Literature Study Guide Know each Title and Author along with spelling Allen Ginsberg and the beat poets –juxtaposition –paradox –rhythm The beat generation – Allen Ginsburg, Gwendolyn Brooks, Amiri Baraka Civil Rights decolonization Antiwar Liberation movements womeDon't forget about the age old question of Is vocabulary important in story-telling?
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n, 3rd world, gay, sexual Counter Culture beats, hippies, LSD, communes; outsider art and music Postwar through cold war Nonconforming rejection of middle class values Political radicalism Spiritual Quest Drug culture and sexual liberation obscenity Allusion and pastiche similarity is proximity “America” Allen Ginsberg –not addressing a specific person, but addressing America as a whole, talking to each person. Charles Bird Parker is mentioned when Sonny tries to explain to his brother what he wants to do. James Baldwin one of major well known authors of postwar Writes about working class background, Christianity/ black church Inheritor of legacy of Harlem Renaissance When thinking of this story, you think and ask has the world changed? Epiphany/ Emotional impact: but of what? Close attention to narrative stream of consciousness, internal monologue Short declarative sentences Baldwin is saying you don’t have to gush to express sentences Possibly a confessional narrative Emotional epiphany “Sonny’s Blues” Unnamed protagonist WWII vet, teacher in Harlem, ‘straight’ or ‘square’ Sonny Hip culture, Greenwich village and Harlem, Jazz ‘hep cat’ Why are 2 brothers so different? However, they come to understand each other Beat generation a group of people that came to the conclusion that the world sucks because of pain and suffering and hatred, and when we find something beautiful, it is special The US is on top of the world, but life sucks Brother says ‘deal with it’. Sonny asks if it has to suck Gwendolyn Brooks from beat to civil rights “We Real Cool” simple accessible language opposite strategy of Ginsberg no rhyme broken up lines inevitable conclusion enjambment when a thought is not finished in the line and it carries on to the next one; this makes you go to the next line and gives you momentum. You have to continue. You focus on the last linePoem is about living fast a dying young; too cool for school Gwendolyn Brooks is not impressed with the ‘too cool for school’ Emmitt Till died young; he died during a time of racial activism and his death juxtaposes such a time Emmitt Till was accused of whistling at a white woman He was pulled out of his house at night and lynched His mom had an open casket funeral so people could see how beaten and mutilated her child was Ballad traditional literary long form that tells a story of a whole life and celebrates it Quatrain short Emmitt Till’s life short Last quatrain only quatrain In the last lines, Brooks is trying to express grief and anger and desolation and bleakness through an image; can’t articulate such feelings in words Red anger, red summer, blood, massacre, vast You get a glimpse of what was supposed to be a longer story The poem is like credits to a film Emmitt’s life A fragmentary poem symbolizes Emmitt’s life which was cut short MLK Jr. and Amiri Baraka are “Ministering Griots” Griot spiritual leader of community, story teller, African term; imagining future new world Both men are Griots working for the health of the community “I Have a Dream” Delivered on the historic march on Washington; 100 yrs after Emancipation a triumph of managed protest Recounts harsh realities of present times and recalls to the original glorious promise and vision There are allusions to the declaration of independence in the speech. He refers to the unalienable rights of blacks as a hot check because they never got theirs because of ‘insufficient funds or white supremacy. He says ‘I see you; I see your struggle. You have to continue until hearts and minds are changed and the time is right Malcolm X disagrees with King about peaceful protest and wants him to go further. The are many rebellions and racial unrest Baraka as spiritual revolutionary (Griot) Prophetic vision or call Creation of new world Invocation/ Transmission of mythic history. Revolution as image “Black people this is our destiny” 2 words to describe Baraka prophetic visionary Audre Lorde ‘Litany for Survival’ “The Master’s Tools Will Never Dismantle the Master’s House ‘Personal is Political’ predominant slogan for feminism in 70s; They thought women’s personal issues should be kept to themselves and not in public discourse; the ‘personal is political’ slogan brought it all to light and drove the feminist movement Difference/Intersectionality All differences intersectTolerance (armistice) Armistice/ sustenance Audre Lorde – active in feminist movement; has a vision for community “without community there is no liberation, only the most vulnerable and temporary armistice between an individual and her oppression, but community must not mean a shedding of our differences, nor the pathetic pretense that differences don’t exist” Mutuality/ Sustenance shared between people; not a handout walking beside Sustenance all the things needed to be sustained Community needs to be mutually there for each other to sustain each other. Armistice is not her goal; she wants a longterm change Tolerance put up with something Tolerance is a fragile truce not an attitude of liberation Tolerance is the bare minimum to survive To listen and understand goes further Tolerance and juxtaposition juxtapose This reading is a piece of her speech at a feminist convention Ironically, the people at the convention are all white women of the same class; they lack difference, and difference is a strength Don’t pretend difference doesn’t exist; you must acknowledge it and its worth What does it mean for power to run corrupt? After shooting, Lorde expresses in the poem rage and powerlessness to shield from murder She’s trying to turn something awful into a poem that feels like beauty to push back. Her own power is the ability to take pain and turn it in to poetry to make a world she wants to live in. She’s concerned about people trying to achieve success through individuality instead of mutuality which is not healthy. To make a better world, you need to embrace differences. She is not interested in reform; she is interested in revolutionary change. What are the ‘Master’s Tools’ that the women wield against each other? She doesn’t want us to belittle embrace. Feminism is not a tool to be another with; act with support sustenance and mutuality. She is like MLK because she’s a visionary and wants a better world. Wendy Rose and Joy Harjo images of “survivance” – native persistence and survival on occupied land Survival, memory, regeneration, and survivance and Sherman Alexi “native imagination experience and remembrance are the real landscapes a liberty” “I am too brown or too white for you” imagination dream and vision paradox, synthesis of difference “there and not there” Singing as pure nonrational expression Working with Jewel imagery (crystal, garnet) Love poem Time of intimacy; morning with beloved Beloved picks a stone of all that are more this or that. Stone or person chosen is special. Me wanting to fit in your palm perfectly. Ever wanted to be perfect for the one you love? Her beloved loves her the way she is. The poem is about being seen; special things inside that one wouldn’t see unless seen all sides. Her beloved loves all sides and perfection inside. The poem is saying how much her beloved loves her when most say words can’t describe love. Images of Survivance Deracination taking away of native race – ghosts, resurrections, living spirits – mythical women and men – ongoing connections with ancestors – Active traditions and customs – emphasis on humor, spirit, moral courage “an active sense of presence over historical” “Anchorage” Joy Harjo urban setting “deep history” storytelling of time before human memory. Words fail “what can we say that would make us understand better than we do already?” physical response is appropriate “we keep on breathing, walking, but softer now” there was a time before Anchorage; deep history glaciers thinking back way beyond discovery fish, rock, blood modern history Talking about Anchorage within a very broad history. Image not only back in time but in core of the earth and atmosphere. Roots you with characters they see a homeless old Lady on a park bench who smells bad; yet she someone’s grandma. They’re claiming the woman is a simple act “ we cleaned her, she’s part of us, our history” Poet connects Images of women and Henry in jail by almost impossible survival and persistence. Survival of those who would never mean to survive; connecting natives with blacks Deer Dance is a social dance that people outside of the culture can view Survivance is not romanticized; reveals real and not so glamorous view; not always beautiful has struggle and hardship; it has a costs Realistic deromanticized deer dance; goes from ground to table Surviving equals presence; may not be taken care of, but alive Talks about what is expected and predicted Bar with drunks but sacred; brings sacred and profane together Anzaldua and Cervantes – Mestiza consciousness Nepantalism Utopian element Mestiza consciousness bridges, borders and breaks Anzaldua created term Mestiza consciousness Hybridity, ambiguity, multiplicity in synthesis Blending of Mexican culture that makes them so special She wants some of the audience to feel left out and sit with it; sit with ambiguity Spanish to reemphasize hybridity; Topically and formally going in and out of cultures Mestiza means mixed Personal nature of PoemContradictions of cultures has struggles; two cultures bombarded by many different ideas and values; two cultures has challenges Nepantalism Aztec word meaning torn between ways; learn to be tolerant of being torn between ways; get used to it or die; rigidity means death Can exist in hybrid places The process putting self and other shoes turns ambivalence into something else. Shows vision for New World Mestiza consciousness is feminine “Poem for the young white man who asked me how I am intelligent wellread person could believe in the war between races” Lorna Dee Cervantes why does one’s feelings of safety impact one’s ability to proceed a threat? If one is comfortable one doesn’t see it what is the difference between believing in something and acknowledging what it is? Greater significance; the last thing one wants to support but it is real want safety and beauty further any quality end war awful grandmother is an important character; awful usually means terrible; in this case it actually means Full of awe; could mean full of religious awe; maybe inspires awe in grandchildren; so notable you won’t forget; her face is a remarkable characteristic of her; she is known in her family as the one who goes to church and praise; she thinks the children should mind and listen the first time; she’s strict and not particularly soft the girl has to go back and forth between her brother and grandmother to align it with grandma she prays to; she participates and takes on the role of praying for family; her brothers don’t do this to align with brother she accepts her roles she’s given games and shares gum. She is caught between Little girl and more mature; she’s caught between Brothers and grandma; she’s caught between Mexican and American culture Brothers equal childhood Grandma equals woman Her initial thought was that her brother was imagining being a feather dancer which is from the Mexican culture He was actually imagining being a bomber which is from the American culture Peaceful versus violent; dualisms –link to Anzaldua Them versus us attitude Dualism’s can be damaging; more complicated One dualism is the relationship between Mexican and American culture but more the personal and micro level The author has a sense of humor and stereotypes the tourists. However, she is a little more seriously Truncated Americans to Muricans; close to Mexicans; more hybrid seeming; suggests difference from street Americans Muricans aligns with grandma and tourists The story goes back to grandma as a reminder; she prays for the grandchildren because they are Americans Not only do the tourists make assumptions for the children the grandma does too Rigidity equals death Anzaldua The girl needs both cultures It is a personal story on what it’s like to live in borderlands Sherman Alexie “what you pawn I will redeem” - Survival/ survivance – humor, Play on words – community, reclamation What is the nature of “tradition” under colonialism? Tragic comic tone Why make the story a romantic quest rather than a legal battle? Symbolic act his survival and his culture’s survival an active sense of presence over historical absence, deracination and oblivion; emphasizes dynamic, inventive and enduring heart of native cultures” major themes exposing the pain of colonialism: alcoholism, homelessness, joblessness, splintering of families – revealing the love and persistence of survivors. – relationship between pan Indian and nonIndian communities. Allen Ginsberg, “America” James Baldwin, “Sonny’s Blues” Gwendolyn Brooks, “We Real Cool” “The Last Quatrain of the Ballad of Emmett Till” Martin Luther King, Jr., “I Have a Dream” Amiri Baraka, “Black People” Audre Lorde, “Power” “The Master’s Tools” Wendy Rose, “If I am Too Brown or Too White for You” Joy Harjo “Anchorage” “Deer Dancer” Lorna Dee Cervantes, “Poem for the Young White Man...” Gloria Anzaldua, ”La conciencia de la mestiza/ Towards a New Consciousness” Sandra Cisneros, “Mericans” Sherman Alexie, “What You Pawn I Will Redeem”