STC 233: Studyguide
STC 233: Studyguide STC 233
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natalie Land on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to STC 233 at University of Miami taught by Melissa Jane Barnes in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see in Communication at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Chapter 1: Assessing audience, purpose, and medium • Christine Thomas: she was a system administrator at HSV who saw an opportunity for the company o HSV had twelve employees now and was prospering, however six of these twelve commuted more than one hour to and from work, o Company was losing a lot of job applicants because of this whole fuss with commuting § Telecommuting would be beneficial § She emailed Halliven who literally responded not right for HSV o Writing systematically § Lost sight of purpose of the email: this happens very often to most people its very common § Harriet wasn’t familiar with the research that Christine had done • Keep reader in mind always: gather facts and ideas, select which to use and then organize them § Identify the purpose: the audience but also the context of the writing o Determine purpose § To believe, to know or to do § Direction to your writing, purpose does this it fives direction § Christine’s purpose: allow HVS employees to telecommute, this wasn’t the purpose it was the result she wanted, the purpose was to explain advantages of telecommunicating to Harriet o Assessing needs § Express ideas clearly, so to not be misinterpreted § Identify purpose you want but also achieve it • Often people forget the audience and the audience’s needs • Who is my audience: there position in the company, etc o Context § Environment or situation in which you write a document matters § Circumstances inside and outside the organization matter § The medium in which you write also matter, such as email blog, written etc o Generating, gathering ideas and facts § Brainstorm: • Your own knowledge and experience • Interviewing yourself o Unlock your imagination, jot down ideas, don’t stop until you really have no more ideas • You’re being a journalist: ask why did it happen, what happened, how did it happen, where did it happen, when and who • Then test your ideas and see how they contribute to the purpose • Using other sources: systematic research, or content created in my own organization can also be a second resource • Repurposing: you can copy and convert existing content from one document to another o Establish scope § Degree of detail necessary to cover each item on the list § Based on purpose and needs of audience o organize ideas § ideas and facts to include in writing o selecting medium § audience preference § distribution § urgency of message o email: communication and sharing files with colleagues and clients: customers, informal notes but same style o memos: communication amongst members of same organization § standard header: sent on paper o letters: more professional form for formal conversations with professional’s associates o faxes: drawing or signed contract in its original form o IM: between workers o Chapter 2: Organizing Information • Outlining o Two important advantages of outlining § Allows you to reexamine information making sure you have sufficient facts in your writing § Forces order in your writing o Memos letters and emails: don’t need outlines just some jotting down o Longer documents: need outlining o Roman numeral outlines § Most common type of outline • I) major section o A. subsection first § 1. Second subsection • a) third subsection o Decimal numbering system outline § 1. Major idea • 1.1. support • 1.2: support o 1.2.1: support of support o Audience and Purpose shape organization § Two separate documents on same machine § 1 is a sales brochure others is a workers manual for those who already own the workout machine, it’s the same audience but different purposes for each § sales brochure is used to persuade § and the other is to explain on how to use everything o Organizing patterns § Sequential: divide into steps and present the steps in order of which they occur • Best for explaining a process, or how to perform CPR for example § Chronological order • Also describes steps but you focus on order in which the events occur at the specific time based on the time o The first event, then the second… all the way until the last § Spatial • Objects according to physical arrangement of its features • From top to bottom, side to side etc • Height width, north south § Divide and classification • Divide into manageable parts then discuss each part separately • PHYSICAL OBJECT: HOME GENERATOR FOR EXAMPLE • Break a whole into number of units • Classyfiying is different because its grouping a number of units into relative categories • Don’t overlap categories o Decreasing order § Most important facts: then the next most important, and so on • Online and print news is good use for this • For a busy decision maker who will only read the first most important facts probably o Increasing order § Most important to be freshest in mind so you start with least important o General to specific § General statement and then more specific: examples to support statement o Specific to general § Specific information to general conclusion Chapter 3: writing the draft • Rough Draft o Use an outline which groups related facts and details § Unpolished: when you write and revise these are two very different taks o Start with your most interest point to get moving • Keep your audience in mind always o What does my reader already know? o Feelings about the subject o For persuasive writing acknowledge different point of views o For all writings adopt a tone of voice appropriate for the audience § Writing for the audience point of view • Imagine yourself in the reader’s position • Ie: writing for a bicycle company and you need to write instructions for a prson who just purchased the bike: don’t use technical language use simple step by step § Accommodating multiple audiences: • When you write for readers of similar background: ie: all security officers, picture just one representative of that group • But if its many backgrounds, then write for each audience separately in each different section o Writing for international audience § Organizationional patterns form of courtesy, ideas about efficiency can vary from culture to culture • Consult with someone from that culture o Persuading audience § Keep readers needs in mind § Convincing objective evidence § Use the appropriate medium to help persuade o Establish your role and voice as a writer § Need to assume roles: if maybe of a teacher who guides audience through learning a new task • IE: more than just persuade: be alert to questions readers might ask. • Audiences interests don’t always coincide with their needs o You must try demonstrate how reading your document links interest with the need to read your document § Consider the voice also • Authoritative or friendly • Newsletters: friendly, conversational, o Development strategies § Explaining a process § How something works, how it happened, how its done § Opening paragraph: tell readers why topic is important, or maybe a brief overview of process o Describing information § Information about objects size, shape, construction: describing it § Can be brief simple or highly complex, but always have to be clear and specific o Defining terms and concepts § Formal definition, places term in a class of related objects and shows how it differs from other members of the same class § Informal definition: uses familiar words or phrases as synonym § Extended definition: number of qualities of item being described o Cause and effect § Explaining why something happened or why something will happen § Make relationship between situation super related between cause and effect • Evidence of relevant to topic, adequate representative, demonstrable o Writing an opening § Identify subject, provide necessary context for subject, focus audiences attention o Closing § Concise and ends writing emphatically Revise the Draft • Lincoln: wrote address on the trip train o This is false he took weeks to write the first drafts o During revision be hard on yourself • Content and organization o Look for accuracy of content: ensure topics in intro aren’t left out in body paragraphs o Ensure topics in introduction aren’t left out in body paragraphs o You can add missing focus or ideas • Coherence o Relationship between ideas is clear o First idea relates clearly to the other § Paragraph unity every sentence in paragraph contributes to one central idea • Topic sentence helps with unity • Transitions: take reader logically from one idea to next o Between sentences: repeating key words or ideas from preceding sentences o Between paragraph: sentence that summarizes preceding paragraph ask a question and answer at beginning of next page • Emphasis: highlights facts and ideas that writers consider most important, focusing readers attention on key elements o Active and passive voice o Active: subject of sentence acts o Passive: subject is acted on o Active voice is important in workplace writing o Passive is good when doer of action is less important then receiver of action • Parallel structure: clarifies meaning: sentence elements alike in function must be aline in structure • Lists: set apart from surrounding text key ideas to stand out • Point of view: writers relation to information presented o First point of view: writer is participant or observer o Second point of view: writer giving advice, instruct directions • Language o Words you use matter o Right word in the right context o Precision requires you use the right word o Avoid words that confuse o Also context: setting in which word appears o Padded phrases: an idea that could easily be expressed in one §
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