Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to MSU - PSY 100 - Class Notes - Week 15
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to MSU - PSY 100 - Class Notes - Week 15

Already have an account? Login here
Reset your password

MSU / Psychology / PSY 100 / ectomorph personality traits

ectomorph personality traits

ectomorph personality traits


School: Montana State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Ralph barnes
Term: Fall 2015
Cost: 25
Name: Psych Lecture Personality
Description: Professor Ralph Barnes' lecture notes on personality Spring 2017
Uploaded: 04/24/2017
5 Pages 163 Views 0 Unlocks

∙ Franz Joseph Gall, early 19th century o Different brain areas corresponded to different aspects of mental life,  such as personality and intellect o Brain areas varied from person to person o Bigger brain areas correspond to MORE of whatever trait was  associated with that area o When brain grow larger, skull expands to fit brain o By looking at shape of person’s skull, you can determine personality o This ‘science’ is called phrenology. ∙ Phrenology o Impact  Many people in academia fell in love with this field  Many more people on the fringes of academia (and society) fell  in love with it too  At one time there were 28 journals on phrenology  Many influential scientists attacked it unmercifully.  Gall was very polarizing figure. Fled Austria with an angry mob  after him.  In more liberal France his life was not in danger. Many French  scientists complained very loudly that he was a charlatan.  Phrenology was discredited in European scientific circles by the  1840s when it was pointed out that skull bulges do not correlate  with underlying brain bulges.  The downfall of phrenology was damaging to proponents of fluid  materialism, and it would take several decades for that group to  recover credibility. o Phrenology was used to demonstrate  That men were superior to women  That whites were superior to blacks  That middle class were as good (if not better than) upper class  That upper class were better than middle class and that middle  class were better than lower class  Guilt in court of law  IQ test criteria  Hiring and promotion in corporate world o Phrenology as good science  It linked the physical with the mental, and made the fluid  materialists optimistic that there could be a scientific approach  to the mind o Phrenology as bad science  Almost all of the research involved horribly conducted case  studies and could be summed up with the words “observer bias”  Phrenology was taught to thousands of charlatans who used it  as respectable version of palm reading. ∙ Constitutional psychology o William Sheldon insisted that there were three main body types  Ectomorph: slim  Mesomorph: muscular Endomorph: fat o He also insisted that each body type was strongly correlated with  certain personality traits:  Ectomorph: restrained, inhibited, fearful  Mesomorph: adventurous, vigorous, courageous, insensitive  Endomorph: love of comfort and food, relaxed, sociable,  pleasant o Constitutional psychology was part of pop psychology for several  decades but a continuous stream of studies debunking it resulted in  the theory getting buried by the 1970s. ∙ Personality o A general and consistent style of interacting with the world o The thing about that stays the same from situation to situation. o Trait:  A somewhat stable predisposition to behave in a certain way  Part of the person, not environment  Inferred from behavior  Ex: talkative, introverted, friendly, etc.. o Trait theories:  Attempt to come up with a small set of traits that can be used to summarize differences between people  NOT an attempt to figure out why people have a certain  personality or certain traits Trait theories ∙ Theories are built with o Specific behaviors  Example: like to play games and won’t quit until you win o Surface traits  Inferred from people’s behaviors  Example: competitiveness o Central traits  Inferred from surface traits  Example: aggressiveness Big 5 ∙ Openness ∙ Conscientiousness ∙ Extraversion ∙ Agreeableness ∙ Neuroticism Description of Big 5 Traits High scores indicate... Factor Low scores indicate... Creative, artistic, curious, nonconforming openness Conventional, down-to-earth, uncreative Organized, reliable, neat conscientious ness Unreliable, lazy, careless, spontaneous

What does this all mean?

∙ Why do you have the kind of personality you have?

∙ What kind of personality do you have?

We also discuss several other topics like How did the animals evolve?

Talkative, optimistic, affectionate extraversion Reserved, comfortable being alone, stays in background Good-natured, trusting, helpful agreeableness Rude, uncooperative, irritable, aggressive, competitive Worrying, insecure, anxious, temperamental neuroticism Calm, secure, relaxed, stable

If you want to learn more check out words with uo
We also discuss several other topics like What are the regions of the respiratory system?
Don't forget about the age old question of Illustrate the trophic cascade interaction diagram.
If you want to learn more check out Define the meaning of Tautologies.
Don't forget about the age old question of ucsb phil 1

∙ Trait theories predict trait stability especially for older than 30 crowd. That is,  your rating on 5 traits at age 30 will be similar to your rating on the 5 traits  when you are 70. ∙ A person’s rating on the Big 5 is correlated with (but not strongly) behavior  and life choices. Gender, Sex, and Personality ∙ Women tend to score higher than men on the agreeableness dimensions.  These differences were big. o Differences consistent over several decades in dozens of countries. ∙ Not huge differences between gender in other categories. ∙ What kind of personality do you have?? o Answered by trait theories ∙ Why do you have the kind of personality you have? o Psychoanalytic theories o Social cognitive theories o Humanistic theories Psychodynamic Perspective ∙ Personality comes from interplay of subconscious mental forces ∙ Freud o Psychoanalysis  The word refers both to an approach to psychotherapy and to a  theory of personality. Right now we will consider its relation to  personality. o Psychoanalysis (theory)  Causes of behavior buried in unconscious mind  Freud analyzed aspects of people’s behavior to draw inferences  about what was going on unconsciously.  Performed dream analyses. o Sex drive  Sex is not socially approved  It gets redirected into different thoughts and actions  It is the main determinant of personality ∙ Now all psychodynamic people agreed with Freud o Karen Horney:  Personality is formed based on things like feelings of security  and anxiety about being abandoned. o Adler:  Drive to feel competent is central  Inferiority complex: act like you are inadequate  Superiority complex: try to prove you are better than everyone Those who are healthy have neither complex Defense Mechanisms ∙ Methods of self-deception ∙ Reduce our consciousness of wishes and thoughts that would cause anxiety o Repression: pushing anxiety causing thoughts from conscious mind o Displacement: replace unacceptable drive with an acceptable drive o Sublimation: a good form of displacement. The displaced behavior  helps society. o Reaction formation: turn frightening wish to safe opposite.  Ex: want to kill your mother (subconsciously). Feel guilty about  subconscious desire so treat your mother really well to alleviate  your guilt.  Ex: homophobic males more likely than non-homophobic males  to get turned on by homosexual porn. (Adams: J Abnorm Psychol, Volume 105(3). August 1996.) o Projection: see your own unacceptable emotions in others o Rationalization: use reasoning to explain away anxiety provoking  thoughts ∙ Immature mechanism: projection ∙ Intermediate mechanism: repression, reaction formation ∙ Mature mechanism: suppression (conscious avoidance of negative thinking) Traits ∙ Newcomb 1929 o Adolescent boys at a summer camp for troubled youth o Data collection: 9 different traits  Collected multiple specific behavioral measures per trait o Various situations o Various times throughout summer o Camp counselors were asked to rate the consistency of the boys along  the 9 traits o Results: counselor ratings of consistency of boys along 9 traits is (r= . 48). However, this correlation is ACTUALLY much lower. o Conclusions: people aren’t very consistent. We see more consistency in others then there actually is. What does this all mean? ∙ Walter MIschel and Donald Peterson both published books in 1968 on this  issue o Both books reviewed studies like those about htat showed that  behaviors are not consistent across situations o Claims in their books:  That the definition of trait was seriously flawed.  Personality psychologists need to seriously rethink their  approach to the contributions of personal and situational factors  All or most personality theories need to be overhauled or else  completely discarded. o A large battle ensued: Seymore Epstein (1979 and 1983)  Traditional trait theory and the old definition of traits ought to be salvaged. Claimed that if you look at the aggregate data you find that  behavior is fairly predictable from situation to situation.  This convinced many to ignore Mischel’s criticisms.
Page Expired
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here