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MSU / Psychology / PSY 100 / ectomorph personality traits

ectomorph personality traits

ectomorph personality traits

Description

School: Montana State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Ralph barnes
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Psych Lecture Personality
Description: Professor Ralph Barnes' lecture notes on personality Spring 2017
Uploaded: 04/24/2017
5 Pages 163 Views 0 Unlocks
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∙ Franz Joseph Gall, early 19th century o Different brain areas corresponded to different aspects of mental life,  such as personality and intellect o Brain areas varied from person to person o Bigger brain areas correspond to MORE of whatever trait was  associated with that area o When brain grow larger, skull expands to fit brain o By looking at shape of person’s skull, you can determine personality o This ‘science’ is called phrenology. ∙ Phrenology o Impact  Many people in academia fell in love with this field  Many more people on the fringes of academia (and society) fell  in love with it too  At one time there were 28 journals on phrenology  Many influential scientists attacked it unmercifully.  Gall was very polarizing figure. Fled Austria with an angry mob  after him.  In more liberal France his life was not in danger. Many French  scientists complained very loudly that he was a charlatan.  Phrenology was discredited in European scientific circles by the  1840s when it was pointed out that skull bulges do not correlate  with underlying brain bulges.  The downfall of phrenology was damaging to proponents of fluid  materialism, and it would take several decades for that group to  recover credibility. o Phrenology was used to demonstrate  That men were superior to women  That whites were superior to blacks  That middle class were as good (if not better than) upper class  That upper class were better than middle class and that middle  class were better than lower class  Guilt in court of law  IQ test criteria  Hiring and promotion in corporate world o Phrenology as good science  It linked the physical with the mental, and made the fluid  materialists optimistic that there could be a scientific approach  to the mind o Phrenology as bad science  Almost all of the research involved horribly conducted case  studies and could be summed up with the words “observer bias”  Phrenology was taught to thousands of charlatans who used it  as respectable version of palm reading. ∙ Constitutional psychology o William Sheldon insisted that there were three main body types  Ectomorph: slim  Mesomorph: muscular Endomorph: fat o He also insisted that each body type was strongly correlated with  certain personality traits:  Ectomorph: restrained, inhibited, fearful  Mesomorph: adventurous, vigorous, courageous, insensitive  Endomorph: love of comfort and food, relaxed, sociable,  pleasant o Constitutional psychology was part of pop psychology for several  decades but a continuous stream of studies debunking it resulted in  the theory getting buried by the 1970s. ∙ Personality o A general and consistent style of interacting with the world o The thing about that stays the same from situation to situation. o Trait:  A somewhat stable predisposition to behave in a certain way  Part of the person, not environment  Inferred from behavior  Ex: talkative, introverted, friendly, etc.. o Trait theories:  Attempt to come up with a small set of traits that can be used to summarize differences between people  NOT an attempt to figure out why people have a certain  personality or certain traits Trait theories ∙ Theories are built with o Specific behaviors  Example: like to play games and won’t quit until you win o Surface traits  Inferred from people’s behaviors  Example: competitiveness o Central traits  Inferred from surface traits  Example: aggressiveness Big 5 ∙ Openness ∙ Conscientiousness ∙ Extraversion ∙ Agreeableness ∙ Neuroticism Description of Big 5 Traits High scores indicate... Factor Low scores indicate... Creative, artistic, curious, nonconforming openness Conventional, down-to-earth, uncreative Organized, reliable, neat conscientious ness Unreliable, lazy, careless, spontaneous


What does this all mean?




∙ Why do you have the kind of personality you have?




∙ What kind of personality do you have?



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Talkative, optimistic, affectionate extraversion Reserved, comfortable being alone, stays in background Good-natured, trusting, helpful agreeableness Rude, uncooperative, irritable, aggressive, competitive Worrying, insecure, anxious, temperamental neuroticism Calm, secure, relaxed, stable

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∙ Trait theories predict trait stability especially for older than 30 crowd. That is,  your rating on 5 traits at age 30 will be similar to your rating on the 5 traits  when you are 70. ∙ A person’s rating on the Big 5 is correlated with (but not strongly) behavior  and life choices. Gender, Sex, and Personality ∙ Women tend to score higher than men on the agreeableness dimensions.  These differences were big. o Differences consistent over several decades in dozens of countries. ∙ Not huge differences between gender in other categories. ∙ What kind of personality do you have?? o Answered by trait theories ∙ Why do you have the kind of personality you have? o Psychoanalytic theories o Social cognitive theories o Humanistic theories Psychodynamic Perspective ∙ Personality comes from interplay of subconscious mental forces ∙ Freud o Psychoanalysis  The word refers both to an approach to psychotherapy and to a  theory of personality. Right now we will consider its relation to  personality. o Psychoanalysis (theory)  Causes of behavior buried in unconscious mind  Freud analyzed aspects of people’s behavior to draw inferences  about what was going on unconsciously.  Performed dream analyses. o Sex drive  Sex is not socially approved  It gets redirected into different thoughts and actions  It is the main determinant of personality ∙ Now all psychodynamic people agreed with Freud o Karen Horney:  Personality is formed based on things like feelings of security  and anxiety about being abandoned. o Adler:  Drive to feel competent is central  Inferiority complex: act like you are inadequate  Superiority complex: try to prove you are better than everyone Those who are healthy have neither complex Defense Mechanisms ∙ Methods of self-deception ∙ Reduce our consciousness of wishes and thoughts that would cause anxiety o Repression: pushing anxiety causing thoughts from conscious mind o Displacement: replace unacceptable drive with an acceptable drive o Sublimation: a good form of displacement. The displaced behavior  helps society. o Reaction formation: turn frightening wish to safe opposite.  Ex: want to kill your mother (subconsciously). Feel guilty about  subconscious desire so treat your mother really well to alleviate  your guilt.  Ex: homophobic males more likely than non-homophobic males  to get turned on by homosexual porn. (Adams: J Abnorm Psychol, Volume 105(3). August 1996.) o Projection: see your own unacceptable emotions in others o Rationalization: use reasoning to explain away anxiety provoking  thoughts ∙ Immature mechanism: projection ∙ Intermediate mechanism: repression, reaction formation ∙ Mature mechanism: suppression (conscious avoidance of negative thinking) Traits ∙ Newcomb 1929 o Adolescent boys at a summer camp for troubled youth o Data collection: 9 different traits  Collected multiple specific behavioral measures per trait o Various situations o Various times throughout summer o Camp counselors were asked to rate the consistency of the boys along  the 9 traits o Results: counselor ratings of consistency of boys along 9 traits is (r= . 48). However, this correlation is ACTUALLY much lower. o Conclusions: people aren’t very consistent. We see more consistency in others then there actually is. What does this all mean? ∙ Walter MIschel and Donald Peterson both published books in 1968 on this  issue o Both books reviewed studies like those about htat showed that  behaviors are not consistent across situations o Claims in their books:  That the definition of trait was seriously flawed.  Personality psychologists need to seriously rethink their  approach to the contributions of personal and situational factors  All or most personality theories need to be overhauled or else  completely discarded. o A large battle ensued: Seymore Epstein (1979 and 1983)  Traditional trait theory and the old definition of traits ought to be salvaged. Claimed that if you look at the aggregate data you find that  behavior is fairly predictable from situation to situation.  This convinced many to ignore Mischel’s criticisms.
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