_AND NOW FOR SOME FINAL RANDOM NOTES EXAMAY
The future: Make stem cells from your own cells
HRP = Horse Raddish Peroxidase = retrograde axones marker,
Aguayo never showed successful connection to the brain (functional)
Neural inflammatory agents cause chromatolytic cells and depression "Genes set the risk, environment pushes one over into disease We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between basic ethics and applied ethics?
"Mental illness is any behavoir out of self control and not in ones best interest If you want to learn more check out What's an example of positive economics?
- Particularily in the cerebral cortex
Don't forget about the age old question of How were funds allocated during the government spending in 2014?
If you want to learn more check out Which school of thought believes that every trait has a purpose?
Don't forget about the age old question of Who founded the three laws of motion?
Cortisol causes sympathetic activation (NE Norepinephrine)
The hippocampus has the most glucocorticoid receptors. If an antibody to glucocorticoid receptors is injectedthe hippocampuses can be visualized SSRI (5-HT) antidepressants like Prozac and 2010ft depress libido Cytokinesi signal movement towards inflammation site (immune Avolition: severe lack of initiative and motivation Delusions: Implausible beliefs, thought insertion Schizophrenia Experience and stress starts at conception, invitre. like birthing We also discuss several other topics like What pertains to the metabolic rate of an animal while it is out in the field?
Male Female - Oxygen/circulation, trauma.
Males show/present schizophrenia
MORE RANDOM NOTES
Sam LIP - Long-Term potentiation as a model for synaptic plasticity: Teretan_ Induced by brief tetanus (electrical shock, high frequency for less then I séle
•LIP sticks around for weeks, tomaty months... which helps our memory
• Temporal and spatial surmation of Epsp's (cooperativity) strengthens Requirement for LTP: Synapse must be active when the post synaptic
element is strongly depolarized
LTD is just the opposite :le
The low frequency stimulation is not enough to activate the post synaptic neuron, so the Synapse is weakened, or destroyed
ha Before Forgetting After Forgetting S
p re synaptic aron A Voltage recorder
EPSP in post synaptic
plenty of cart
• very flat
entry post-synaptically sub-threshold. Catt ☆ Note: Synapses stay intact in the abscence of stimulation, it's just
when there is sub-threshold stimulation that they brook down.
Learning; "when the same AP Causes a larger post synaptic effect
The Wisconsin Card Sorting Tests Wercking alleroy and Pro - frontal cortex. Reconsolidations when we recall a memory it becomes suceptible to permanent
To treat Neuroleptics, sjeze and block the D2 receptor
☆ NEW Ocular Dominance: Monocular deprivation for
I one eye for 2 years Normal person's tangential sections I starting at 2 weeks of age through layer IV of Striate cortex shows expanded ocular shows equal width Stripes for LGN I dominance columns of the of both eyes. W
non deprived eyes
-Ocular dominance Columas expand/ for nod-deprived - the vertical white space is increased!
Memory Functions of the hippocampal sal system Summary
D) Hippocampus gets information fróm grid cells (where) 27 Combines it with information from sensory input (what).
3) = What happened and where it happened 4) A DECLARATIVE MEMORY!!!
For a neuron: The difference between no input and weak input is the
amount of NMDA receptors activated
Protein kinase A (PKA) is activated by CAMP, phosphorylation of potassium channels makes them close to plant so repolarization happens slower. Salient Event: Getting Vandy Acceptance letter - Involves a structural brain change
that will "Make a Memory" for life time
Thanks to everyone who has studied with my notes.
Healing Broken Brainsi
Embryonic Cortex of thy - and thy-d mice transplanted into adult host cortex can help boost NT levels.
Neuronal stem cells:
- Available 6 days after conception from Blastocyst.
- Can beal spinal cord injury Also injecting substances to block "nogo" receptors promotes growth - after spinal cond injury
Regrowth by Axon Type: en
o The closer the cut
is to the cell body, the more likely the neuron
will die. t (sprouting only) modulatory LCNS OF e Telongation only sy (farmer with arms cat off
regained feeling after re-attachment: ONS -
- True Regeneration
*CNS specific synapes cannot regenerate exactly like they broke
because there are no membrané markers. Memories, skills, etc. Will I always be impaired even if Aguayo's regeneration method works.
- t put schwann cells inte spine losion stem cell tissue can help set "brain tone" in modulatory CNS systems by boosting DA and Ach
levels which improves cognitive activity. Develeped neurons don't work because they die when dendrites are ripped during transplant
Neurons grow along fibronexin and can be "fertilized with growth factors. - transection of spinal cord can recover to 30%
Habituation. Molecular Mochanism: Cast channels in sensory
neuron open less often, lower presynaptic calcium concentration resuts in less and less heuro transmitter release.
12-29 Axon Terminal
sensitization Molecular Mechanismi (e
5-HT is released presynaptically by 229 onto sensory / FG-protein coupled receptor is activated by 5-HT"
- Activating of Adenyl Cyclasé y Production of Amp from AMP
→ Activating protein kinase A Adenylyn 572 I phosphorylation of kt channels closes cyclam
decreased it conductance prolongs the Ale them!
More Cat entry CAMP Am sprotein - More NT release per AP
Protein kinase A - Gill withrawl reflex is restored active)" proteine
AMPA - ligand-gated receptor that conducts Na" (lets voltage set to Nova activation) NMDA = Ligand and voltage gated, Conducts Nat and cast Bear Model: Calcium non ha concentration : apoptosis (me an tha).
<l mismo mar USC o latt levels too low: long-term cell depression caused by phosphatases I Low Frequency stimulation which close Catt channels quicker (by removing)
ogh ny ton too high = long-term potentiation caused by kinases
which phosphorylates the potassium channel Conditioning changes Invertebrates: Presynaptic Vertebrates: Post Synaptic
Induce LTP by High
EXAM U - Dementia/Alzheimer's FAMILTAL_ Alzheimer's Disease I
patein E Sporapie Alzheimer's Disease Are gene over expression> Arabian Apos, head injurys Aging over production of famyloid avst
Inadequate ß-amyloid clearance
deposition of ß amyloid plaques
Inflammatory response, release of cytokines Deurite injury due to toxic ß-amyloid plaque levels _ disruption of ionic homeostasis and metabolism: Oxidative stress
Altered kinase phosphatase activity = hyperphosphorylated tau
neurons die Neurotransmitter levels drop tan becomes tangled in plaques.
Regeneration : _
-- Begrowth and reformation of synapse
- Only Only possible in Peripheral Nervous System PNS - Put PNS schwang cells in the CNS and some regrowth happens."
Chromatolytic: "Sick Neuron"
(chance of healing)
- learned adjustment of behavior - Adjustment in synaptic strength of remaining Axons
EXAM #4 Classical Conditioning:
Conditioned Strong tail shock Lunconditioned stimulus) + Stimulation of siphon (Stimulus = greater activation of adenyl cyclasé than only I alone, since is
increases cada current in presynaptic celle
Higher [code] increases adenylyl cyclase sensitivity to G-protein.
- activation Learning : I Presynaptic Ca2+ pulse coincides with adenyl cyclase activation by G - Protein High cAMP concentration → High protein kinase
activity More Neuro Transmitter
Conditioning Both sensitization and
Classical: latt Classical conditioning use
is a product of) I and serotonin i protein kinase
Serotonin only act at the samel
Seratonin activation causes potassium channels
to flow. (Activated by noxious' stimulus.)
Working Memory vs. Short Term Memory
- Minutes / hours/ -ex: Given a phrase to repeat
- Forgettable without reading it each time Structural changes to the synapse over time :(
Postsynaptic Changes increase in number of axon terminals -phosphorylation of AMPA receptors -larger terminal size
- Addition of new AMPA and NMDA receptors - More neurotransmitter release - Post Syrapse element size increase
proves Hippocampus is necessary for Spatial memory. When the NMDA receptors are blocked the mouse forgets where the underwater platform is."
EXAM #4 Major
depression Depression: Melancholia vs. Atypical
- Fatique, lots of sleep - Weight loss
- Hyperphagia' weight gain Hea exis: ICRH 9 ACTH! - Variable hedonic response L a ↑ cortisol
4 molt Variable mood – Anergiallow energy) _ variable motivation Predispositions Stress, Genetics, Childhood abuse
"Push-Pull regulation of the hippo tempes. HPA axis
by the amygdala and hippocampus Chippocampus
Samygdalas s Hypothalamus
increased cortisol release Diathesis-Stress Model of melancholia: Antidepressants:
increased 5-HT and NE
APA axis disregulation
GRS PKA - Melancholia)
Neuron growth Excess Cytokines cause inflammation
decreased cortisol and depression ceases
BONE and GRS
Brain-derived neurotrophic - factor
EXAM #4 The brain is vulnerable to disease; -ne cell division
_ -Specialized tissue areas
- unique blood supply I Concussion Molecular Mechanism: -Tight Spare (skull
” Stretch and shearing of axonal membranes
kt is allowed to rush out, as potential approaches zero consciousness b blood supply is reduced to -50% - Glue is released from depolarized or dying neurons
+ Over-activation of NMDA receptors' by Glu
→ Increased Catt influx causes excité toxicity Stroke: Occlusive Hemorrhagic
embolism/ thrombus aneurysm / AVM AL Blockage Mo Infarct Neurons:
Ischemia: - Damaged neurons
Had Cancerous Brain Tumor: Astrocytomas - Brain Tumor - LED KENNEDY low-grade: 5yrs to death Anaplastic astrocytoma : 104 live 5 years
(GBM: Ted kennedy died within Il months
Brain Tumors resist treatmenti
- Blood Brain Barrier - tumor cells migrate through the brain - Hard to tell the difference in tissue
compour,ds to improve learning
key Terms Non - Associative Learning:
- Change in behavioral response
that occurs with stimulus repitition
☆ Procedural memory is easier to study
memories have an ethereal quality about
because declarative them
- Learning to associate a motor response with a Meaningful stimulus
short-term memory + sensory information
Long Term Memory
☆ Dissociated amnesia does not cause other cognitive defects
often resulting from brain trauma, forget prior events. X Memories are widely distributed, but some areas hold more
Hebbs definition of Cell assembly: Neurons simultaneously activated by an external stimulus that are reciprocally interconnectado Temporal lobe structures for declarative memory consolidation
- Hippocampus - Fornix - Parahippocampal and rhinal cortical areas
Striatum = Procedural memory
EXAM #4 Schizophrenia:
- positive symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, catatonic - - negative symptoms: reduced emotion _ behandan
poverty of speech, avolition, pour memory - caused by mass' activation of dopamine receptors Anxiolytic drug dasses:
+ Serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors Antidepressive drugs
Linhibit reuptake of released serotonin and morepinephrine
LA drug that blocked dopamine receptors:
- Classified as a neuroleptic - used to treat schizophrenia
- causes parkinson's like symptomse Agoraphobia: Anxiety about the difficulty of escaping
- Acute precipitating W Schizophrenia: 1-genetika
Youth Weinberger Dopamine Hypothesisi iCoyle Glutamate Hypothesis - Meso-Cortical ba pathway impaired so DA__ more glutamate improves symptoms
brainstem neurons don't stimulate the pre. frontal #- Glu dysregulation may occur in
cortex well enough (negative symptoms). The regional subpopulations of sz brains.
prefrontal cortex can't appropriately inhibit - Enhancing Glu transmission DA brainstem neurons from over stimulating through the NMDA receptor heals
limbic areas (no accumbens) which leads - Sub-sensitivity of NMDA receptor to the positive symptoms i
i which is activated by Glutamate
a mal nutrition
decth -less my etch
EXAM #4 Deafferentiation:
T Cutting afferent axon
3 resuts in axonal elongation synapse formation,
Collateral Sprouting _ steps to enhance specific fiber growth into and around embryonic transplant tissues
- Electrically stimulate transplant cells to increase Sout their activity levels
- prevent Modulatory fiber ingrowth - Identify trophic substances that would enhance
specific fiber growth in adult brains - Alzheimer's Cure:
Fransplant embryonic presen ophola
septal cholinergic neurons into adult hippe campus True regeneration: - -Sprouting
-Synapse formation CNS Pathways able to regenerate:
-- Monoaminergic projections
- Cholinergic projections TENS Modulatory fiber system can have
Laxonal Blongatione (ins_specife fiber system conot)
can grow, if only they are placed environment? Can we mimic the environment?
(Future Research Area)
EXAM 4 NMVA receptors "coincidence detectors"
-Ton movement through the channel requires binding of
glutamate to the NMDA receptor plus depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane
Frequent panic attacks consisting of discrete periods of sudden, intense fear fulness.
- sympathetic nervous system activation - avoidance behavinir - release of cortisol from adrenal glands - increased arousal
- hippocampal cell death -Changes in growth factors -changes in glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus pothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
mediates the humeral (blood fluid) part of
the stress response Hippocampus regulation of of HPA axis: o
-detects cortisol levels and inhibits Crtl release.
(cortico tropin releasing hormone is from the byps thalamus) When Adrenal gland spikes cortisol - fight or flight Bipolar Disorder
Mania & Depression