EDF 3010 Spring 2017 Exam #2 Study Guide Part 1: Please answer 2 questions. Each response is worth 10 points. 1. What are the struggles of undocumented and DACA students in relation to education? 2. Describe the Food Metaphors and Multiculturalism a. Salad bowl i. The ideWe also discuss several other topics like ua 304
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a is that bits of lettuce, celery, carrot, and other ingredients retain all their individual flavor and color, yet are combined in an appetizing dish ii. It also implies that all one has to do is throw ingredients of any description into a bowl. There is no requirement that the ingredients be compatible, that they be in any proportion, or that they be healthful. Indeed, the salad need not even be thoroughly mixed. One merely dumps the ingredients in the bowl and forgets them b. Lunchable i. America is not so much of a melting pot but a lunchable. One package, but selfsegregated groups of food c. Stew Pot i. One adds bits of meat, potato, and vegetables with no rigid recipe but a sense of proportion. As the stew is heated the flavors meld. Each element retains many of its original characteristics, but it also takes on the flavors and aromas of the other elements. The result is a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts ii. Moreover, the stew is partially consumed by the guests, one adds new ingredients. The essential nature of the stew remains, but the flavors change in a subtle way to reflect the newly arriving guests and the new ingredients. One must keep the pot warm, yet not let it boil over. One must keep stirring and does not prepare itself 3. What are the examples of gender bias in the school system? a. Formal curriculum i. Treatment in textbooks, content bias in standardized exams, content in text books b. Methods of instruction i. Boy receive more and better instruction. Boys are called on more often than girls. Teacher is more likely to call on a boy if a boy and a girl have their hands raised. Teachers will spend more time answering boys’ questions than girls. c. Hidden curriculumi. The process of socialization that cues children into their proper place in the hierarchy of larger society. The ways in which school help reinforce gender roles, whether intended or not. 4. What is the argument for bilingual education? a. Bilingual education is beneficial to both groups of students – out perform monolingual peers by middle school b. Validation of language and culture, raises selfesteem c. Critical need for individuals proficient in more than 1 language and with crosscultural awareness d. Positive influence on studentparent relationships for those of partner language Part 2: Please know these terms. Each answer will be worth 2 points. (These will be multiple choice and true false) 1. Linguicism a. Discrimination against 2. Definition of culture a. Meaning, symbols, interpretations, traditions, concepts, values, tastes, preferences shared by a group; intangible aspects of human societies 3. Dual Immersion a. An immersion program where the population is (ideally) half heritage speakers of the target language and half English speakers. Curriculum is split in the target language and English. b. The goal is for all students to learn two languages. c. Purpose is not only to cultivate bilingualism among all students, but to foster greater crosscultural awareness, as well as help all students learn to empathize and understand the difficulty in gaining fluency in a second language. 4. Mainstreaming a. Students with special educational needs are in a pullout classroom and join their peers in a regular education setting in classes where they can keep up with their peers 5. Reasons to support inclusion a. Labeling and segregating students with disabilities is bad b. Students in segregated programs tend to stay in segregated programs c. Many who have been identified as being disabled are not actually disabled at all d. Teachers who have only lowability students have lower expectations e. Segregated programs tend to have “watered down” programs f. Heterogeneous mixing of students is good for all 6. Reasons to oppose inclusiona. Students with disabilities need different, specialized services that the classroom teacher cannot provide b. Special ed ID services are sophisticated and reliable c. Special ed teachers have higher expectations for their students d. Regular teachers do not want special needs students in their classrooms e. Students with disabilities have never been well served in regular education, and there is nothing to indicate that teachers are anymore able to deal with them now than previously 7. Transitional Bilingual Education a. Student’s first language is used in class until the student has learned English. One the student becomes proficient in English, his or her first language is no longer used. b. The big argument for transitional bilingual education is that students are better able to learn English if they know how to read and write in their first language. 8. ESL a. English language learners are submerged most of the day. For a short part of the day they receive pullout or pushin services in English with a special curriculum to speed up English language learning. The native language may or may not be used to facilitate instruction 9. Significance of the Lau v Nichols case a. Ruled submersion in English only illegal in American public school classroom 10. Bank’s 5 Dimensions of Multicultural Education (KEEPC) a. Knowledge construction i. Extent to which teachers help students to understand, investigate, and determine how the implicit cultural assumptions, frames of reference, perspectives, and biases within a discipline influence way in which knowledge is constructed within it b. Empowering school culture and social structure i. Critical examination of the structures of schooltracking, ability grouping, disproportionality c. Equity pedagogy i. The extent to which teaching reflects multicultural issues and concerns. It exists when teachers modify their teaching in ways that will facilitate the academic achievement of students from diverse racial, cultural, gender, and socialclass groups d. Prejudice reduction i. Describes lessons and activities teachers use to help students develop positive attitudes toward different racial, ethnic, and cultural groups. e. Content integrationi. The extent to which teachers use examples and content from a variety of cultures and groups to illustrate key concepts in the discipline or subject area 11. IEP a. Individualized education plan 12. How does multiculturalism contribute to the collective goals of the United States? a. Promotes collective good by exposing all students to the array of cultural heritages represented in the school, district, state or nation 13. Deculturalization a. Making someone forget their culture in order to fit in with the dominant culture 14. Maintenance Bilingual Education a. Designed to maintain the ability to speak, read, and write in the student’s first language while learning English. b. This prevents students from falling behind until they know English. c. After students have gained proficiency in both languages, they continue to receive lessons in both languages. d. The big argument for maintenance bilingual education is that schools in the US should encourage and foster fluency in more than one language. 15. Gender stereotyping a. Attributing certain roles to certain sexes and placing a valuation on these roles b. More than just male/female difference or division; it defines mutually exclusive scripts for being male and female. It defines any person or behavior that deviated from theses scripts as problematic. This the sex of one’s body determines the character and norms for that individual 16. Hidden curriculum a. The process of socialization that cues children into their proper place in the hierarchy of larger society. The ways in which schools help reinforce gender roles, whether intended to or not 17. Why is labeling a student as disabled a catch22? a. By labeling students, we are setting them up for a life of low expectations, of being defined by their disability, possible ridicule by peers. b. Yet, if we don’t label students with disabilities, they may fall through the cracks and not receive the assistance they need to have a better chance to thrive 18. Three reasons for Title IX a. Higher education i. Women were denied admission to graduate programs in fields such as medicine and law while men were barred from programs in fields like nursing b. High school i. Girls and boys funneled into vocational classes based on their gender rather than skills or interest. Where separate boys and girls high schools existed, boys schools were far above the girls in academics, athletics, reputation, etc. c. Athletics i. Few if any sports open to girls 19. 3 different descriptions of American culture a. Stew pot i. Each flavor takes on the flavor of the other flavors but has some of the original characteristics b. Lunchable i. One package, but selfsegregation groups of food c. Salad bowl i. All of the ingredients retain all their individual flavor and color yet are combined in an appetizing dish 20. Disproportionality a. Equate poor academic achievement of students with their race and/or socioeconomic status 21. Ethnocentrism a. Judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one’s own culture 22. Policies towards immigrants in South Carolina a. Only one of two states (Alabama) that completely bans undocumented students from studying in state colleges and universities b. Does not allow daca to receive instate tuition, scholarships, grants c. US citizens whose parents were undocumented could not receive in state tuition 23. Microcultures vs Macrocultures a. Macroculture in the US based on a strong sense of individualism and individual identity b. Many microcultures in the US do not value individualism and have a greater orientation toward group identification 24. Individuals with Disabilities Education Acts a. Ensure that children with disabilities receive a “FAPE.” This means that school will provide student who are eligible with specialized supports/instruction that will address their academic needs in the LRE