Study Guide (Chapters 12-15)
Study Guide (Chapters 12-15) SOC 1001
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Irissa Cisternino on Monday April 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Lauren Ross in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at George Washington University.
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Sociology Exam 3 Study Guide 39339 Chapter 12 The Family and Human Sexuality gt Discussion Questions How do these readings challenge our general assumptions about family kin networks 0 Family can be bigger much more involved than we realize 0 Family doesn t just mean nuclear family 0 Family can provide greater support to disadvantaged members than we think or realize How can kin networks support or even hurt the most disadvantaged members of our society 0 When people get money or help from kin networks it is more harmful than good because they get taken off of welfare etc the minute they get extra money 0 Helps in that you have a wider support network if a situation arises you will be more likely to get help 0 Money that comes in is gone extremely quickly because it is quickly spent on essentials What are the sociological implications gained from these narratives O Showcases just how hard it is to get out of poverty as soon as something good happens something equally bad happens 0 Shows how quickly money evaporates which also exacerbates the struggle of poverty gt Composition What is the Family Family a set of people related by blood marriage or agreed upon relations who share primary responsibility for reproduction and caring for members of society 0 Nuclear family nucleus or core upon which larger family groups are built 0 Extended family family in which relatives live in the same home as parents and children Monogamy form of marriage in which one man and one woman are married only to each other Serial monogamy when a person has several spouses in his her lifetime but only one spouse at a time Polygamy when an individual has several husbands or wives simultaneously 0 Polygyny marriage of a man to more than one woman at a time 0 Polyandry marriage of a woman to more than one husband at the same time gt Kinship Patterns To Whom are we Related Kinship state of being related to others O Bilateral descent both sides of a person s family are regarded as equally important 0 Patrilineal descent only the father s relatives are important 0 Matrilineal descent only the mother s relatives are important Authority Patterns Who Rules I Patriarchy males are expected to dominate in all family decision making I Matriarchy women have greater authority than men I Egalitarian family family in which spouses are regarded as equals Functionalist View I Family serves six functions for society Reproduction Protection Socialization Regulation of sexual behavior Affection and companionship 0 Provision of social status Con ict View I Family re ects inequality in wealth and power found within society I In wide range of societies husbands exercised power and authority within the family I View family as economic unit that contributes to social injustice Feminist View I Interest in family as a social institution I Urge social scientists and agencies to rethink notion that families in which no adult male is present are automatically a cause for concern I Stress need to investigate neglected topics in family studies 0 Second shift Interactionist View I Focuses on micro level of family and other intimate relationships I Interested in how individuals interact with each other whether cohabiting partners or longtime married couples Courtship and Mate Selection I The love relationship 0 Coupling of love and marriage not universal 0 US parents and peers expected to help child confine search for a mate to socially acceptable members of the opposite sex 0 Many world cultures give priority to factors other than romantic feelings Variations in Family Life and Intimate Relationships I Social class differences US upper class emphasize lineage and maintenance of family position lower class families like to have 1 parent at home and children typically assume adult responsibilities I Racial and ethnic differences Subordinate status of racial and ethnic minorities affect family lives Black single mothers belong to kin networks Native American families cushion hardships MexicanAmericans are more familistic pride in extended family gt ChildRearing Patterns I Single parent families only one parent is present to care for children I Households headed by single fathers more than quadrupled from 19872007 gt Factors Associated with Divorce I Divorce rates increased in late 60s then leveled off I Factors in the increase in divorce Greater social acceptance of divorce More liberal divorce laws Fewer children Greater family income More opportunities for women gt Diverse Lifestyles I Marriage has lost much of it s social signi cance as a rite of passage I US marriage rate declined since 1960 Postponing marriage until later in life Forming partnerships without marriage gt Human Sexuality I Sexuality not limited to physical behaviors Includes beliefs values and social norms that collectively govern it s expression Ways human sexuality sanctioned differ widely geographically and historically 3 Chapter 13 Religion and Education gt Discussion Questions I What is the relationship between capitalism US case and religion Talks about callings and seems to say that performing duties and accumulation of wealth is a calling Performing worldly duties such as those that gain you wealth is valued as a positive thing in most religions and is a way to live ethically Enjoyment of life was the enemy religion seeks to promote work and worldly duties I What does Weber mean by spirit of capitalism I that attitude which seeks profit rationally and systematically 0 Glori es the use of money to earn money I Why is religion according to Weber a collective act I What are the implications of religion on social change 0 spirit of capitalism is a generalized cultural trait and an integral part of our society 0 Very little possibility for social change Durkheim and the Sociological Approach to Religion I Religion uni ed system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things Durkheim 0 Collective act 9 Includes many forms of behavior in which people interact with others 9 Interested in religious behavior within a social context World Religions I 89 of world s population adheres to some religion 0 Christianity largest Judaism next largest I Judaism historical foundation for Christianity and Islam 0 Hinduism number of gods and reincarnation 0 Buddhism reaction against Hinduism Sociological Perspectives on Religion I Manifest function open and stated religion defines the spiritual world and gives meaning to the divine I Latent functions hidden unintended covert might include providing a meeting ground for unmarried members The Integrative Function of Religion I Durkheim viewed religion as a integrative force in human society 0 Gives meaning purpose to lives 0 Offers ultimate values and ends to hold in common 0 Strengthens social integration within speci c faiths and denominations 0 In some instances religious loyalties are dysfunctional Religion and Social Support I Religion s emphasis on the divine and supernatural allows us to do something about calamities I Encourages personal misfortunes as relatively unimportant I Faithbased community organization taken more responsibility in social assistance Religion and Social Change I The Weberian Thesis O Protestant ethic followers of Protestant Reformation emphasized a disciplined work ethic thisworldly concerns and a rational orientation for life 0 spirit of capitalism has emerged as a generalized cultural trait Religion and Social Control A Con ict View I Marx religion impeded social change 0 People focus on otherworldly concerns 0 Religion drugged masses into submission by offering consolation for harsh lives on Earth 0 To whatever extent religion in uences social behavior it reinforces existing patterns of dominance and inequality Feminist Perspective I Theorists stressed fundamental role women play in religious socialization 0 Women generally take subordinate role in religious governance 0 Women play vital role as volunteers staff and educators O In US women more likely than men to be af liated with religion Belief I Religious beliefs statements to which members of a particular religion adhere 0 Fundamentalism rigid adherence to fundamental religious doctrines 9 Found worldwide among major religious groups I spirituality not as strong in industrialized nations as in developing nations Rituals and Experiences I Religious rituals practices required or expected of member of faith I In recent decades participation in religious rituals tend to hold steady or decline I religious experience feeling or perception of being in direct contact with ultimate reality or of being overcome with religious emotion Religious Organization I Ecclesiae religious organization claiming to include most or all members of a society I Denomination large organized religion not officially linked with the state or government I Sects relatively small religious groups that break away from some other religious organization to renew original vision of the faith I Fundamentally at odds with society and does not seek to become established national religions Education Functionalist View I Manifest functions 0 Transmission of knowledge O Confer status I Latent functions 0 Transmit culture 0 Promote social and political integration 0 Maintain social control 0 Agent of social change gt Functionalist View Latent Functions I Transmitting culture 0 Exposing young people to existing beliefs norms and values of their culture I Promoting social political integration 0 Common identity and social integration fostered by education contributes to societal stability and consensus I Maintaining social control 0 Schools teach students punctuality discipline scheduling responsible work habits and how to negotiate a bureaucratic organization I Serving as an agent of change 0 Schools serve as a meeting ground where people can share distinctive beliefs and traditions gt Con ict View I Education is an instrument of elite domination 0 How I The Hidden Curriculum standards of behavior deemed proper by society in schools I Credentialism increase in the lowest level of education needed to enter a field I Conferring of status 0 Schools tend to preserve social class inequalities in each new generation 9 Tracking the practice of placing students in speci c curriculum groups on the basis of their test scores and other criteria 9 Correspondence principle the tendency of schools to promote the values expected of individuals in each social class and to perpetuate social class divisions from one generation to the next gt Feminist Views I In 20th century sexism found in I Stereotypes in textbooks 0 Pressure to study traditional women s subjects 0 Unequal funding for athletics 0 Employment bias gt Interactionist View I Labeling approach suggests that if people are treated in particular ways they may ful ll expectations I Teacher expectancy effect the impact of teacher expectations and their large role on student performance gt Bureaucratization of Schools I Weber characteristics of a bureaucracy Division of labor Hierarchy of authority Written rules and regulations Impersonality I Employment based on technical quali cations 2 Chapter 14 Government and the Economy gt Discussion Questions Communist Manifesto I How does Marx view the relationship between the state and the bourgeoisie 0 The state exists to meet the needs and protect the interests of the bourgeoisie 0 Laws exist to protect the bourgeoisie and increase pro ts I Does this represent an elite model of government Explain I Yes essentially an oligarchy 0 Government is ruled by a few members of the bourgeoisie who only seek to protect their own interests 0 Ignoring a substantial part of the population the working class I How is this form of government driven by capitalism 0 Lobbyists in uence legislation people who used to work in the private sector are now working in government 0 Legislation is steered towards protecting corporate interests and increasing profits not towards helping the public gt The Economy and Work I Economic system social institution through which goods and services are produced distributed and consumed gt Economic systems I Industrial society society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services 0 Capitalism 0 Socialism gt Capitalism I Economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands 0 Main incentive for economic activity is accumulation of profits gt Socialism I Means of production and distribution owned collectively rather than privately owned 0 Communism economic system under which all property is communally owned and no social distinctions are made on the basis of people s ability to produce The Informal Economy I Transfer of money goods or services is not reported to the government 0 Difficult to measure I In developing nations informal economy represents significant part of total economic activity Deindustrialization I Deindustrialization systematic widespread withdrawal of investment in basic aspects of productivity 0 Can take the form of corporate restructuring 0 Downsizing reductions in a company s workforce as a part of deindustrialization 0 Social costs cannot be overemphasized Power and Authority I Political system social institution founded on recognized set of procedures for implementing and achieving society s goals 0 Politics who gets what when and how Power I Ability to exercise one s will over others Weber I Sources of power in political systems 0 Force coercion censorship threats etc 0 In uence persuasion 0 Authority ranking power that s institutionalized Types of Authority I Three ideal types of authority 0 Traditional authority legitimate power conferred by custom I Rationallegal authority power made legitimate by law 0 Charismatic authority power made legitimate by leader s exceptional personal emotional appeal to his her followers Types of Government I Monarchy form of government headed by a single member of a royal family I Oligarchy form of government in which few individuals rule I Dictatorship government in which one person has nearly total power to make and enforce laws I Totalitarianism involves virtually complete government control and surveillance over all aspects of a society s social and political life I Democracy 0 Government by the people 0 Representative democracy elected members of legislatures make laws 0 US is a representative democracy but critics question how representative it really is gt Power Elite Models I Elite model society ruled by a small group of individuals who share common set of political and economic interests I Mills Model 0 Power elite small ruling elite of military industrial and governmental leaders I Pluralist model competing groups within the community have access to government so no single group can dominate 0 Variety of groups play signi cant roles in decision making 9 Criticism the issues that are brought forth for debate is a power decision in itself gt War and Peace I War con ict between organizations that possess trained combat forces equipped with deadly weapons 0 Legal de nition typically requires a formal declaration of hostilities gt War I Global view studies how and why nations become engaged in military con ict I Nationstate view stresses interaction of internal political socioeconomic and cultural forces I Micro view focuses on social impact of war on individuals and their groups gt Peace I Peace absence of war and proactive efforts to develop cooperative relations among nations 0 Global peace index US ranked 99 out of 121 nations 0 Nations cannot maintain security through threatening violence gt Terrorism I Use or threat of violence against random or symbolic targets in pursuit of political aims I The end justi es the means 0 Essential aspect of contemporary terrorism involves use of media 0 Terrorism and terrorist movements are symbolic enactments of masculinity 393 Chapter 15 Health and the Environment gt Discussion Questions I In your own words what is environmental justice And what does this look like in practice O No groups should bear a disproportionate amount of negative environmental effects 0 All people are entitled to equal treatment regarding environmental policy regulations no group should be at a perpetual environmental disadvantage ex stop building prisons waste plants etc in low income neighborhoods I What are some factors that might come into play in terms of the concern and action gap 0 Difficulty in changing things 0 concern and action gap gap between attitudes towards environment and environmental action 0 Willingness of white communities to change I What did you learn through this reading and chapter about the relationship between society and the environment 0 Society is dependent on environment 0 The way we use and shape the environment is shaped by societal factors ie race class 0 The environment can in uence the type of society and the culture that arises Culture and Health I Culturebound syndrome disease or illness that cannot be understood apart from it s speci c social context I Medical practitioners are being trained to recognize cultural beliefs relate to medicine Sociological Perspectives I Health state of complete physical mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity I Health is relative and we can view it in a social context Labelling Approach I The designations healthy and ill generally involve social de nition I Homosexuality noteworthy medical example of labeling 0 Can view a variety of life experiences as illnesses or not Social Epidemiology and Health I Social epidemiology study of distribution of disease impairment and general health status across a population I Incidence number of new cases of a speci c disorder occurring within a given population during a stated period of time usually a year I Prevalence number of cases of speci c disorder that exist at a given time I Morbidity rates disease incidencefigures presented as rates of number of reports per 100000 people I Mortality rate incidence of death within a given population Social Class and Health I People in lower classes have higher rates of mortality and disability 0 Appear to be cumulative 0 Less able to afford quality medical care 0 Link between health and economic mobility Race Ethnicity and Health I Health profiles of racial and ethnic groups re ect social inequality in US 0 Poor economic and environmental conditions manifested in high morbidity and mortality rates 0 African Americans have higher death rates and infant mortality rates Gender and Health I women experience higher prevalence of many illnesses but tend to live longer I Why 0 Lower rate of cigarette smoking 0 Lower alcohol consumption 0 Lower rate of employment in dangerous occupations 0 Women more likely to seek treatment Sociological Perspectives on the Environment I Environment people live in has noticeable effects on their health 0 Increases in population together with economic development have serious environmental consequences Human Ecology I Interrelationships between people and their spatial settings and physical environments I Importance 0 Environment provides resources essential for life 0 Environment serves as a waste repository 0 Environment houses our species The Con ict View of the Environment I Growing share of human and natural resources of developing countries redistributed to core industrialized nations 0 Environmental justice legal claims that racial minorities are disproportionately subjected to environmental hazards 0 Poor and oppressed bear brunt of environmental pollution Environmental Problems I 3 broad areas of concern 0 Air pollution 0 Water pollution 0 And I Climate change an observable alteration of the global atmosphere that affects natural weather patterns over several decades or longer I Global warming significant rise in Earth s surface temperature that occurs when industrial gases like carbon dioxide turn planet s atmosphere into a virtual greenhouse gt Impact of Globalization I Globalization can be good or bad for the environment I Industrialization increases pollution I Multinational corporations have incentive to carefully consider costs of natural resources 0 Environmental refugees are one re ection of interplay between globalization and environment
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