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UA - PSYCH 101 - Psych 101 Final Exam Study Guide - Study Guide

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UA - PSYCH 101 - Psych 101 Final Exam Study Guide - Study Guide

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Tba
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Psychology
Name: Psych 101 Final Exam Study Guide
Description: Professor: Cox
Uploaded: 04/25/2017
0 5 3 57 Reviews
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background image Psych 101 Final Exam Study Guide    Emotion, Stress, and Health   
Emotions- a state of arousal, this state of arousal involves: 
● Physiological changes in the face, brain and body 
● Cognitive interpretations 
● Behaviors such as fight/flight and approach/withdrawal 
● Subjective feelings  
○ Culture and social context influence our expression and subjective experience of  emotions    
Verbal Communication vs. Nonverbal Communication  
Verbal- what we say  
NonVerbal- Body Language and facial expressions, also the tone of our voice and the rate of our 
speech  
 
Emotions and Facial Expressions 
-some facial expressions are universal (anger, happiness, fear) 
-we can usually tell when someone is making a facial expression that isn’t genuine 
-facial expression show the emotions that we are feeling inside 
● Facial Feedback- Facial emotions send info to the brain about the basic emotion being  expressed   ● Interpretation of emotions depends on context  
● We are better at reading other people’s emotions when they are part of our “in group” 
 
Emotions and The Brain  
● Amgydala: Plays a large role in anger and fear 
● Frontal Cortex: Plays a large role in how we perceive other people’s emotions and how 
we regulate our own emotions  ● Mirror Neurons: Brain cells that are activated when a person observes someone else  engaging in a behavior   ○ Involved in empathy, language comprehension, and reading the emotions of  others   Mood Contagen- we take on the emotions that others are experiencing (spending time with 
happy people can improve our mood) 
 
Emotions and The Mind 
background image ● Appraisals: Beliefs, attributions, and perceptions used to explain your own and others’  behavior   ● Example of Amanda Knox- 2 people had entirely different impressions of her  ○ Influenced by culture   ■ (In collectivist cultures people tend to blame themselves, in individualist  cultures people tend to blame others)   ○ Potentially stable over time  Emotions and Culture  ● Emotions depend on cultural rules, norms, and traditions 
● Culture also influences acceptable display rules (norms that determine how we should 
represent ourselves) ex. Women are expected to smile more, not universal  ● Gender interacts with culture to influence emotional expression    
Stress 
General Adaption Syndrome 
● Alarm Phase- The body mobilizes the sympathatic nervous system to tell us there is a  threat, significant change in hormonal levels, tells us we are in danger (gets us ready to 
fight or get out, it doesn’t last long 
● Resistance Phase- body is attempting to cope with whatever is stressing you out, body  continues to inact the stmpathatic nervous system and have hormonal changes- this 
change in the long run makes us more vulnerable  
● Exhaustion Phase- body can’t keep up, this is your body’s way of reacting to the 1st 2  stages (example getting a cold after being stressed out about a test)   
HPA Axis & Cortisol 
● Hypothalamus- pituitary- adrenal cortex (HPA) axis: hormone system that is activated  when someone is under stress  ● Cortisol: hormone elevated during times of stress  ○ Prolonged activation can lead to hypertension, immune disorders, and depression    
Stress and the Mind: Optimism 
Optimism- helps us to get through 
 
Stress and the Mind: Resilience 
● Resilience: Ability to persist in pursuit of goals despite setbacks (ability to bounce back) 
● Locus of control: Belief  about whether your actions, and the consequences of your 
actions, are under your own control (internal locus of control) or beyond your control 
(external locus of control)  
 
background image Stress and Emotion  ● Hostility: persistent unfriendly, antagonistic, and mistrustful attitude towards others   
 
● Expressing positive and negative emotions can be beneficial   ○   Confession may be beneficial for your health   
Coping With Stress 
● Mindfulness- point of exercise is for the individual to accept whatever they are  experiencing without judgement   ● Exercise- used for people with depression to get them moving  
● Problem solving: 
○ Reappraising the situation 
○ Learning from the experience 
○ Making social comparisons   
 
Coping with Stress: Social Support 
● Genuine social networks and interpersonal relationships is the most powerful predictor of  a long and healthy life    ● Physical touch (when welcomed) increased oxytocin      Abnormal Psychology    ● Psychological disorders- any condition that causes a person to suffer, is self-destructive,  seriously impairs a person’s ability to work or get along with others, or makes a person 
unable to control the impulse to harm self or others. 
○ NOT insanity  
○ NOT uncommon* 
 
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) 
● The DSM is the manual that provides diagnostic criteria for every recognized disorder 
● Provides general information about disorder  
● Used in most medical and research settings 
● With each edition, the number of disorders increases  
 
DSM: Pros and Cons 
Pros: 
background image ● Increases reliability between clinicians 
● Clarifies psychological constructs for research purposes 
● May inform treatment 
● Logistically necessary  
Cons:  ● Over-diagnosis: Individuals may be given labels that do not actually describe their  functioning   ● Diagnostic labels: Mental illness carries a stigma  
● Science sacrificed for clarity  
● May not account for culture-bound syndromes  
  Psychological Disorders: Anxiety and Panic    
Generalized Anxiety Disorder: 
● Excessive, uncontrollable anxiety or worry 
● Occurs on a majority of days  
● Occurs over (at least) a 6 month period  
● Is not brought on by drugs or disease  
 
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: 
● Experience with a traumatic event* 
● Examples: Combat, assault, sexual assault, car accident  
● Relives this traumatic event through recurrent intrusive thoughts 
● Premorbid functioning (functioning before the traumatic event) may predict symptom 
development   Panic Disorder  ● Recurrent and frequent panic attacks 
●  Panic attacks characterized by impending doom, fear, and physiological symptoms 
●  Attacks appear to come out of nowhere 
● Likely related to life-threatening event or chronic stress 
 
Psychological Disorders: Phobias  
Ex. Acrophobia- fear of heights 
Phobia- Exaggerated fear of specific situation, activity or thing  
● Evolution may help to explain the situations/activities/things susceptible to phobias 
●  Treatment: 
○ Flooding- taking the individual and teaching them how to cope then they expose  the patient to whatever they are afraid of  ■ Most people don’t agree to do it but if they do it’s very effective 

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Join more than 18,000+ college students at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa who use StudySoup to get ahead
School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Tba
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Psychology
Name: Psych 101 Final Exam Study Guide
Description: Professor: Cox
Uploaded: 04/25/2017
13 Pages 60 Views 48 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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