Study Guide Chapters 8-11
Study Guide Chapters 8-11 SOC 1001
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Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide 393 Chapter 8 Strati cation and Social Mobility in the US gt Discussion Questions I What does this piece tell us about the low wage workforce They are living paycheck to paycheck and it is nearly impossible to make ends meet on a lowwage paycheck Most need to work two even three jobs to pay their bills Arguably some of the most hardworking people in America and yet there is a stereotype that they are lazy Lack of j ob security plenty of lowwage workers vying for the same jobs I What forms of discrimination and stratification are present in this reading Most places are more willing to hire the author because she is white as opposed to someone of color Lots of lowwage jobs have mandatory drug testing assume low wage workers are criminals who will steal use drugs etc I What are some of the special costs that lowincome workers face They can t afford to eat anything other than fast food so they incur health costs Can t afford health insurance so their medical expenses can cripple them They are living paycheck to paycheck so sometimes they cannot afford to pay their rent when it s due Sometimes can t afford to buy a house because they can t afford the down payment on the rent I After reading this piece what do you think will empower poor people Raising the minimum wage they will have greater job security and will hopefully not need to work two or three jobs Getting rid of the stereotype that lowwage workers are lazy stupid moochers etc Realizing that they have needs too not realizing this makes them feel like their employers don t see them as human gt Strati cation and Social Mobility in the US I Social inequality condition in which members of a society have different amounts of wealth prestige and power Strati cation structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power within a society Income salaries and wages Wealth encompasses all of a person s material assets gt Strati cation I Structured social inequality or systematic inequalities between groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships I Study of who gets what and why I Not just about how resources and outcomes are distributed among different groups but also about how those inequalities overlap and interact Systems of Stratification I Slavery individuals owned by other people who treat them as property I Castes hereditary rank that are usually religiously dictated and tend to be xed and immobile I Estates feudalism peasants worked land leased to them in exchange for military protection and other services Social Classes I Class system social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can affect social mobility I Rossides 5 class model for US class system 0 Upper class 0 Uppermiddle class 0 Lowermiddle class 0 Working class 0 Lower class Wealth Distribution in US I Top 1 35 of wealth I Next 4 27 of wealth I Next 5 1 1 of wealth I Next 10 12 of wealth I Bottom 80 15 of wealth Social Classes I Factors contributing to shrinking size of middle class 0 Disappearing opportunities for those with little education Global competition and advancements in technology 0 Growing dependence on temporary workforce 0 Rise of new growth industries and nonunion workplaces Sociological Perspectives on Strati cation I Sociologists continuously debate strati cation and social inequality and reach varying conclusions 0 No theorist stressed signi cance of class in society more than Marx Karl Marx s View of Class Differentiation I Social relations depend on who controls primary means of production 0 Capitalism means of production held largely in private hands and main incentive is pro ts 0 Bourgeoisie capitalist class owns the means of production 0 Proletariat working class I Class consciousness subjective awareness of common vested interests and the need for collective political action to bring about change I False consciousness attitude held by members of class that does not accurately re ect their objective position Max Weber s View of Strati cation I No single characteristic totally de nes a person s position within the stratification system 0 Class a group of people who have a similar level of wealth and income 0 Status people who have the same prestige or lifestyle independent of their class positions 0 Power the ability to exercise one s will over others Is Stratification Universal I Functionalist View 0 Social inequality necessary so that people will be motivated to ll functionally important positions Q Does not explain wide disparity between rich and poor I Con ict View 0 Human beings prone to con ict over scarce resources such as wealth status and power o Strati cation major source of societal tension o Leads to instability and social change Life Chances I Max Weber saw class as being closely related to people s life chances 0 Life chances opportunities to provide material goods positive living conditions and favorable life experience 0 Wealth status provide additional ways of coping with problems and disappointments Social Mobility I Social mobility movement of individuals or groups from one position in a society s stratification system to another Open vs Closed Stratification System I Open system position of each individual in uenced by achieved status I Closed system allows little no possibility of moving up Types of Social Mobility I Horizontal mobility movement within the same range of prestige I Vertical mobility movement from one position to another of a different rank Intergenerational mobility changes in social position relative to one s parents Intragenerational mobility social position changes within a person s adult life 393 Chapter 10 Racial and Ethnic Inequality gt Discussion Questions Inner City Reading 0 What are some of the structural and cultural factors that account for the plight of many black males inside cities 9 Structural O gt gt Decreased demand for low wage labor in the US due to globalization and new technology Loss of manufacturing jobs for African Americans significant source of betterpaying employment for black males Often educated in poorly performing public schools enter the job market lacking basic skills needed to succeed These factors lead to greater imprisonment rates people blame the imprisonment and try to address that rather than addressing the underlying factors Cultural gt gt gt gt Coolpose culture of black males Promotes the most anomalous human behavior Black males measure their pride by how many girls they get pregnant getting girls pregnant proves you re a man Subculture of defeatism given up hope due to lack of opportunities 0 Are structural and cultural factors interrelated Explain O O O Yes they are interrelated Structural factors create a lack of opportunity for black males and these lack of opportunities leads to the subculture of defeatism Structural factors lead to cultural factors 0 In your opinion did the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson Missouri have anything to do with race 0 The shooting itself did not have much to do with race at least not as much as the media would have everyone believe 0 However there is a larger prejudice in Ferguson that has everything to do with race White Privilege Reading 0 In your own words de ne what McIntosh means by white privilege o Teach racism as putting others at a disadvantage not putting whites as an advantage 9 Similar to male privilege we are willing to increase minority status but not lessen white status 0 Invisible backpack of advantages that minorities do not have 0 In what ways have you realized examples of unearned privilege Q My race is widely represented in media and basically everywhere Q My race is not an issue in questions of nancial stability o No stereotypes about education level or criminal activity about me or my race 0 I can do bad actions swearing dress a particular way etc without people attributing it to negative stereotypes about my race 0 Is there reason to challenge the notion of meritocracy in the US 0 Yes people s ascribed status in uence their position in society o Not totally based on merit gt Minority Groups Minority group subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own lives 0 Properties of minority groups include o Unequal treatment Distinguishing cultural characteristics Involuntary membership Solidarity o Ingroup marriage 00 gt Why Race Matters Lack of assets often indicate that a family is living from paycheck to paycheck being trapped in a job or neighborhood that will be less beneficial later on and not being able to send kids to college Parents wealth is also a strong indicator of outcomes for children teenagers gt Race Racial group minorities set apart from others by obvious physical differences 0 Social construction of race society socially constructs which differences are important Racial formation a sociohistorical process in which racial categories are created inhibited transformed and destroyed 0 Native Americans 0 one drop rule 0 Irish becoming white The color line and recognition of multiple identities 0 In 1900 Du Bois predicted the color line foremost problem of the 20th century 0 Immigration from Latin America shows uid nature of race formation gt Biracial society being replaced by triracial o Stereotypes unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that don t recognize individual differences within the group gt Ethnicity I Ethnic group group set apart from others primarily because of national origin or distinctive cultural patterns 0 Distinction between racial and ethnic minorities is not always clear cut 0 Distinction between racial and ethnic groups are socially significant gt Prejudice I Prejudice negative attitude towards an entire group of people 0 Ethnocentrism tendency to assume one s own culture and way of life are superior to others 0 Racism belief that one race is supreme and others are innately inferior 0 Hate crimes criminal offenses committed because of the offender s bias against race sexuality religion etc 156 sexuality 141 ethnicity 52 race 171 religion 9 10 disability gt ColorBlind Racism I Color blind racism use of principle of race neutrality to de ne racially unequal status quo 0 Idea that society should be color blind perpetuates racial inequality 0 Color line still in place even if more people refuse to acknowledge its eXistence gt Discriminatory Behavior I Discrimination denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups based on some type of arbitrary bias 0 Discrimination persists even for educated and quali ed minority members I Glass ceiling invisible barrier blocking promotion of quali ed individuals in work environment because of gender race or ethnicity gt Privileges of the Dominant 00 I White privilege rights or immunities granted to people as a bene t or favor simply because they are white 0 Institutional discrimination denial of opportunities and equal rights that results from normal operations of a society ex 9 to 5 workday in exible work shifts hurt women with families 0 Af rmative action positive efforts to recruit minority members women for jobs promotions educational opportunities Try to overcome past discrimination gt Functionalist Perspective I Nash s 3 functions that racially prejudice beliefs I Provide to the dominant group 0 Moral justi cation for maintaining unequal society 0 Discourages subordinate groups from questioning status 0 Encourages support for the existing order I Rose identi ed dysfunctions associated with racism 0 Society that practices discrimination fails to use resources of all individuals 0 Aggravates social problems gt Con ict Perspective I Exploitation theory racism keeps minorities in low paying jobs and supplies dominant group with cheap labor 0 Too limited to explain all prejudice gt Interactionist Perspective I Contact hypothesis interracial contact between people of equal status in cooperative circumstances will cause them to become less prejudiced and to abandon old stereotypes gt Patterns of Intergroup Relations I Racial and ethnic groups can relate to each other in a variety of ways from friendship and intermarriage to hostility I Expulsion of people is another extreme means of acting out racial and ethnic prejudice gt Assimilation I Process through which a person forsakes their cultural tradition to become part of a different culture 0 Assimilation can strike at the roots of a person s identity gt Segregation I Segregation physical separation of two groups of people in terms of residence 0 Generally dominant group imposes pattern on a minority group I Apartheid Republic of South Africa severely restricted the movement of blacks and nonwhites Chapter 1 l Stratification by Gender gt Discussion Questions I Can women have it all Having it all means different things to different people to use the term is a bit ignorant There are some women who don t want children or a family and a career is enough for them Harder for women to have a career and a family 9 to 5 workday childcare responsibilities etc Second shift work at career followed by work at home Women can t have the kind of career they want and be the kind of parent they want to be at the same time no matter how hard they work at it Leaving your job to be with family is deemed as weakness Maid in the USA How would you describe the gendered nature of domestic work Why invisible 0 People women especially don t like to admit that they have someone else doing their housework for them 0 The domestic worker is dehumanized by the employer can t talk to the other children or the family not treated as an equal subject to harassment and humiliation o Don t treat her as a regular girl even though she is the same age as the children o Gendered nature still predominantly women doing these jobs husbands men don t help women with domestic work What is meant by the terms double shift and second shift o Applied exclusively to women 0 Women have twice the responsibility as men both career responsibility and childcare responsibility o Second shift women work at their jobs and then immediately when they come home they have a second set of childcare responsibilities How does the transfer of domestic care work from lowincome to upper income families affect social expectations of working class women especially women of color Has this affected the whole society o Expectation that women can t do their own housework upperclass women don t like to admit this because they feel it makes them a bad woman 0 Reinforces the stereotype that housework is a woman s job and career is a man s gt Sociological Perspectives on Gender I Functionalist View Contributes to overall social stability o Instrumentality emphasis on tasks 0 Expressiveness maintenance of harmony and internal emotional affairs of family 0 Dividing tasks between spouses was functional for the family as a unit Con ict Response 0 Functionalist approach masks underlying power relations between men and women 0 Relationship between females and males is traditionally one of unequal power 0 View gender differences as a re ection of the subjugation of one group by another Feminist Perspective 0 Engels women s subjugation coincided with the rise of private property 0 Many contemporary theorists view subordination as part of overall exploitation and injustice inherent in capitalist societies 0 Matrix of domination convergence of social forces that contribute to subordinate status of poor nonwhite women The Interactionist Approach 0 Study gender stratification on micro level 0 We do gender by reinforcing traditionally masculine and feminine actions gt Sexism and Sex Discrimination Sexism ideology that one sex is superior to the other 0 Institutional discrimination denial of opportunities and equal rights as a result of normal operations of a society gt The Status of Women Worldwide In too many nations women are denied equal pay sexually harassed at work or dismissed from jobs because of pregnancy 0 Women everywhere suffer from second class status 0 Women not responding passively gt Women in the US Workforce Gender bias limits women s opportunities for employment outside the home and forces them to carry disproportionate burdens inside of home Labor force participation 0 Women in paid labor force increased steadily throughout 20th century Compensation 0 Disparity in pay between men and women not explained by women s career choices Social consequences of women s employment Women face challenges juggling work and life Worklife balance Second shift work outside the home followed by childcare and housework Greater amount of time women put into caring for children and housework take toll on women pursuing careers gt Emergence of a Collective Consciousness Feminism belief in social economic and political equality for women Feminist movement in US born in 1848 Second wave of feminism emerged in 1960s and came to full force in the 1970s While women generally endorse the feminist positions they don t necessarily accept the label feminist 0 Chapter 9 Global Inequality gt Discussion Questions Why are cities important when thinking about ways to address global inequality Structure layout of city lends itself to inequality Cost of living is higher in the city emphasize the divide between people who can and can t afford it Makes it easy to study inequality because you have people from all walks of life Programs in a city can be generalized to all areas Migration to cities is increasingmore megacities Do cities tend to reinforce econ social divides or alleviate injustices Reinforce the divide between rich and poor Layout of city lends itself to inequality emphasizes the divide between rich and poor upper class vs lower class neighborhoods Hard for people who can t make ends meet to get out of the situation because the cost of living is higher in a city How do the authors suggest we rethink developmental assistance Skipped this question in the discussion gt The Global Divide Inequality is a signi cant determinate of human behavior Divides in global wealth emerged as a result of the Industrial Revolution and rising agricultural productivity Resulting rise in living standards was not evenly distributed across the world gt Strati cation in the World System Stark contrast between industrial and developing nations gt The Legacy of Colonialism Colonialism foreign power maintains political social economic and cultural domination for an extended period I Neocolonialism continued dependence on more industrialized nations for managerial and technical expertise by former colonies I Wallerstein World Systems Analysis 0 Unequal economic and political relationships in which certain industrialized nations and their global corporations dominate core of the world s economic system 0 Dependency theory even as developing countries make economic advances they remain weak and subservient to core nations and corporations I Globalization worldwide integration of government policies cultures social movements and nancial markets through trade and exchange of ideas Multinational Corporations I Multinational corporations commercial organizations headquartered in one country but doing business throughout the world I Total revenue of multinational corporations on par with GDP of some nations I Over 12 of US goods and services related to export or import of goods Functionalist View I Multinational corporations help developing nations 0 Jobs and industry 0 Maximum advantage of technology while reducing costs and boosting profit 0 Make nations more interdependent and less likely to enter con icts Con ict View I Multinational corporations exploit local workers to maximize pro ts 0 Investment by multinational initially contributes to host nation s wealth 0 Eventually increases economic inequality within developing nations Modernization I Modernization the process by which peripheral nations move from traditional institutions to those characteristic of developed societies 0 Urban literate and industrial 0 Government begins to play a greater role I Is this a biased term Distribution of Wealth and Income I Worldwide richest 2 of adults own more than 12 of the world s household wealth I In at least 22 nations around the world the most af uent 10 of the population receives 40 of all income
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