowledge, but were  exposed to it. (low-dose advertising) Information search and product knowledge  ● **People who are moderately knowledgeable about product are most likely to engage in search Sunk cost, loss aversion  ● Loss aversion: people tend to hate losing things more than they like getting things ● Sunk-cost fallacy: if we've paid for something, we're more reluctant to waste it ○ People don’t want to waste money. If you frame something to someone as being  “wasteful” it will affect their decision more strongly. ○ We feel stronger emotions about loss rather than gains. Biases, Kahneman video ● Mental accounting: problems framed as gains/losses influences our decisions differently ● Kahneman Video: ○ System 1 thinking (2+2) ■ Similar to peripheral thinking ○ System 2 thinking (17*24) ■ Similar to central thinking ■ Necessary to overcome biases ■ Overcome use of stereotypes  Purchase momentum ● Initial impulse to buy to satisfy our needs increase the likelihood that we will buy even  more Prospect theory ● Analyze how the value of a decision depends on gains or losses ● Gain frame – most effective with certain outcomes. “You will certainly do well on the  test with this pen.” ● Loss frame – most effective with uncertain outcomes. “You may not do well if you don’t  have this pen for the test.” System 1 & 2 thinking ● System 1 thinking (2+2) ○ Similar to peripheral thinking ○ System 1 is mostly in charge. You don’t apply known facts to yourself because  you expect one thing without really analyzing the situation. Ex: Saying, “oh I’m  not going to over spend on my kitchen remodel“ when you know that statistically almost everyone goes over budget during a remodel. This method can become  very biased.  ● System 2 thinking (17*24) 19○ Similar to central thinking/processing ○ Necessary to overcome biases ○ You can’t just know the answer without thinking deeper about it. It relates to our ability to reason. Deeper thinking. Neuromarketing ● Uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (or fMRI), a brain-scanning device that  tracks blood flow as we perform mental tasks to take an up-close look at how our brains  respond to marketing messages and product design features ○ Measures attention, affect/emotion, and memory SEO (Search Engine Optimization) ● The procedure used by companies to design the content of Websites and posts to  maximize the likelihood that their content will show up when someone searches for a  relevant term  Product categorization levels (related to schemas) pg. 326  ● Subordinate level - includes individual brands (book example: ice cream, pie, and cake  for fattening, and fruit, yogurt for non-fattening)  ● Basic level - most useful for classifying products (book example: non-fattening vs  fattening dessert) ● Superordinate level - abstract information (book example: dessert)  Compensatory rules ● It allows a product to make up for its shortcomings on one dimension by excelling on  another. ○ Two types: ■ Simple additive rule = select option with largest number of positive  attributes 20■ Weighted additive rule = select option with largest number of positive  attributes but take into account relative importance of attributes by  weighting each one in terms of relative importance to decision maker Habit and loyalty ● Habitual decision making involves little to no conscious effort ○ Can be due to inertia (less effort to just get a familiar product) or due to brand  loyalty  ● Brand Loyalty ○ Purchasing behavior involving a conscious decision to continue buying the same  brand Organizational decision making ● Different people are in charge of each stage of the decision within organizations,  businesses, even households ● Usually requires precise specifications ● More careful weighing of decisions ● Involves more sales reps.  Roles in collective decision-making ● Initiator: the person who brings up the idea or identifies a need ● Gatekeeper: the person who conducts the information search and controls the flow of  information available to the group to consider ● Influencer: the person who tries to sway the outcome of the decision ● Buyer: the person who actually makes the purchase ● User: the person who actually consumes the product or service Organizational decisions ● Many decision- makers of varied responsibilities  ● High accountability ● Established relationships with distributors  ● Sales representatives repeat purchases, bulk order Family structure, identity, decision making ● Family structure: who’s in charge, what decisions are shared ○ Ex.: Mom in charge of preparing meals  ○ Examples of shared decisions include family vacations, where to eat, etc. How are modern fams changing (including fam size), videos ● First, multiple generations (Extended), then nuclear, now mixed families ● More open about transracial, same sex, adoptive families ● A household now means any occupied housing unit ● ex: canada census video-Married people are now the minority; more couples without  children outnumber couples with children; common law and single parent families on  rise; increase in late home leaving among children; delay in childbearing; legalization of  gay marriage 21● Family size: depends on edu level, availability of birth control, community norms and  religion ● Women want smaller families; trend towards voluntary childlessness  ● DINKs (dual-income, no kids couples) are a valuable market segment Sandwich gen, boomerang kids ● Sandwich gen: adults who care for their parents as well as kids ● Boomerang kids: adult children who return to their parents home- spend less on  household items, more on entertainment Family life cycle (with cigna stages) ● How families spend $$$ combines trends in income and family composition with  changes in demand placed on income ○ Couples spend money based on life cycle stage, whether they have kids, or  whether both partners work ● Cigna Life Stages: independence, coupling/marriage, parenting (babies-adolescents),  launching adult children, retirement or senior years Function of family ● Economic well-being- providing $$$ to dependents ● Emotional support- love/intimacy ● Suitable family lifestyle- time, priority and relation to consumption ● Family-member socialization- values, norms, culture religion Types of household decisions ● Consensual purchase decisions - members agree on desired purchase ● Accommodative purchase decisions - can’t agree so must compromise ○ Factors that affect family decision conflict include: ■ Interpersonal need: a person’s level of investment in the group ■ Product involvement and utility: the degree to which a person will use the product to satisfy a need ■ Responsibility: for procurement, maintenance, payment and etc ■ Power: the degree to which one family member exerts influence over the  others 22

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