Study Guide 3 1. How does the story of Krishna dancing with the milkmaids illustrate the tolerance of Hinduism for different religious beliefs? he calls them to dance with him in the forest is dancing with them and the moment one oIf you want to learn more check out Differentiate Passionate vs Companionate Romantic Love.
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f them think that she is dancing with him alone he disappears he doesn't have to dance with one particular, he dances with everyone *the most diverse religion, absorbing all the new influences 2. What is the meaning and significance of nirguna and saguna in Hinduism? Pg. 151 G.I.N.O Nirguna: belief that there is no name or human feature that adequately represents the divine Saguna: belief that the Gods have particular names and features. 3. What is the meaning of neti? in speaking of the divine, all of our language falters, it is neither this nor that God cannot be contained by human concepts 4. How does both polytheism and monotheism function in Hinduism (see p.62)? Rig Veda: "Truth is one, the wise call it by many different names" The divine has many different manifestations. 330 million Gods: Symbolic number for the innumerable nature of the gods. Both viewpoints are held simultaneously…one view is that these Gods are many; from another they are One. A Hindu says: “Truth is one by the wise call it by many different names.” Oneness and Manyness are not seen as true opposites 5. What is the ‘Trimurti’? A concept in Hinduism which represents the 3 forms of God "in which the cosmic functions of creation, maintenance, and destruction are personified by the forms of Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver and Shiva the destroyer or transformer." (Googled) *ASKED NAVA about trimurti it is the Brahman, Shiva and Vishnu*** It is the “three forms” of the Divine, also provides a way to help us think about the question of God’s manyness. 1. Brahman is the creator 2. Vishnu as the sustainer (also reveals himself, ex: Krishna “Bhagavad Gita, and also animal form)(many avatars) 3. Shiva as the destroyer (Shiva also represents violence and has an element in mercy.) Each of the three are whole, not partial and each form is all three.6. What is an ‘Avatar’? the bodily incarnation of a deity on Earth 7. What is meant by the term ‘negative theology’ or ‘via negativa’? Pg. 99 G.I.N.O method of describing God through describing what God is not, rather than what God is. The divine is so far beyond human understanding that listing what God is not is the way in which we can conceptualize the nature of the divine. 8. Why is it that there is an inherent tolerance toward other religions in Hinduism? due to the fact that there are numerous Hindu gods. Hinduism recognizes that there is one ultimate truth, but many different paths to reaching it. 9. Be able to identify the following gods in Hinduism: Brahman, Vishnu, Shiva (know what the four arms of Shiva represent), Krishna, Ganesha. Brahman: Supreme spirit; A concept describing the ultimate oneness of all existence (From another class: Buddhism). Known as the creator god Vishnu: Preserver and protector of creation. The 2nd God in the Trimurti. Appears and is incarnated in many different forms(human or animal). Often appears as a beggar. Known as the sustainer. Shiva: The Destroyer//Transformer. As Shiva Nataraja, he performs the Ananda Tandava, the dance in which the world is created, maintained, and dissolved. Married to Parvati, “mother” of Ganesha and Kartikeya. Shiva has four arms because they represent the four cardinal directions Krishna: master of 64 arts of love. Bhagavad gita. Deity, incarnation of Vishnu Ganesha: also known as Ganapati, the portly, elephantheaded god who sits above the doorway of homes and temples as the remover of obstacles and the lord of new beginnings. Son of Shiva and Parvati Kali: Goddess of the cremation ground, associated with death; wears a necklace of skulls, which is like a memento mori (remembers death). She brings the death of the ego as the illusory self centered view of reality. “ The ego sees mother Kali and trembles with fear.” Do we need to know Kali? Kali was briefly talked about in class it might be good to know her 10. How is the meaning of ‘liberation’ understood in Hinduism? How is this different from the notion of salvation in Christianity?Pg. 136 G.I.N.O the hindu goal is to escape from heaven and earth all together and reach the goal moksha moksha: freeing the soul from bondage to samsara (vicious cycle of birth, death, and rebirth) and its unsatisfactoriness different from salvation b/c hindus don't believe in sin, so there is no desire to be saved from it ESCAPING from samsara 11. Be able to explain the background of the historical Buddha, including the key experiences in his life that led him on the search for Enlightenment. (four encounters found on page 170).Born a prince in an aristocratic family. Before birth, his mother Queen Maya had a dream of a white elephant entering her side. It was prophesied that he would be either a great king/political leader or a great spiritual leader. Signs of a special destiny as a child: spontaneous trances, compassion for all sentient beings, prodigious academic and athletic achievements. Married beautiful wife Yasodhara. Father wanted to shelter him from the outside world to avoid showing him the suffering and evil of the world (so that he would choose to be a king) gives him everything he desires. **I think this should be the answer instead:** 4 Encounters: (it was his charioteer who said these quotes not his father. Story in “god is not one”) ∙ Sick man: Charioteer says, “A sick person. Each of us falls ill. You and I alike. No one is exempt from sickness.” ∙ Old man: old man is hunched over and weak, son asks why is he like that, and his father says:” Son, he has lived a long life and he is on the verge of death.” The Buddha asks are we going to be like him? And he said we all are going to be like that. It disturbs the buddha. His Charioteer says, “An old person. Each of us gets old. You and I alike. No one is exempt from old age.” ∙ Dead body: Why is he not moving? The teacher says he has passed..gone on the other side of death… ∙ Holy man or ascetic (someone who is searching for wisdom, but through a life of self denial and wandering): gives up everything and searches ** He is not “the buddha” until after he reaches enlightenment, throughout these 4 encounters he is just a normal man/boy (Siddhartha Gautama)** Siddhartha then undergoes a gradual spiritual awakening. He starts feeling more empty and that’s when he renounced his life and became an ascetic and seeks a solution to the problem of human suffering. He keeps wandering and remains dissatisfied for 5 years(6 years in book), until he starts fasting and living the simple life and gets tired of searching. he sits under a bodhi tree and makes a resolution to not leave until he achieves enlightenment. While he’s achieving enlightenment, a demon figure, Mara, who tries to prevent Siddhartha from achieving Nirvana (enlightenment, also like escaping the cycle of rebirth(moksha)). So she appears in 2 ways as a terrifying demon trying to instill fear: ∙ Seductive women (Mara’s daughters) : temptation, tries to dissuades Siddhartha from seeking enlightenment, and he resists the temptations. ∙ Offered the power of ruler of the world. Breakthrough to Enlightenment and becomes Buddha!! 12. What are the various names of the Buddha? Siddhartha Gautama (before being known as the “Buddha”) Sakyamuni (Sage of the Sakya people) Tathagata (Enlightened one/Honorific title of Buddha) Buddha means The Awakened One.13. What are the Four Noble truths in Buddhism? The Four Noble Truths: 1. There is suffering: Physical suffering: hunger, disease, death Mental and spiritual: threat of meaninglessness, emptiness, confusion, unease, anxiety, depression. 2. Causes of suffering: a.Ignorance: not knowing the true nature of reality. Ignorance leads to fear, fear leads to anger, anger to hate… suffering b. False Desires: anger, jealousy, hatred, envy, lust, fear, gluttony, greed, sloth, and pride. 3. Suffering can be ended: Nirvana. Enlightenment plus a state of bliss and peace. Freedom from the cycle of reincarnation (samsara). 4. Path to end suffering: called the "Eightfold path" there are 3 major characteristics a. Practices of morality and compassion b. Practices of meditation and of concentration. Development and training of one’s mind and spirit. c. Bodily and physical exercises. Prajna: intuitive insight, and an epiphany Enlightenment or Nirvana. 14. What is Emptiness in the Buddhist tradition? “sunyata" since everything comes and goes in a great chain of cause and effect, nothing is independent, nothing exists on its own These bottom two have nothing to do with the question.. Go to page 193 transcendent, nonpersonal view of the divine view God somewhat like a person but not human 15. What is meant by the Buddhist terms: anatman, sunyata, upaya, bodhisattva Anatman no soul Sunyata emptiness Upaya guidance along a path to liberation Bodhisattva: a being that reaches nirvana but compassionately refrains from or postpones entering [nirvana] in order to save others (worshipped as a deity in Mahayana Buddhism) 16. In the Confucian tradition, what is the meaning of the following terms: junzi, heaven, ren, li, analects. Junzi translated as "gentleman" or "superior person". Confucius's way to describe the ideal man. "The exemplary man", "Noble person""The gentleman understands what is moral. The small man understands only what is profitable." Becoming a Junzi Learning how to realize your fullest potential as a human being. Heaven The most significant way in which the afterlife affects Confucian thinking and practices comes in followers' responsibilities to their ancestors. There are differing beliefs on whether their ancestors have literal existence in the afterlife, but they agree that ancestors are to be respected. Much of Confucianism focuses on living life in such a way as to be worthy of being honored by one's descendants. A non personal view (idea) of the divine. Ren Human heartedness; goodness; benevolence, mantomanness; what makes man distinctively human (that which gives human beings their humanity). Often considered the basis of confucianism, along with Li. Altruism, love, compassion, tenderness, humaneness. Li Principle of gain, benefit, order, property; concrete guide to human action. Often considered the basis of confucianism, along with Ren. Proper and respectable behavior: respect for the elderly, for the dead, humility, hospitality, etc... Analects conversations of Confucius and his disciples. 17. What is the difference (in their views of human nature) between Mencius and Xunzi (pp.119ff)? Mencius: soft botanical metaphors to show that humans are naturally good “We do good because we are hardwired to do so. And when we do evil , it is not nurture, not nature, that shortcircuits the good...Each of us harbors feelings of compassion, which breed benevolence; feelings of shame, which breed dutifulness; a sense of courtesy, which breeds propriety; and a sense of right and wrong, which breeds wisdom.” Xunzi: hard metaphors about workshop to show that humans are naturally wicked (metaphors like hammering metal to shape a sword or wood bent by steam into a bow) “...our wickedness needs to be spanked out of us. Education doesn’t cultivate our nature; it changes it. Only through strict laws and sever punishments can humans learn to subdue their private passions in service of the public good (and their own).” (quotes from the section on Mencuis and Xunzi in God is Not One pgs 119120) 18. In China, what is the name for what Westerners call, “Confucianism?” ∙ School of Scholars (RUJIA) God is Not One says: “Confucianism is an 18th century WesternEuropean term for what the Chinese refer to as rujia or ‘School of the Scholars.’” (Scholars referring to scholars of the Five Classics that make the Confucian sacred texts metaphysical Book of Changes, historical Book of Documents, poetic Book of Odes, social Book of Rites, and historical Spring and Autumn Annals.) 19. What is the first line in the Tao Te Ching and how is this claim related to the belief in the divine in many other religions? “The Tao that can be spoken, is not the Tao”If You try to represent this in words or in anyway possible, it isn’t correct. You can’t fully understand it or put it into words. This belief is represented in many different religions, and it is a common thing. God cannot be fully named or described. The Tao cannot be represented in concepts, images, and language in general.