Genetics Final Study Guide Chapter 13: The Genetic Code and Transcription 1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the genetic code? a. Ambiguous b. Start & Stop Signals c. Degenerate d. Triplet 2. What mutations result in frameshift mutations? 3. What do we mean when we say the genetic code is degenerIf you want to learn more check out How did the greek heros get here?
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ate? 4. Why can the code not be overlapping? 5. What is the start codon? What amino acid does it code for? 6. Most degeneracy is in which position of the codons? 7. What does the wobble hypothesis say? 8. True or false: the genetic code is completely universal 9. What direction does DNA synthesis always go? 10. What must take place to create mRNA? 11. What is the function of the promoter? What is the function of the sigma factor? 12. What three post transcriptional modifications are often seen in eukaryotes? 13. Why is the final mRNA transcript often shorter than the initial sequence? 14. What does alternative splicing do? 15. What does RNA editing do? What are the two types of RNA editing? Chapter 16: Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes 1. What is an inducible enzyme? 2. What is a constitutive enzyme? 3. How do negative and positive control differ? 4. What are the three structural genes for the lac operon? 5. What is a constitutive mutation? 6. What does the lac I gene do? 7. What is the lacOc region? 8. What role does CAP play in transcription in the lac operon? 9. Is the trp operon on or off when tryptophan is present? 10. What is attenuation? 11. What is the purpose of TRAP? 12. Can an operon exert positive and negative controls? Give an example of an operon that does this. Chapter 17: Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes 1. How is eukaryotic DNA different from prokaryotic DNA? 2. Are chromosomes randomly distributed throughout the nucleus or do they have specific locations in which they reside?3. What are interchromosomal domains? 4. What does acetylation do? 5. What sequence indicates a methylation site? 6. What can cause genomic chromosomal instability 7. How do the eukaryotic promoter(s) differ from the prokaryotic promoter? 8. True or false: the enhancer in eukaryotic DNA will function normally regardless of its placement relative to the gene. 9. What forms the pre-initiation complex (PIC)? 10. How is the transcription of the sxl gene different in male and female drosophila? 11. Name 2 ways in which RNA silencing controls gene expression. Chapter 19: Cancer & Regulation of the Cell Cycle 1. What is metastasis? 2. True or false: Cancer is a multistep process. 3. What is the “trademark” of cancer cells? 4. In order to cure cancer, what need to be destroyed? 5. How does the cancer vaccine attempt to treat cancer? 6. What major defect in the cell cycle is present in cancer? 7. What is apoptosis? 8. How to oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes differ? How do they each affect the spread of cancer? 9. True or false: Cancer can be inherited. 10. What is the relationship between viruses and cancer? 11. How do environmental agents contribute to cancer? Chapter 20: Recombinant DNA Technology 1. What is recombinant DNA? How is it produced? 2. What is a clone? 3. What is recombinant DNA technology used for? 4. What are vectors? 5. What is a plasmid? 6. What are DNA libraries? 7. What is contained in a genomic library? 8. What is contained in a complementary DNA library? 9. What is the polymerase chain reaction? 10. How does a northern blot differ from a southern blot? 11. What is the purpose of restriction mapping? 12. What is the purpose of dideoxynucleotides? Chapter 21: Genomics, Bioinformatics and Proteomics 1. What is shot-gun sequencing and what is its purpose? 2. How do paralogs and orthologs differ? 3. What aspects of the human genome did the Human Genome Project reveal? (name a few)4. What is the human microbiome project? 5. What is the purpose of the c-value paradox? 6. What is metagenomics? 7. What is microarray analysis? 8. What is a proteome and what is proteomics? 9. What is two-dimensional electrophoresis? Chapter 22: Applications and Ethics of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology 1. What is the purpose of insulin? 2. Explain the purpose of knockout mice? 3. What is selective breeding? 4. What is CRISPR-Cas9? 5. What is a synthetic genome? 6. Name 2 tests based on restriction enzyme analysis. (hint: both are often used in pregnancy). 7. What is a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)?