BIOS 1030 Final Exam Study Guide
BIOS 1030 Final Exam Study Guide 1748
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BIOS 1030 Study Guide Chapter 13 The Endocrine System 131 The endocrine system produces hormones Endocrine system a collection of specialized cells tissues and glands that produce and secrete circulating chemical messenger molecules called hormones Hormones are secreted by endocrine glands ductless organs that secrete their products into interstitial uid lymph and blood 0 Endocrine secreted internallyquot Exocrine glands secrete products such as mucus sweat tears and digestive uids into ducts that empty into the appropriate sites Approx 50 known hormones circulate in the bloodstream Endocrine system has characteristics setting it apart from the nervous system 0 Hormones of the endocrine system reach nearly every living cell 0 Each hormone acts only on certain cells I Target cells certain group of cells that each hormone acts on o Endocrine control tends to be slower than nervous system control 0 The endocrine and nervous systems can and often do interact with each other I Timing of growth and sexual maturation 132 Hormones are classified as steroid or nonsteroid Classified based on structure and mechanism of action 0 Steroid hormones structurally related to cholesterol and are all lipid soluble Steroid hormones enter the cell bind to an intracellular receptor and activate genes that produce new proteins 0 Nonsteroid hormones structurally related to proteins and are lipid insoluble water soluble Nonsteroid hormones bind to receptors on the cell s surface initiating a series of events that ultimately alters cellular activity in some way even though the hormones never entered the cell at all Steroid hormones enter target cells 0 Steroid hormones can diffuse across cell membrane bind to specific hormone receptors inside the cell forming a hormonereceptor complex within nucleus or cytoplasm Complex attaches to DNA activating specific genes causing formation of RNA which leaves the nucleus and directs synthesis of certain proteins Proteins then carry out the cellular response to the hormone slower than nonsteroid o Nonsteroid hormones do not enter the target cell but bind to receptors on the outer surface of the cell membrane causing a change in shape of the membrane protein initiating a change within the cell ipping a light switch to a room without entering it Hormones participate in negative feedback loops 0 Some hormones participate in internal homeostatic control mechanisms and control vital physiological processes 0 Endocrine gland is the control center the hormone represents the pathway between the control center and the effectors and the effectors are the hormone s target cells tissues or organs 0 Negative feedback loop involving an endocrine gland and a hormone is a stable selfadjusting mechanism for maintaining homeostasis of the controlled variable because any change in that controlled variable sets in motion a response that reverses that change 133 The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland Hypothalamus small region in the brain that serves as a homeostatic control center important link between the nervous system and endocrine system 0 Produces 2 hormones of its own 0 Monitors and controls hormone secretions of the pituitary gland Pituitary gland master glandquot because it secretes 8 different hormones that regulate many of the other endocrine glands o 2 lobes posterior anterior Posterior pituitary stores ADH and Oxytocin o Neuroendocrine cells cells in the hypothalamus that function as both nerve cells and endocrine cells because they generate nerve impulses and secrete hormones into blood vessels 0 ADH antidiuretic hormone regulates water balance I Primary target cells are kidneys stimulates reabsorption of water 0 Oxytocin causes uterine contractions and milk ejection I Target cells are uterus and mammary glands breasts of pregnant and lactating females I Neuroendocrine re ex stimulus is responsible for hormone secretion sensory receptors in nipple Anterior pituitary produces 6 key hormones o ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone aka corticotropin stimulates adrenal cortex I Target cells are located in outer layer or cortex of adrenal gland I Stimulates release of another group of hormones glucocorticoids which are steroid hormones involved in stressrelated conditions I Regulated by negative feedback loop o TSH thyroidstimulating hormone aka thyrotropin acts on the thyroid gland I Stimulates thyroid gland to synthesize and release thyroid hormones o FSH folliclestimulating hormone and LH luteinizing hormone stimulate the reproductive organs I Aka gonadotropins because they stimulate the growth development and function of the reproductive organs gonads in both males and females I FSH induces egg development and sperm development I LH promotes egg release ovulation produces progesterone after ovulation and also testosterone in males I Both stimulate secretion of estrogen I Absent until ages 1013 0 PRL prolactin mammary glands and milk production I PRL concentration in blood rises toward the end of pregnancy because estrogen stimulates hypothalamus to step up production of prolactinreleasing hormone 0 GH growth hormone widespread effects on growth I Stimulates protein synthesis and cell division using body fat as a source of energy I Difficult to define a specific target cell or action I Most of its effects occur during childhood and adolescence causing a dramatic increase in the mass and length of muscles and bone Pituitary disorders hypersecretion or hyposecretion o Hypersecretion too much hormone o Hyposecretion too little hormone I Hyposecretion of ADH causes the kidneys to lose too much water leading to diabetes insipidus I Hyposecretion of GH causes pituitary dwarfism hypersecretion of GH causes gigantism 134 The pancreas secretes glucagon insulin and somatostatin Pancreas both an endocrine gland secreting hormones into the blood and an exocrine gland secreting enzymes uids and ions into the digestive tract to aid in digestion 3 hormones o Glucagon secreted by alpha cells glucagon is secreted into the bloodstream when blood glucose levels decline between meals I Causes breakdown of glycogen to glucose 0 Insulin secreted by beta cells insulin lowers blood sugar does opposite of glucagon I Promotes uptake of glucose by cells of liver muscle and fat tissue and converts glucose into glycogen o Somatostatin secreted by delta cells in hypothalamus appears to inhibit the secretion of both glucagon and insulin 135 The adrenal glands comprise the cortex and medulla Adrenal glands 2 small endocrine glands located just above the kidneys 0 Each has an outer layer called adrenal cortex and inner core called the adrenal medulla Adrenal cortex produces small amounts of estrogen and testosterone and 2 classes of steroid hormones called glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids o Glucocorticoids helps regulate blood glucose levels I Cortisol accounts for 95 of glucocorticoids maintains blood glucose levels by promoting the utilization of fats and increases breakdown of protein to amino acids in muscle Controlled by typical feedback loop 0 Mineralocorticoids helps regulate minerals sodium and potassium I Aldosterone most abundant of mineralocorticoids responsible for regulating the amounts of sodium and potassium in the body Helps maintain body water balance with ADH Adrenal medulla produces the nonsteroid hormones epinephrine adrenaline and norepinephrine noradrenaline 0 Both hormones are also neurotransmitters and its function not structure determine whether they act as neurotransmitters or hormones I When released into the blood and act on distant target cells they are hormones 0 Both hormones participate in a wide range of actions similar to the fightor ight responses They raise blood glucose levels increase heart rate and force of contraction increase respiration rate and constrict or dilate blood vessels in many organs all actions that prepare the body for emergency activity 136 Thyroid and parathyroid glands Thyroid gland situated just below the larynx at the front of the trachea and the 2 lobes wrap part of the way around the trachea o Produces 2 hormones thyroxine and calcitonin I Thyroxine not structurally a steroid hormone but acts like one because it is lipid soluble It increases the production and use of ATP from glucose in nearly all body cells regulated by negative feedback loop I Calcitonin promotes bone growth inhibits activity of osteoclasts stimulates uptake of calcium by bone Part of negative feedback control mechanism high blood calcium levels stimulate calcitonin low blood calcium levels inhibit it Parathyroid glands 4 glands embedded in the back of the thyroid produces only one hormone PTH parathyroid hormone o PTH removes calcium and phosphate from bone increases absorption of calcium by the digestive tract and causes the kidneys to retain calcium and excrete phosphate Stimulated by low blood calcium levels absorption is through Vitamin D Thyroid and parathyroid are functionally linked both regulate calcium balance but thyroid has a separate role controlling metabolism 137 Testes and ovaries produce sex hormones Testes produce androgens male sex hormones primary androgen is testosterone o In males testosterone regulates development and normal functioning of sperm the male reproductive organs male sex drive and spurt of bone and muscle growth at puberty Ovaries produce estrogens female sex hormones and progesterone o In females estrogen initiates the development of female secondary sex characteristics such as breast development widening pelvis and distribution of body fat and regulates menstrual cycle 138 Other glands and organs also secrete hormones Thymus gland hormones aid the immune system 0 Thymus gland located between the lungs behind breastbone and near the heart Secretes peptide hormones called thymosin and thymopoietin which help lymphocytes develop into mature T cells The pineal gland secretes melatonin o Pineal gland peasized gland located within the brain Secretes melatonin in a cyclic manner coupled to the daily cycle of light and dark Secretion rises at night and falls during daylight inducing sleep slowing the aging process and enhancing immunity Endocrine functions of the heart the digestive system and the kidneys o ANH atrial natriuretic hormone peptide nonsteroid hormone secreted by atria of the heart helps regulate blood pressure Blood pressure rises ANH increases the rate at which sodium and water are excreted in urine 0 Gastrin secretin and cholecystokinin hormones secreted by the digestive system have effects on the stomach pancreas and gallbladder o Erythropoietin and renin hormones secreted by the kidneys erythropoietin stimulates production of red blood cells in bone marrow and renin is an enzyme but functions as a hormone 139 Other chemical messengers Histamine released into interstitial uid in response to in ammation or presence of an allergen increases secretion of mucus dilates blood vessels and increases leakiness of capillaries Prostaglandins group of chemicals derived from a fatty acid precursor controls local blood ow constricting blood vessels and contributes to in ammatory response and involved in blood clotting Nitric oxide gas chemical messenger regulates local blood ow controls penile erection and regulates smooth muscle contraction in digestive tract Growth factors chemical messenger molecules the modulate development of specific tissues at the local level Functions include nerve epidermal fibroblast plateletderived tumor angiogenesisinsulin like growth factor 1310 Disorders of the endocrine system Diabetes mellitus inadequate control of blood sugar 0 Inability to get glucose into cells where it can be used resulting in abnormally high glucose concentration in the blood I Type 1 diabetes 510 of all cases caused by failure of pancreas to produce enough insulin person s own immune system attacks insulinproducing cells in the pancreas I Type 2 diabetes 9095 of all cases cells fail to respond adequately to insulin even when it is present Hypothyroidism underactive thyroid gland o In children can slow body growth alter brain development and delay onset of puberty o In adults can lead to myxedema swelling under the skin lethargy weight gain low BMR and low body temperature Hyperthyroidism overactive thyroid gland 0 Increased BMR and causes hyperactivity nervousness agitation and weight loss Addison s disease too little cortisol and aldosterone 0 Failure of adrenal cortex to secrete sufficient cortisol and aldosterone Lack of cortisol lowers blood glucose levels lack of aldosterone lowers blood sodium Cushing s syndrome too much cortisol 0 Excessive production of glucose from glycogen and protein and retention of too much salt and water Muscle mass decreases extra glucose is converted to body fat in certain areas of the body face abdomen and back of the neck Muscle weakness and fatigue high blood pressure Chapter 14 The Digestive System and Nutrition 141 The digestive system brings nutrients into the body Nutrients substances in food that are required for growth reproduction and the maintenance of health Nutrients are used to fuel cellular activities build cell components etc They draw nutrients from the blood and blood obtains them from digestive system or from nutrient storage pools Digestive system consists of all the organs that share the common function of getting nutrients into the body 0 Mouth pharynx esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine rectum and anus form GI gastrointestinal tract 0 Lumen space within the GI tract through which food and liquids travel Digestive system has 4 accessory organs salivary glands liver gallbladder and pancreas o Salivary glands saliva moistens food bicarbonate maintains pH amylase digests starch lysozyme inhibits bacteria 0 Liver produces bile performs various functions associated with processing and storing nutrients o Gallbladder stores and concentrates bile o Pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into small intestine secretes bicarbonate into small intestine to neutralize stomach acid Walls of GI tract are composed of 4 layers 0 Mucosa innermost layer mucous membrane in contact with the lumen o Submucosa connective tissue containing blood vessels lymph vessels and nerves 0 Muscularis responsible for movement consists of 2 or 3 sublayers of smooth muscle 0 Serosa thin connective tissue sheath that surrounds and protects the other 3 layers 5 basic processes accomplish digestive system function 0 Mechanical processing and movement chewing mixing contents of the lumen and propelling it forward 0 Secretion uid digestive enzymes acid alkali bile and mucus are all secreted into the GI tract 0 Digestion contents of lumen are broken down into smaller and smaller particles 0 Absorption nutrient molecules pass across mucosal layer and into the blood or lymph o Elimination undigested material is eliminated from the body via the anus 2 types of motility aid digestive processes 0 Peristalsis propels food forward Bolus stretches a portion of the GI tract causing smooth muscle in front of it to relax and muscle behind it to contract pushing the bolus forward Wave of contraction ripples through the organs of the GI tract mixing the contents of the stomach and pushing the contents of the esophagus and intestines forward 0 Segmentation mixes food Short sections of smooth muscle contract and relax in a random fashion resulting in a backandforth mixing of the contents of the lumen Occurs in small intestine 142 The mouth processes food for swallowing Mouth entrance to GI tract breaks down food by chewing 0 Teeth bite and chew food 0 Tongue positions and tastes food 0 Saliva begins the process of digestion I Salivary glands produce saliva which moistens food and makes it easier to chew and swallow 143 The pharynx and esophagus deliver food to the stomach Swallowing begins as tongue pushed bolus into pharynx Before swallowing muscles keep esophagus closed Soft palate rises to close passage to nasal cavity Epiglottis bends to close off trachea and open esophagus 144 The stomach stores food digests protein and regulates delivery Stomach performs 3 important functions 0 Food storage stomach stores food until it can be digested and absorbed Shrinks when empty expands when we eat 0 Digestion uses strong acid and proteindigesting enzymes to digest proteins acid also kills bacteria Muscle contractions mix food and pushes it into the small intestine 0 Regulation of delivery regulates the rate at which food is delivered to the small intestine Pepsin a large precursor molecule that becomes a proteindigesting enzyme Chyme watery mixture of partially digested food and gastric juice that is delivered to the small intestine Stomach contractions mix food and push it forward 0 A peristaltic wave of contraction occurs in the stomach that mixes the contents of the stomach and forces a small amount of chime into the small intestine with each contraction o Takes 26 hours for the stomach to empty completely after a meal 145 The small intestine digests food and absorbs nutrients and water Small intestine has 2 major functions 0 Digestion small intestine digests proteins carbohydrates and lipids 0 Absorption proteins carbohydrates and lipids are broken down into single amino acids monosaccharides fatty acids and glycerol which are small enough to be transported across mucosal cells into the blood I 90 of absorbable nutrients and water is absorbed in the small intestine 3 regions of the small intestine o Duodenum most of the digestion takes place here 0 jejunum and ileum products of digestion are absorbed here Villi microscopic projections covering the large folds of the mucosa Microvilli smaller cytoplasmic projections of epithelial cells 146 Accessory organs aid digestion and absorption The pancreas secretes enzymes and NaHC03 o Pancreas has both endocrine and exocrine functions 0 Secretes digestive enzymes proteases enzymes that digest proteins such as trypsin chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase pancreatic amylase which continues the digestion of carbohydrates and lipase a lipid digesting enzyme 0 Secretes sodium bicarbonate NaHC03 neutralizes stomach acid so that enzymes can work better at a neutral pH The liver produces bile and performs many other functions 0 Primary digestive function is to facilitate the digestion and absorption of lipids by producing bile Bile salts emulsify lipids in the small intestine breaking them into smaller and smaller droplets until they are small enough to be digested by lipases lipiddigesting enzymes from the pancreas o Hepatic portal system carries nutrientrich blood directly from the digestive organs to the liver via the hepatic portal vein The gallbladder stores bile until needed 0 Concentrates bile by removing most of the water and stores it until after a meal when it is secreted into the small intestine via the bile duct which joins the pancreatic duct 147 The large intestine absorbs nutrients and eliminates wastes Large intestine absorbs most of the remaining nutrients and water and stores the now nearly solid waste material until it can be eliminated Consists of 4 regions collectively called the colon 148 How nutrients are absorbed Proteins and carbohydrates are absorbed by active transport 0 In the small intestine enzymes from the pancreas the stomach and the small intestine itself break down proteins into amino acids completing the digestion of proteins that began in the stomach 0 Amino acids are then actively transported into the mucosal cells eventually moving by facilitated diffusion out of the mucosal cells and into the capillaries o Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth where polysaccharides are broken down into disaccharides It is completed in the small intestine where enzymes break down the remaining carbohydrates into monosaccharides which follow transport pathways similar to those of amino acids but use different active transport proteins Lipids are broken down then reassembled 0 Products of lipid digestion are fatty acids and monoglycerides which recombine into triglycerides Water is absorbed by osmosis 0 As nutrients are absorbed in the small intestine water concentration is greater in the intestinal lumen than the intestinal cells or in the blood representing a strong driving force for the diffusion of water continuing in the large intestine Vitamins and minerals follow a variety of paths 0 How vitamins are absorbed depends on whether they are fat soluble or water soluble 0 Fat soluble vitamins dissolve in the micelles small droplets composed of bile salts and lecithin and are absorbed by diffusion across the lipid membrane of the mucosal cell layer just like the components of lipids 0 Water soluble vitamins are absorbed either by active transport or diffusion through channels or pores 0 Minerals such as sodium potassium calcium phosphate sulfate and magnesium are not lipid soluble since they are electrically charged 149 Endocrine and nervous systems regulate digestion Regulation involves altering the motility and secretions of various organs so that each operates as efficiently as possible Most regulatory mechanisms operate to maintain a constant internal environment however regulation of the digestive system promotes rapid efficient digestion and absorption of whatever is delivered to the system regardless of homeostasis Regulation depends on volume and content of food 0 Stretching and the presence of protein stimulate the stomach to release the hormone gastrin which triggers the release of more gastric juice o Duodenum stretches when chime arrives at the small intestine releases 2 hormones into the bloodstream I Secretin stimulates pancreas to secrete water and bicarbonate to neutralize acid I Cholecystokinin CCK also stimulated by fat and protein signals the pancreas to secrete more digestive enzymes Nutrients are used or stored until needed 0 Key organs are the pancreas with insulin and glucagon and the liver 0 Lipids carbohydrates and proteins can all be converted to storage forms of lipid or carbohydrate then recycled according to the body s needs 0 When we consume more nutrients than we use our bodies store the excess for future use increase in body weight 0 When we consume fewer nutrients than we use the body draws on these storage forms of energy to make up the difference lose weight 1410 Nutrition you are what you eat Nutrition the interaction between an organism and its food MyPyramid is a comprehensive personalized approach that includes physical activity as well as healthy nutrition divided into 6 groups Carbohydrates a major energy source 0 Carbohydrates are one of the body s main sources of energy 0 May be simple or complex I Simple sugars found in natural foods such as fruit and honey I Complex consist of many sugar units linked together such as starch or glycogen Lipids essential cell components and energy sources 0 Cholesterol forms the backbone of steroid hormones and is used to synthesize bile 0 Fat stores energy cushions organs insulates the body under the skin and stores several vitamins I Saturated fats found in meat and dairy products have 2 hydrogen atoms for every carbon atom in their fatty acid tails I Unsaturated fats missing one or more pairs of hydrogen atoms in their fatty acid tails considered healthier than saturated fats because they lower cholesterol levels Complete proteins contain every amino acid 0 Proteins make up the enzymes that direct metabolism serve as receptor and transport molecules and build our muscle fibers 0 Essential amino acids 8 amino acids that the body cannot produce that must be ingested in food 0 Complete protein contains all 20 of the amino acids in proportions that meet out nutritional needs Vitamins a group of at least 13 chemicals that are essential for normal functioning and are either fat soluble or water soluble 0 Fat soluble vitamins are absorbed more readily if there is fat in the diet tend to be absorbed along with the components of fat and they are stored in fat tissue and released as needed 0 Water soluble vitamins are absorbed more readily than fatsoluble vitamins but they are stored only brie y and rapidly excreted in urine Minerals atoms of certain chemical elements that are also essential for body processes Fiber indigestible material found in many vegetables fruit and grains 1411 Weight control energy consumed versus energy spent BMR determining how many calories we need 0 BMR basal metabolic rate the energy your body needs to perform essential activities such as breathing and maintaining organ function In uenced by I Gender and body composition BMR is higher in males because men have more muscle than women muscle tissue consumes more energy than fat tissue I Age BMR declines overtime I Health some conditions such as fever infections or hyperthyroidism increase BMR other conditions such as hypothyroidism lower it I Stress epinephrine and norepinephrine raise BMR I Food intake I Genetics BMI body mass index 0 BMI between 185 and 25 is healthy 0 BMI of 2530 is considered overweight 0 BMI gt30 is considered obese 1412 Disorders of the Digestive System Lactose intolerance difficulty digesting milk Peptic ulcers sores in the stomach Celiac disease gluten intolerance Diverticulosis weakness in the wall of the large intestine Colon polyps noncancerous growths Hepatitis in ammation of the liver Gallstones obstruct bile ow Malnutrition too many or too few nutrients Obesity 1413 Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa condition in which a person diets excessively or stops eating altogether even to the point of starvation and death Bulimia bingeandpurge condition in which someone eats and deliberately vomits or takes other steps to minimize the calories ingested Chapter 16 Reproductive Systems 161 The male reproductive system delivers sperm Reproductive systems tissues and organs that participate in creating a new human being Sperm male reproductive cells that is delivered to the female Egg female reproductive cell Testes produce sperm 0 Testes the sites of sperm production 0 Testes descend into the scrotum an outpouching of skin and smooth muscle which regulates the temperature of the developing sperm within the testes a few degrees cooler than body temperature 0 Seminiferous tubules where sperm are produced join to become the epididymis a singlecoiled duct just outside the testis o Epididymis joins along the ductus vas deferens becoming the ejaculatory duct stores sperm until ejaculation Penis male organ of sexual intercourse Semen think whitish mixture of uids that deliver sperm to improve their chances of survival Seminal vesicles produce seminal uid Prostate gland contributes an alkaline uid to help the sperm travel more effectively Bulbourethral glands secrete mucus into urethra during sexual arousal washing away traces of acidic urine Spermatogonia undifferentiated cells that are diploid cells meaning they have 46 chromosomes the normal human number Gametes sperm and eggs involve mitosis and meiosis 0 During meiosis the diploid number of chromosomes is halved o Gametes are haploid cells because they contain 23 chromosomes Spermatogonia first divide my mitosis which ensures a constant supply of primary spermatocytes which then undergo two cell divisions during meiosis to become secondary spermatocytes and spermatids o Spermatids mature to become sperm during this time the cells are surrounded and nourished by the Sertoli cells that make up most of the bulk of the seminiferous tubules Mature sperm has a head midpiece and tail 0 Head contains DNA 0 Mitochondria are located in the midpiece 0 Tail moves the sperm forward Testosterone affects male reproductive capacity 0 Testosterone a steroid hormone produced by interstitial cells located between the seminiferous tubules in the testes I Controls the growth and function of the male reproductive tissues stimulates aggressive and sexual behavior and causes secondary sex characteristics such as facial hair and deep voice I Determines the rate of sperm formation by stimulating the undifferentiated spermatogonia to begin dividing and the Sertoli cells to support the developing sperm Production and secretion of testosterone depends on 3 hormones o GnRH Gonadotropinreleasing hormone o Luteinizing hormone LH o Folliclestimulating hormone FSH Negative feedback loops involving the hypothalamus pituitary and testes maintain a fairly constant blood concentration of testosterone and consistent rate of sperm production When blood levels of testosterone falls hypothalamus secretes GnRH stimulating the pituitary to release LH and FSH High concentrations of testosterone inhibits GnRH LH and FSH o Sertoli cells secrete inhibin that directly inhibits the secretion of FSH 162 The female reproductive system produces eggs and supports pregnancy Ovaries primary female reproductive organs 2 which release the female gametes immature eggs called oocytes o Ovaries also secrete estrogen and progesterone the female sex steroid hormones Oocyte is released and swept into the oviduct Fallopian tube which leads from the ovary to the uterus o Fertilization takes place in the upper third of the oviduct Uterus hollow pearshaped organ where the embryo grows and develops composed of 2 layers of tissue 0 Endometrium inner layer lining of epithelial tissue glands connective tissue and blood vessels egg attaches to endometrium in a process called implantation then helps to form the placenta o Myometrium thick layers of smooth muscle stretches during pregnancy to accommodate the fetus provides muscular force to expel the mature fetus during labor Cervix narrow lower part of the uterus opening permits sperm to enter the uterus and allows the fetus to exit during birth Vagina hollow muscular organ of sexual intercourse and also the birth canal o Vulva female external genitalia o Labia majora fatpadded skin folds o Labia minora smaller pair of folds o Clitoris small organ enclosed by labia minora contains erectile tissue that is highly sensitive to stimulation Mammary glands located in the breasts are modified sweat glands which are specialized to produce milk Lactation production of milk late in pregnancy 163 Menstrual cycle consists of ovarian and uterine cycles Menstrual cycle pattern of changes that is controlled by hormones consists of uterine cycle and ovarian cycle 0 Ovarian cycle regular pattern of growth maturation and release of oocytes from the ovary I Primary oocyte and its granulosa cells constitute an immature follicle FSH and LH stimulate the follicle to grow enlarge and change form I Granulosa cells divide and secrete a sugary material glycoproteins becoming a noncellular coating around the oocyte I Antrum uid filled space develops within the follicle and some of the granulosa cells begin to secrete estrogen and progesterone I Primary oocyte completes stage 1 of meiosis to become a secondary oocyte Follicle consists of secondary oocyte a nonfunctional polar body and granulosa cells all surrounded by ovarian connective tissue cells I Estrogen stimulates a surge of LH which triggers ovulation Follicle ruptures and releases secondary oocyte entering the oviduct and swept toward the uterus by contractions I Corpus luteum forms from the ruptured follicle secretes large amounts of progesterone and estrogen preparing the endometrium for possible arrival of a fertilized egg I If fertilization does not occur the corpus luteum degenerates in about 12 days where progesterone and estrogen levels fall rapidly and cycle starts again 0 Uterine cycle series of structural and functional changes that occur in the endometrium as it prepares each month for the possibility of a fertilized egg lasts about 28 days I Days 15 menstrual phase menstruation is the process by which the endometrial lining disintegrates and its small blood vessels rupture I Days 614 proliferative phase endometrial lining begins to proliferate due to rising levels of estrogen cervix produces a mucus that facilitates the passage of sperm into the uterus from the vagina I Ovulation occurs midway through the cycle I Days 1528 secretory phase endometrium continues to proliferate and become thicker as estrogen and progesterone are produced If fertilization does not occur degeneration of the corpus luteum results in declining estrogen and progesterone levels Cyclic changes in hormone levels produce the menstrual cycle 0 Negative feedback loop controls hormonal cycles positive feedback triggers ovulation and causes the cycle to repeat itself 0 LH rises slowly stimulating an immature follicle to develop and secrete estrogen o Estrogen concentration stimulates LH release triggering ovulation 0 During the latter half of the menstrual cycle the system returns to negative feedback control 165 Birth control methods controlling fertility Abstinence not having intercourse Surgical sterilization vasectomy and tubal ligation o Vasectomy in males prevents sperm from reaching the urethra instead get reabsorbed as if ejaculation never took place 0 Tubal ligation in females ties each oviduct each at 2 sites so the oocyte has no way to reach the uterus or sperm Hormonal methods pills injections patches and rings 0 Pills administers synthetic progesterone and estrogen in amounts that inhibit the release of FSH and LH so follicles do not mature and ovulation does not take place 0 Injections progesterone and estrogen injections 0 Patches slowly releases hormones through the skin into the bloodstream 0 Rings inserted into the vagina where it slowly releases hormones Diaphragms and cervical caps block the cervix prevents sperm from entering the uterus Chemical spermicides kill sperm Condoms trap ejaculated sperm offers protection against STDs Withdrawal and periodic abstinence o Withdrawal man withdrawals penis from the vagina at just the right moment before ejaculation 0 Periodic abstinence woman avoids intercourse for an 8day span every month in the middle of her cycle Pills that can be used after intercourse contains high doses of estrogen and progesterone Abortion 166 Infertility inability to conceive Male infertility is the insufficiency or lack of normal healthy sperm 0 Low testosterone levels immune disorders that attack the sperm radiation drugs or diseases such as mumps or gonorrhea Female infertility causes are more variable 0 Pelvic in ammatory disease bacterial infection of the internal female reproductive organs 0 Abnormal production of FSH or LH may limit the development of oocytes into follicles o Endometriosis endometrial tissue migrates up the oviduct during a menstrual period and implants on other organs such as the ovaries bladder or colon Enhancing fertility 0 Artificial insemination sperm are placed with a syringe into the vagina or uterus as close to the time of ovulation as possible 0 Artificial reproductive technologies all techniques in which sperm and eggs are handled outside the body I Immature eggs are harvested from the female and sperm is collected from the male 0 Fertility enhancing drugs boost the production of developing eggs 0 Surrogate motherhood 167 Sexually transmitted diseases Bacterial STDs gonorrhea syphilis and chlamydia o Gonorrhea painful urination discharge of pus from penis can lead to in ammation scarring and sterility o Syphilis 3 phases I Primary phase bacteriafilled sore appears at the infection site I Secondary phase bacteria invades lymph nods blood vessels mucous membranes bones and the nervous system I Tertiary phase widespread damage to cardiovascular system and nervous system blindness skin ulcers and eventual death 0 Chlamydia discharge from penis and burning sensation during urination vaginal discharge itching sensation Viral STDs HIV Hepatitis B genital herpes and HPV 0 HIV slowly destroys immune system over a period of years numerous infections and complications that lead to death 0 Hepatitis B in ammation of the liver 0 Genital herpes cold sores or blisters around the mouth or genital area 0 HPV causes warts in genital area Other STDs yeast infections trichomoniasis and pubic lice 0 Yeast infections yeast population in the vagina may grow out of control causing pain in ammation and a thick cheesy vaginal discharge 0 Trichomoniasis causes in ammation of the vagina causes frothy foulsmelling vaginal discharge in ames the penis o Pubic lice lay eggs near base of the hair sucking blood from their host
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