Study Guide (Chapters 1-7)
Study Guide (Chapters 1-7) SOC 1001
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Irissa Cisternino on Monday April 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Lauren Ross in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 161 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at George Washington University.
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Sociology Exam 1 Study Guide L Chapter 1 Understanding Sociology gt Sociology scienti c study of social behavior in human groups Focus on 0 How relationships in uence attitudes behaviors 0 How societies develop and change gtThe Sociological Imagination An awareness of the relationship between the individual and society key is to view society as an outsider would Mills Looks beyond a limited understanding of human behavior 0 View the world in a critical way 0 See things through a broader lens gt Science body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation Two types natural science and social science gt Sociology studies the in uence society has on people s attitudes and behaviors Seeks to understand ways in which people interact with and shape society Examine social relationships scienti cally Sociologists have a long history of advising government agencies Don t accept everyone knows it as fact 0 Each piece of information must be tested recorded and analyzed gt Sociological Theory Set of statements that seek to explain human behavior not nal statements Early Thinkers 0 Auguste Comte Systematic investigation of behavior to improve society Coined the term sociology 0 Harriet Martineau Studied social behavior in US and Britain Emphasized the in uence of societal factors on social problems erbert Spencer Studied evolutionary change in society mile Durkheim Behavior must be understood within a larger social context Anomie loss of direction within a society when social control of individual behavior becomes ineffective 0 Max Weber To comprehend behavior one must learn the subjective meaning people attach to actions 9 E O 9 m Ideal type construct for evaluating speci c cases 0 Karl Marx Society divided between two classes that clash in pursuit of interests Worked with Engels Emphasized group identi cation and associations that in uence one s place in society Working class should overthrow the existing class system Modern Developments 0 WEB Du Bois Black sociologists assisted the struggle for a racially egalitarian society Knowledge is essential in combating prejudice Indepth studies on urban life gt Focused on religion on a community level 0 Double consciousness division of identity into two or more social realities 0 Pierre Bourdieu Capital sustains individuals and families from one generation to the next Cultural capital and social capital gt Major Theoretical Perspectives Functionalist Con ict Interactionist gt Functionalist Perspective Emphasizes the way parts of a society are structured to maintain it s stability Talcott Parsons Viewed society as a vast network of connected parts Each helps to maintain the system as a whole Manifest functions institutions are open conscious stated functions that involve intended and recognized consequences of a society latent functions unconscious or unintended functions that may re ect hidden purposes of an institution dysfunctions elements of processes of a society that may disrupt a social system or it s stability gt Con ict Perspective Assumes social behavior is best understood in terms of con ict or tension between competing groups The Marxist View con ict is part of everyday life in all societies 0 Con ict theorists are more radical and activist than functionalists The Feminist View 0 Feminist perspective sees inequality in gender as central to all behavior and organization 0 Often allied with con ict theory 0 Proponents tend to focus on macro level 0Broadened social behavior by extending analysis beyond male point of view gtThe Interactionist Perspective Generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction to explain society as a whole 0 Humans viewed as living in a world of meaningful objects Nonverbal communication includes gestures facial expressions and postures gtThe Sociological Approach Gains broadest understanding of society by drawing on all major perspectives noting where they overlap or diverge 0 Each perspective offers unique insights into the ame issue Researcher s work always guided by his her theoretical viewpoint gtApplied and Clinical Sociology Applied sociology use of sociology with intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organization Clinical sociology facilitating change by altering social relationships of restructuring social institutions Basic sociology seeks profound knowledge of fundamental aspects of social phenomena gt Discussion Questions In your own words what does it mean to understand the intersection of man and society biography and history How does Mills differentiate troubles and issues How are they related Many of you will be saddled with student debt upon graduation Explain this using a sociological perspective L Chapter 2 Sociological Research gt Sociological Research Scientif1c method organized series of steps that ensure objectivity and consistency in research 0 De ning the problem Operational definition explanation of an abstract concept that is speci c enough to allow researchers to assess the concept 0 Reviewing the literature Refining the problem under study Forming the hypothesis Hypothesis speculative statement about the relationship between two variables Variable measurable trait that is subject to change under different conditions gt Independent variable variable hypothesized to in uence another gt Dependent variable action depends on the in uence of the independent variable Causal logic involve relationships between conditions or variables and a particular consequence with one event leading to the other Correlation eXists when change in one variable coincides with change in another gt Does not necessarily indicate causation Selecting the sample Sample selection from a larger population that is statistically typical of that population Random sample when every member of a population has the same chance of being selected Snowball samples participants recruited through word of mouth or by posting notices on the internet Ensuring validity and reliability Validity degree to which the measure re ects the phenomenon being studied Reliability extent to which the measure provides consistent results Developing conclusions Supporting hypothesis gt Studies don t always give data supporting the hypothesis gt Control variables factor held constant to test the impact of the independent variable gt Major research designs Design detailed plan or method for obtaining scienti c data Surveys Observation Experiments Existing sources gt Surveys Provides info about how people act think Quantitative data Interview face to face or over the phone questioning Questionnaire printed or written down gt Observation Direct participation watching a community Qualitative research relies on what is seen small group Sociologist joins group to get an accurate sense of how it operates Ethnography efforts to describe an entire social setting through extended systematic observation gt Experiments Artificially created situation 0 Experimental group exposed to independent variable 0 Control group not exposed to independent variable 0 Hawthorne Effect unintended in uence of observers on subject gt Use of existing sources Secondary analysis makes use of previously collected and publicly accessible data Content analysis systematic coding and recording of data guided by some rationale gt Ethics Code of ethics 0 Obj ectivity integrity 0 Subject s right to privacy dignity 0 Protect from personal harm 0 Preserve confidentiality 0 Informed consent 0 Acknowledge collaboration and assistance 0 Disclose sources of nancial support gt Feminist methodology Greatest impact on this generation 0 See work and family as integrated 0 Drawn attention to the fact that studies overlook women 0 Involve consult subjects more 0 Oriented towards seeking change gt Discussion Questions What are social facts Provide examples Durkheim argues that social facts about a society are sui generis What does he mean L Chapter 3 Culture gt Culture learned socially transmitted customs knowledge objects and behavior Include ideas values customs and artifacts of a group gt Society large number of people that live in the same territory independent of those outside the area and have a common culture Common culture simpli es day to day interactions Cultural universals common practices and beliefs gt Ethnocentrism tendency to assume that one s own culture and way of life is the norm or superior to others gt Cultural relativism people s behaviors from the perspective of their own culture gt Culture around the world Innovation introducing new ideas obj ects to a culture Diffusion cultural item spreads from group to group 0 McDonaldization fast food industry principles dominate certain sectors of society 0 Technology increased the speed of cultural diffusion and transmission Material culture physical technological aspects of daily life Nonmaterial culture ways of using material objects as well as customs beliefs philosophy etc Culture lag periods of maladjustment when nonmaterial culture struggles to adapt to new material conditions Resistance to technological advancements can produce cultural lag and challenge the survival of isolated cultures gt Cultural variation Subcultures segment of society that shares distinctive patterns of mores folkways and values that differ from larger society Counterculture subculture that deliberately opposes the larger culture Culture shock feeling disoriented uncertain out of place or fearful when immersed in an unfamiliar culture gt Elements of culture Language abstract system of words meanings and symbols for all aspects of a culture 0 At the foundation of every culture 0 Can lead to different interpretations and is culturally de ned Nonverbal communication use of gestures facial expressions and other visual images 0 Learned differs by culture 0 Symbol gestures objects and words that form the basis of human communication Norms established standards of behavior maintained by a society 0 Formal written down w strict punishments Laws governmental social control formal norms 0 Informal generally understood by not precisely recorded Types of norms 0 Mores norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society 0 Folkways norms governing everyday behavior In many societies folkways exist to reinforce patterns of male dominance Acceptance of norms 0 People don t follow norms in all situations Behavior that appears to violate society s norms may adhere to a group s norms Norms may be violated because they con ict with other norms Acceptance of norms is subject to change 0 Sanctions penalties and rewards for conduct concerning social norms oPositive sanctions pay raise medal words of gratitude 0 Negative sanctions nes threats imprisonment Values 0 Values collective conception of what is good proper or what is bad improper 0 In uence people s behavior 0 Criteria for evaluating others 0 Values may change Dominant ideology set of cultural beliefs practices that maintain powerful interests 0 Social interests 0 Economic interests 0 Political interests L Chapter 4 Socialization and the Life Course gt Socialization the lifelong process in which people learn appropriate values attitudes and behaviors gt Personality person s typical patterns of attitudes needs characteristics and behavior gt Interaction of heredity and environment shape human development Cases of extreme isolation and neglect show stunted development Primate studies Harlow showed isolation had a damaging effect on monkeys gtThe self and socialization Self distinct identity that sets us apart from others 0 Not static continues to develop and change gt Cooley lookingglass self View of ourselves comes from contemplation of personal qualities and impressions of how others perceive us Looking glass self the self is a product of social interactions with other people gt Mead Stages of the self Preparatory stage children imitate people around them 0 As they become older children become more adept at using symbols Play stage children develop skills in communication through symbols and role taking occurs 0 Role taking mentally assuming the perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint Game stage children of 8 or 9 consider several actual tasks and relationships simultaneously 0 Generalized others attitudes viewpoints and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account Self begins as a privileged central position in a person s world As the person matures the self changes and begins to re ect greater concerns about the reactions of others 0 Significant others individuals most important in the development of the self gt Goffman presentation of the self Impression management individual learns to slant presentation of the self to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences 0 Also known as the dramaturgical approach Face work need to maintain proper image of self to continue social interaction gt Summary All looking at how personality is socially acquired and how we manage the self Cooley 0 Emphasizes the process in which we create the self Mead 0 Focuses on how the self develops as we learn to interact with others Goffman 0 Focuses on the ways in which we consciously create images of ourselves for others gtAgents of socialization Family Cultural in uences Impact of race and gender 0 Gender roles expectations regarding proper behavior attitudes and activities of males and females School 0 Teaches values and customs of larger society 0 Traditionally socialized children into conventional gender roles Peer groups Mead s significant others Workplace 0 Learning to behave appropriately within occupational setting is a fundamental aspect of human socialization Religion and state 0 Government regulations and organized religion impact the life course by instituting a rite of passage gtThe life course Rites of passage means of dramatizing and validating changes in a person s life Life course approach looking at social factors that in uence people throughout their lives gt Characterizing socialization Anticipatory socialization person rehearses future occupations and social relationships Resocialization discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones during transitions in one s life 0 Total institutions extreme moments of resocialization gt Discussion Questions According to Goffman how do we manage our self How do we display ourselves when engaging with others Do you think we can ever really avoid presenting a face L Chapter 5 Social Interaction Groups and Social Structure gt Social interaction and reality Social reality Response to someone s behavior based on the meaning attached to their actions 0 Ability to define social reality re ects group s power within society Subordinate groups challenge traditional de nitions and begin to perceive experience reality in a new way gt Elements of social structure status Social structure the way society is organized into predictable relationships Status socially de ned positions within a large group or society 0 Person can hold more than one status at the same time gt Ascribed and achieved status Ascribed status status one is born with achieved status status one earns master status status that dominates over other statuses and determines a person s general position in society 0 in the US ascribed statuses such as race and gender can function as a master status gt Social roles 0 As children grow older peer groups increasingly assume roles of gt gt gt gt gt gt Social role set of expectations for people who occupy a given status Role con ict when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person Role strain dif culties arising when the same social position imposes con icting demands and expectations Social institutions Social institution organized pattern of behavior and belief centered on basic social needs Functionalist view 0 Replacing personnel 0 Teaching new recruits 0 Producing goods and services 0 Preserving order 0 Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose Con ict view Major institutions help maintain privileges of most powerful individuals and groups within a society Institutions have inherently conservative natures Operate in gendered and racist environments Interactionist view 0 Social institutions affect everyday behavior 0 Social behavior conditioned by roles and statuses Social networks Social network a series of social relationships that link a person directly to others and indirectly to even more people Networking involvement in social network valuable skill when job hunting Social structure in global perspective Modern structures are complex 0 Durkheim Tonnies Durkheim Division of labor 0 Mechanical solidarity collective consciousness that emphasizes group solidarity all individuals perform the same tasks Organic solidarity collective consciousness that hinges on the need society s members have for one another Tonnies Gemeinschaft small community in which people have similar background and life experiences Gesellschaft large communities in which people are strangers and feel little in common with other community members Formal organizations and bureaucracies Formal organization group designed for a special purpose and structured for maximum efficiency 0 In the US formal organizations ful ll enormous variety of personal and societal needs 0Ascribed status tends to in uence how we see ourselves within formal organizations gt Bureaucracy component of formal organizations that uses rules and hierarchical rankings to achieve ef ciency Ideal type construct for evaluating speci c cases 0Emphasized basic similarity of structure and process found in dissimilar social institutions Ideal type 0 Division of labor Specialized experts perform specific tasks Can remove connection workers have to the bureaucracy 0 Alienation condition of estrangement from the surrounding society gt Hierarchy of authority Each person under the supervision of a higher authority gtWritten rules and regulations Provides continuity and ensure uniform productivity Goal displacement when rules and regulations overshadow lawger goals of organization and become dysfunctiona gt Impersonality Bureaucratic norms that people perform duties without personal consideration to people as individuals gt Bureaucratization as a process Bureaucratization process by which group organization or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic gt Oligarchy rule by few Iron law of oligarchy even a democratic organization will eventually develop into a bureaucracy ruled by a few gt Discussion Questions How does the code of the street guide behavior in the inner city Draw from Wednesday s lecture and from material in chapter 5 Can being poor in the inner city be seen as an ascribed status What is the role importance of social institutions in shaping behavior in this account Provide examples L Chapter 6 The Mass Media gt Sociological perspectives Mass media print and electronic means of communication that carry messages to widespread audiences New forms of mass media have changed people s viewing and listening habits the accompanying migration of media audience gt Functionalist view The media 0 Socialize us 0 Enforce social norms 0 Confer status 0 Promotes consumption gtAgent of socialization Media increases social cohesion by providing a common view of culture 0 Provides a collective experience for members of society Enforcer of social norms 0 Media often reaf rm proper behavior 0 Plays a critical role in sexuality 0 Can glorify disapproved behavior Conferral of status 0 Singles out one person making them signi cant Promotion of consumption 0 Media advertising 0 Supports economy Provides information Underwrites the cost of media Contributes to consumer culture creates needs and unrealistic expectations Dysfunction the narcotizing effect 0 Narcotizing effect phenomenon in which the media provides such massive amounts of coverage that the audience becomes numb and fails to act on it gt Con ict view Con ict theorists emphasize the view that media re ects exacerbates division of society Gatekeeping how material must travel through a series of checkpoints before reaching the public 0 Gatekeeping less dominant on the internet Dominant ideology constructing reality 0 Dominant ideology set of beliefs practices that maintain powerful interests 0 Stereotypes unreliable generalization about all members of a group that don t recognize individual differences within that group gt Feminist view 0 Cultural convergence ow of content across multiple media and O Share con ict theoristsview that mass media stereotype and misrepresent social reality 0 Women underrepresented 0 Perpetuate stereotypical views of gender 0 Emphasis on traditional seX roles and normalize violence against women 0 Cautiously optimistic about new media gt Interactionist view Especially interested in shared understandings of everyday behavior 0 Examine media on micro level to see how they shape day to day social behavior L Chapter 7 Deviance Crime and Social Control gt Social control Social control techniques and strategies fro preventing deviant behavior in a society 0 Parents 0 Peer groups 0 Companies 0 Government Sanctions penalties and rewards for conduct concerning social norms 0 Death penalty is ultimate formal sanction Subject of controversy centered on effectiveness of this sanction as social control gt Conformity and obedience Conformity going along with peers who have no special right to direct behavior Obedience compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure The Milgram experiment 0 Experimenter instructed people to administer increasingly painful electric shocks gt Informal and formal social control Informal used casually to enforce social norms Formal carried out by authorized agents 0 Interplay between formal and informal social control can be complicated especially if informal social control encourages people to violate norms gt Law and society Some norms are so important to a society that they are formalized into laws 0 Law governmental social control Legal order re ects values of those in a position to exercise authority Control theory our connection to members of society leads us to systematically conform to society s norms gt What is deviance Behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society 0 Involved violation of group norms 0 Social de nition within a particular society and at a particular time Deviance and social stigma 0 Stigma labels society uses to devalue members of a social group Deviance and technology 0 Technological innovations can rede ne social interactions and standards of behavior related to them gt Sociological perspectives functionalist Durkheim s legacy 0 Punishments established within a culture help de ne acceptable behavior and contribute to stability 0 Anomie loss of direction felt in society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective Merton s theory of deviance 0Anomie theory of deviance how people adapt in certain ways by conforming to or y deviating from cultureal expectations Conformist o Innovator Ritualist Retreatist o Rebel gt Interactionist perspective Cultural transmission theory 0 Humans learn how to behave in social situations whether properly or improperly 0 Differential association process through which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to the violation of rules Social disorganization theory increase in crime and deviance attributed to absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions 0 Some claim social disorganization theory seems to blame the victim Labeling theory attempts to explain why some people are viewed as deviants and others are not also known as societal reaction approach Social constructionist perspectives 0 Societal reaction approach response to an act not the behavior determines deviance 0 Deviance is a product of the culture we live in 0 Focus on decision making process that creates the deviant identity gt Con ict theory People with power protect their own interest and de ne deviance to suit their needs 0 Differential justice differences in the way social control is exercised over different groups gt Feminist perspective Adler and ChesneyLind argue existing approaches to deviance and crime developed with men in mind 0 Society tends to treat women in stereotypical fashion 0 Cultural views and attitudes towards women in uence how they are perceived and labeled gt Crime Violation of criminal law with formal penalties 6 types de ned by sociologists 0 Victimless crime wiling exchange of widely desired but illegal goods and services 0 Professional crime make a career out of illegal activities 0 Organized crime group that regulates relations between criminal enterprises 0 White collar technology crime crime in business use of technology for crime 0 Hate crimes hatred of race sexual orientation etc motivates crime 0 Transnational crime occurs across multiple national borders gt Discussion questions Why did community school and police perceive the saints and the roughnecks in the way that they did What factors may affect how delinquency and crime are perceived and de ned How can labeling theory be used to explain the life outcomes of both of these two groups
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