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AU / History / HIST 1020 / What did lebensraum mean?

What did lebensraum mean?

What did lebensraum mean?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: History
Course: World History II
Professor: Michael smith
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: History 1020, FINAL STUDY GUIDE
Description: study guide for the final
Uploaded: 04/27/2017
26 Pages 179 Views 5 Unlocks
Reviews


ID TERMS


What did lebensraum mean?



why important 

definition

Lebensraum

∙ German expansion in central  and eastern Europe

∙ The territory that a state or  nation believes is needed for  its natural development,  

especially associated with  

Nazi Germany

∙ Western Europe wasn’t in the  best shape to stand up to  

Hitler

Island hopping

∙ Expanse of Japanese empire  and fighting in the pacific  

theatre

∙ US threatened to get involved  and stopped sending them  

some of the resources they  

needed  forced Japanese  

government to make a choice  between giving up their newly  gained territories or start a  

war with the US

Total war

∙ Warfare that includes any and  all civilian-associated  

resources and infrastructure

∙ Gives priority to warfare over  non-combat needs 

∙ unrestricted

The Blitz

∙ bombing of urban centers

∙ 1940-1941

∙ didn’t have to live in a big city  to get bombed

∙ name used by British press to  describe the heavy air raids  

carried out over Britain

Yalta

∙ resort on the black sea

∙ start talking about shape of  the world post-world war

∙ FDR and Churchill push hard


What country is yalta in?



We also discuss several other topics like What must happen in order for the lens to become more convex?

for United Nations

∙ Modeled on League of Nations ∙ Trying to stop WW3 from  

happening 

∙ Stalin wanted to create a  

buffer zone between Germans  and Soviets  sphere of  

influence

∙ Sets the stage for cold war  and has to allow free elections ∙ Potsdam formalizes Yalta  

agreements  New Big Three:  Atlee, Truman and Stalin

∙ Divided Germany up

Truman Doctrine

∙ Every nation must choose  between alternative ways of  

life

∙ “if you’re fighting communists, the US will help you”

∙ goes along with Marshall Plan  gives lots of economic  

assistance to European  

countries to help them rebuild ∙ 17 billion dollars over 4 years ∙ saves Western Europe and  rebuilds economies of those  

countries

Eastern bloc

∙ communist

∙ countries such as Soviet Union and USSR aligned countries  

and former aligned countries

∙ Stalin wanted to protect Soviet Union and spread the idea of  communism

∙ Satellite states of USSR  take  direction from Moscow and  

lack autonomy, largely  

agricultural

Mao

∙ Takes about 5 years to  

become successful dictator

∙ Gradual transition to  

dictatorship after CCP’s victory in the Civil War


How did the truman doctrine affect the cold war?



If you want to learn more check out What is known about happiness and goals, wealth, and social relationships?

∙ Main reason for delay was  need to grow the party to  

have loyal local-level officials

Cuban revolution

∙ Armed revolt conducted by  Fidel Castro and his allies  

against the right-wing  

authoritarian government of  

Cuban President

∙ July 1953-January 1959

∙ Powerful domestic and  

international repercussions

∙ Transformed Cuba’s  

relationship with the US

∙ Castro’s government began a  program of nationalization and political consolidation that  

transformed Cuba’s economy  and civil society

Japanese “miracle”

∙ Japan’s record period of  

economic growth between  

post WW2 and the cold war

∙ Became the world’s second  largest economy

Lord Mountbatten

∙ Appointed viceroy of India

∙ March 1947, he arrived in  India

∙ Was a British naval officer and  statesman

∙ First governor-general of India

Calcutta killings

∙ Day of widespread riot and  manslaughter between Hindus and Muslims in the city of  

Calcutta

∙ To show the strength of  

Muslim feelings both to British  and Congress

Kwame Nkrumah

∙ Led Ghana to independence  from Britain 

∙ 1957

∙ served as its first prime  

minister and president

∙ gained power as leader of the  Gold Coast

If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between a wave of oscillation versus a wave of translation?
If you want to learn more check out What is alogia?

∙ founding member of the  

Organization of African Unity

Ho Chi Minh

∙ leader of the Viet Minh  

communist forces and  

eventually North Vietnam

∙ problem because communist ∙ leader of North Vietnam

Tet Offensive

∙ coordinated attack against  numerous bases

∙ huge mistake by Vietnamese  communist forces

∙ crushes US population’s faith  in the war

∙ 1968

FLN

∙ National Liberation Front  

(Algeria)

∙ Socialist political party in  

Algeria

∙ Principal nationalist movement during the Algerian War and  

the sole legal and the ruling  

political party of the Algerian  state

Kitchen debate

∙ Soviet Union hosted a world’s  fair

∙ Countries go to Moscow to  demonstrate what houses in  

different countries look like

∙ Nixon goes to show all of the  convenience goods that we  

have  washing machine,  

dishwasher, fridge, etc

∙ Raises standard of living

Freedom rides

∙ 1961

∙ DC to New Orleans

∙ Violence in Aniston, AL

∙ KKK slashes tires on the first  bus and forces the riders out  onto the road and later beat

∙ Second bus sees first bus on  fire and stops  KKK invades  

second bus and beats those  

riders

Don't forget about the age old question of What does evolution mean?

∙ Continue on to Birmingham  and ends there because no  

one can continue because  

they are so badly beaten

∙ Federal government just  

overturned segregation at bus  stations

∙ KKK was going against the  law, but people wanted to  

keep that out of the papers

Red guards

∙ Young kids turned into red  guards

∙ Studied the little red book

∙ Supposed to discover who was supporting the old ideas, habit and customs 

∙ Group of kids roaming through cities and villages and  

breaking into house of  

wealthier and elites 

destroying manuscripts,  

beating people up, making  

sure people are living the way  they are supposed to

∙ Years later the red guard  

members were exiled and told they were wrong

Gorbachev

∙ Leader of USSR

∙ 1885-1991

∙ still a communist who believes in Soviet Union

∙ wants to get away from  

authoritarian regime

∙ Glasnost  openness, meant  ability to criticize the party, a  reigning of the KBG (secret  

police) and some relaxation of  censorship 

∙ Perestroika  economic  

reforms, allowing companies  

to make some profit, centering the economy on up-to-date  

technology and less heavy  

industry and a weakening of

We also discuss several other topics like What does net neutrality mean?

price controls on some goods

Perestroika

∙ economic reforms, allowing  companies to make some  

profit, centering the economy  on up-to-date technology and  less heavy industry and a  

weakening of price controls on some goods

Tiananmen Square

∙ protests of 1989

∙ student led demonstrations in  Beijing

∙ refers to the popular national  movement inspired by Beijing  protests during that period

∙ ’89 Democracy Movement ∙ forcibly suppressed after the  government declared martial  law

∙ troops with assault rifles and  tanks killed at least several  

hundred demonstrators trying  to block the military’s advance towards Tiananmen Square

∙ thousands of civilian deaths

World bank

∙ international financial  

institution that provides loans  to countries of the world  

capital programs

∙ part of United Nations system ∙ stated official goal is the  

reduction of poverty

∙ created in 1944 Bretton  

Woods Conference

∙ president is traditionally  

American

∙ works closely with the  

International Monetary Fund  

(IMF)

Rwanda

African food shortages

V-E Day

∙ Victory in Europe

∙ May 8, 1945 German  

government gives in

∙ Hitler killed himself a week  prior during the Battle of  

Berlin

∙ Marked the end of WW2 in  Europe

Hiroshima

∙ Japan, Aug. 6, 1945

∙ 2nd General Army and Chugoku Regional Army were  

headquartered in Hiroshima  

and Army Marine  

Headquarters

∙ nuclear weapon “little boy”  was dropped by American b

29 bomber 

∙ directly killed around 70,000  people and in the end around  90,000 people

Arsenal of Democracy

∙ b-24’s under construction at  ford’s willow run factory

∙ slogan used by FDR in a radio  broadcast in 1940

∙ promised to help the UK fight  Nazi Germany by giving them  military supplies while US  

stayed out of the fighting

The Holocaust

∙ genocide in which around 6  million European Jews were  

killed by Nazi Germany/Hitler  in WW2

∙ extermination camps post  1941  people taken there to  be killed

∙ concentration of Jewish  

population  people were at  

first put in ghettos (in Warsaw) and then relocated

∙ start taking people out of  

ghettos in Poland or France  

and taken to the camps

∙ healthiest 10% still put to  labor and life expectancy was  3 months

∙ Germans called it the “Shoah”

Containment

∙ advocated by George Kennan ∙ a way to check the Soviet  expansion without embarking  on another costly ground war ∙ goal isn’t to eliminate  

communism, it’s to contain it  where it already exists

Berlin airlift

∙ June 1948-May 1949

∙ Dozens of planes flew in  

everyday

∙ Americans bringing in supplies  would drop chocolate and  

gum as they would leave for  

the kids

Satellite states

∙ States which take direction  from Moscow and lack  

autonomy

∙ Welcomed soviet expertise in  rapidly industrializing and had  large indigenous communist  

parties

Rectification campaigns

∙ Critical pieces of leadership  were strict loyalty and  

conformity to doctrine

∙ Began before civil war

∙ Someone identified as being  disloyal to the party would  

have to be reformed  explain  their likes and dislikes in front  of a bunch of people and they  criticize you 

∙ Imprisoned until you write a  sufficient confession

Apartheid

∙ System of institutionalized  racial segregation and  

discrimination in South Africa ∙ 1948-1991

∙ entailed segregation of public  facilities and social events and dictated housing and  

employment opportunities by  race

Arab-Israeli war

∙ 1948

∙ fought between Israel and  military coalition of Arab  

states forming the second  

stage of the Palestine War

∙ civil war transformed into a  inter-state conflict between  

Israel and the Arab states

∙ resulted in the growth of the  state of Israel

Muhammed Ali Jinnah

∙ lawyer, politician and founder  of Pakistan

∙ leader of All-India Muslim  

League

∙ Pakistan’s first Governor

General

∙ Wanted to safeguard the  

political rights of Muslims 

∙ Helped Pakistan to become  independent Muslim-majority  state

Nehru

∙ first prime minister of India  and central figure in Indian  

politics before and after  

independence 

∙ ruled from 1947-1964

∙ architect of the modern Indian nation state  sovereign,  

socialist, secular and  

democratic republic

∙ part of non-aligned movement ∙ works with Nkrumah

∙ accepts partition because it’s  what he has to accept for an  independent India  always  

secular to him 

∙ sees no reason to go against  whites of the Kashmir

Non-aligned movement

∙ Nkrumah and Nehru

∙ Point of peace-corps  go to  newly independent places and model how awesome  

democracy is

∙ Pressuring leaders to align  with US

∙ Five founding principles  

∙ 1) mutual respect for each  other’s territorial integrity and  sovereignty 

∙ 2) mutual non-aggression

∙ 3) mutual non-interference in  domestic affairs 

∙ 4) equality and mutual benefit ∙ 5) peaceful co-existence,  

keeping each other out of the  cold war and refusing to pick a side

Viet Cong

∙ South Vietnamese guerilla  force; undertook most of the  fighting pre-Tet

Colon

∙ native Algerian

∙ families have been there and  in control for generations

∙ controlling a lot of the  

resources

∙ *Algerian War

Baby boom

∙ average age of marriage drops ∙ 20 for women, 22 for men

∙ roughly 60 million women over age 15 in 1950 were married  and 40 million were married  highest ever

∙ average number of children  per family rose to 4

∙ American economy explodes  and people move to suburbs  Levittown

∙ US faces no global competition for consumer goods  US is  

only industrialized capitalist  

country with industrials still in  tact

Second red scare

∙ 1948-1854

∙ McCarthyism

∙ Loyalty oaths  sign paper  saying you’ve never been a

supporter of the communist  

party of ideas

∙ HUAC  congressional  

committee

∙ If anyone pled the 5th, people  were blackballed or fired

∙ If you were gay and worked  for federal government, target by HUAC

Stasi

∙ East German secret police

∙ Goal was to root out class  enemies 

∙ Under constant surveillance  phones tapped and mail read ∙ Large companies had Stasi  inside to listen

∙ Every apartment building had  a designated Stasi reporter 

led to many people being  

arrested, interrogated or  

tortured

∙ Moved to small subtle things  to mess with people  

psychologically like fake  

documents, re-arranging  

homes or hang up phone calls

Cultural revolution

∙ Development of any kind of  elite was a failure

∙ mid 1960-‘s tried to purge  china of elite influence

∙ supposed to be a spiritual  regeneration 

∙ primary goal of Chinese  

government was this purge  

even above economic  

development 

∙ anyone who was a fan of elites or supported them were a  

target of cultural revolution

∙ young kids turned into Red  Guards

Glasnost

∙ “openness”

∙ meant ability to criticize the  party, a reigning of the KBG

(secret police) and some  

relaxation of censorship

Four modernizations

∙ goals set by Zhou Enlai

∙ 1981

∙ to strengthen fields of  

agriculture, industry, national  defense and science and  

technology in China  by  

introducing some capitalist  

elements to the economy

∙ reforms that originally began  late 1970’s

Citizenship laws

Balkan war

∙ two conflicts that took place in Balkan peninsula

∙ 1912-1913

∙ 4 Balkan states defeated  

ottoman empire in first war

∙ ottoman empire lost the bulk  of its territory in Europe

∙ Austria-Hungary became  

relatively weaker

∙ Served as prelude to first  

world war

Ayatollah Khomeini

∙ Iranian Shia Muslim religious  leader, philosopher and  

politician

∙ Found of Islamic Republic of  Iran

∙ Leader of Iranian Revolution in 1979

∙ Became country’s supreme  leader

European Union (EU)

∙ Political and economic union  of 28 states that are located  

primarily in Europe

∙ Policies aim to ensure that the  free movement of people,  

goods, services and capital  

within the internal market  

maintain common policies on  trade, agriculture, fisheries,  

and regional development 

∙ Formed after WW2

∙ European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme  nationalism which had  

devastated the continent

ID TERMS

why important 

definition

Lebensraum

∙ German expansion in central  and eastern Europe

∙ The territory that a state or  nation believes is needed for  its natural development,  

especially associated with  

Nazi Germany

∙ Western Europe wasn’t in the  best shape to stand up to  

Hitler

Island hopping

∙ Expanse of Japanese empire  and fighting in the pacific  

theatre

∙ US threatened to get involved  and stopped sending them  

some of the resources they  

needed  forced Japanese  

government to make a choice  between giving up their newly  gained territories or start a  

war with the US

Total war

∙ Warfare that includes any and  all civilian-associated  

resources and infrastructure

∙ Gives priority to warfare over  non-combat needs 

∙ unrestricted

The Blitz

∙ bombing of urban centers

∙ 1940-1941

∙ didn’t have to live in a big city  to get bombed

∙ name used by British press to  describe the heavy air raids  

carried out over Britain

Yalta

∙ resort on the black sea

∙ start talking about shape of  the world post-world war

∙ FDR and Churchill push hard

for United Nations

∙ Modeled on League of Nations ∙ Trying to stop WW3 from  

happening 

∙ Stalin wanted to create a  

buffer zone between Germans  and Soviets  sphere of  

influence

∙ Sets the stage for cold war  and has to allow free elections ∙ Potsdam formalizes Yalta  

agreements  New Big Three:  Atlee, Truman and Stalin

∙ Divided Germany up

Truman Doctrine

∙ Every nation must choose  between alternative ways of  

life

∙ “if you’re fighting communists, the US will help you”

∙ goes along with Marshall Plan  gives lots of economic  

assistance to European  

countries to help them rebuild ∙ 17 billion dollars over 4 years ∙ saves Western Europe and  rebuilds economies of those  

countries

Eastern bloc

∙ communist

∙ countries such as Soviet Union and USSR aligned countries  

and former aligned countries

∙ Stalin wanted to protect Soviet Union and spread the idea of  communism

∙ Satellite states of USSR  take  direction from Moscow and  

lack autonomy, largely  

agricultural

Mao

∙ Takes about 5 years to  

become successful dictator

∙ Gradual transition to  

dictatorship after CCP’s victory in the Civil War

∙ Main reason for delay was  need to grow the party to  

have loyal local-level officials

Cuban revolution

∙ Armed revolt conducted by  Fidel Castro and his allies  

against the right-wing  

authoritarian government of  

Cuban President

∙ July 1953-January 1959

∙ Powerful domestic and  

international repercussions

∙ Transformed Cuba’s  

relationship with the US

∙ Castro’s government began a  program of nationalization and political consolidation that  

transformed Cuba’s economy  and civil society

Japanese “miracle”

∙ Japan’s record period of  

economic growth between  

post WW2 and the cold war

∙ Became the world’s second  largest economy

Lord Mountbatten

∙ Appointed viceroy of India

∙ March 1947, he arrived in  India

∙ Was a British naval officer and  statesman

∙ First governor-general of India

Calcutta killings

∙ Day of widespread riot and  manslaughter between Hindus and Muslims in the city of  

Calcutta

∙ To show the strength of  

Muslim feelings both to British  and Congress

Kwame Nkrumah

∙ Led Ghana to independence  from Britain 

∙ 1957

∙ served as its first prime  

minister and president

∙ gained power as leader of the  Gold Coast

∙ founding member of the  

Organization of African Unity

Ho Chi Minh

∙ leader of the Viet Minh  

communist forces and  

eventually North Vietnam

∙ problem because communist ∙ leader of North Vietnam

Tet Offensive

∙ coordinated attack against  numerous bases

∙ huge mistake by Vietnamese  communist forces

∙ crushes US population’s faith  in the war

∙ 1968

FLN

∙ National Liberation Front  

(Algeria)

∙ Socialist political party in  

Algeria

∙ Principal nationalist movement during the Algerian War and  

the sole legal and the ruling  

political party of the Algerian  state

Kitchen debate

∙ Soviet Union hosted a world’s  fair

∙ Countries go to Moscow to  demonstrate what houses in  

different countries look like

∙ Nixon goes to show all of the  convenience goods that we  

have  washing machine,  

dishwasher, fridge, etc

∙ Raises standard of living

Freedom rides

∙ 1961

∙ DC to New Orleans

∙ Violence in Aniston, AL

∙ KKK slashes tires on the first  bus and forces the riders out  onto the road and later beat

∙ Second bus sees first bus on  fire and stops  KKK invades  

second bus and beats those  

riders

∙ Continue on to Birmingham  and ends there because no  

one can continue because  

they are so badly beaten

∙ Federal government just  

overturned segregation at bus  stations

∙ KKK was going against the  law, but people wanted to  

keep that out of the papers

Red guards

∙ Young kids turned into red  guards

∙ Studied the little red book

∙ Supposed to discover who was supporting the old ideas, habit and customs 

∙ Group of kids roaming through cities and villages and  

breaking into house of  

wealthier and elites 

destroying manuscripts,  

beating people up, making  

sure people are living the way  they are supposed to

∙ Years later the red guard  

members were exiled and told they were wrong

Gorbachev

∙ Leader of USSR

∙ 1885-1991

∙ still a communist who believes in Soviet Union

∙ wants to get away from  

authoritarian regime

∙ Glasnost  openness, meant  ability to criticize the party, a  reigning of the KBG (secret  

police) and some relaxation of  censorship 

∙ Perestroika  economic  

reforms, allowing companies  

to make some profit, centering the economy on up-to-date  

technology and less heavy  

industry and a weakening of

price controls on some goods

Perestroika

∙ economic reforms, allowing  companies to make some  

profit, centering the economy  on up-to-date technology and  less heavy industry and a  

weakening of price controls on some goods

Tiananmen Square

∙ protests of 1989

∙ student led demonstrations in  Beijing

∙ refers to the popular national  movement inspired by Beijing  protests during that period

∙ ’89 Democracy Movement ∙ forcibly suppressed after the  government declared martial  law

∙ troops with assault rifles and  tanks killed at least several  

hundred demonstrators trying  to block the military’s advance towards Tiananmen Square

∙ thousands of civilian deaths

World bank

∙ international financial  

institution that provides loans  to countries of the world  

capital programs

∙ part of United Nations system ∙ stated official goal is the  

reduction of poverty

∙ created in 1944 Bretton  

Woods Conference

∙ president is traditionally  

American

∙ works closely with the  

International Monetary Fund  

(IMF)

Rwanda

African food shortages

V-E Day

∙ Victory in Europe

∙ May 8, 1945 German  

government gives in

∙ Hitler killed himself a week  prior during the Battle of  

Berlin

∙ Marked the end of WW2 in  Europe

Hiroshima

∙ Japan, Aug. 6, 1945

∙ 2nd General Army and Chugoku Regional Army were  

headquartered in Hiroshima  

and Army Marine  

Headquarters

∙ nuclear weapon “little boy”  was dropped by American b

29 bomber 

∙ directly killed around 70,000  people and in the end around  90,000 people

Arsenal of Democracy

∙ b-24’s under construction at  ford’s willow run factory

∙ slogan used by FDR in a radio  broadcast in 1940

∙ promised to help the UK fight  Nazi Germany by giving them  military supplies while US  

stayed out of the fighting

The Holocaust

∙ genocide in which around 6  million European Jews were  

killed by Nazi Germany/Hitler  in WW2

∙ extermination camps post  1941  people taken there to  be killed

∙ concentration of Jewish  

population  people were at  

first put in ghettos (in Warsaw) and then relocated

∙ start taking people out of  

ghettos in Poland or France  

and taken to the camps

∙ healthiest 10% still put to  labor and life expectancy was  3 months

∙ Germans called it the “Shoah”

Containment

∙ advocated by George Kennan ∙ a way to check the Soviet  expansion without embarking  on another costly ground war ∙ goal isn’t to eliminate  

communism, it’s to contain it  where it already exists

Berlin airlift

∙ June 1948-May 1949

∙ Dozens of planes flew in  

everyday

∙ Americans bringing in supplies  would drop chocolate and  

gum as they would leave for  

the kids

Satellite states

∙ States which take direction  from Moscow and lack  

autonomy

∙ Welcomed soviet expertise in  rapidly industrializing and had  large indigenous communist  

parties

Rectification campaigns

∙ Critical pieces of leadership  were strict loyalty and  

conformity to doctrine

∙ Began before civil war

∙ Someone identified as being  disloyal to the party would  

have to be reformed  explain  their likes and dislikes in front  of a bunch of people and they  criticize you 

∙ Imprisoned until you write a  sufficient confession

Apartheid

∙ System of institutionalized  racial segregation and  

discrimination in South Africa ∙ 1948-1991

∙ entailed segregation of public  facilities and social events and dictated housing and  

employment opportunities by  race

Arab-Israeli war

∙ 1948

∙ fought between Israel and  military coalition of Arab  

states forming the second  

stage of the Palestine War

∙ civil war transformed into a  inter-state conflict between  

Israel and the Arab states

∙ resulted in the growth of the  state of Israel

Muhammed Ali Jinnah

∙ lawyer, politician and founder  of Pakistan

∙ leader of All-India Muslim  

League

∙ Pakistan’s first Governor

General

∙ Wanted to safeguard the  

political rights of Muslims 

∙ Helped Pakistan to become  independent Muslim-majority  state

Nehru

∙ first prime minister of India  and central figure in Indian  

politics before and after  

independence 

∙ ruled from 1947-1964

∙ architect of the modern Indian nation state  sovereign,  

socialist, secular and  

democratic republic

∙ part of non-aligned movement ∙ works with Nkrumah

∙ accepts partition because it’s  what he has to accept for an  independent India  always  

secular to him 

∙ sees no reason to go against  whites of the Kashmir

Non-aligned movement

∙ Nkrumah and Nehru

∙ Point of peace-corps  go to  newly independent places and model how awesome  

democracy is

∙ Pressuring leaders to align  with US

∙ Five founding principles  

∙ 1) mutual respect for each  other’s territorial integrity and  sovereignty 

∙ 2) mutual non-aggression

∙ 3) mutual non-interference in  domestic affairs 

∙ 4) equality and mutual benefit ∙ 5) peaceful co-existence,  

keeping each other out of the  cold war and refusing to pick a side

Viet Cong

∙ South Vietnamese guerilla  force; undertook most of the  fighting pre-Tet

Colon

∙ native Algerian

∙ families have been there and  in control for generations

∙ controlling a lot of the  

resources

∙ *Algerian War

Baby boom

∙ average age of marriage drops ∙ 20 for women, 22 for men

∙ roughly 60 million women over age 15 in 1950 were married  and 40 million were married  highest ever

∙ average number of children  per family rose to 4

∙ American economy explodes  and people move to suburbs  Levittown

∙ US faces no global competition for consumer goods  US is  

only industrialized capitalist  

country with industrials still in  tact

Second red scare

∙ 1948-1854

∙ McCarthyism

∙ Loyalty oaths  sign paper  saying you’ve never been a

supporter of the communist  

party of ideas

∙ HUAC  congressional  

committee

∙ If anyone pled the 5th, people  were blackballed or fired

∙ If you were gay and worked  for federal government, target by HUAC

Stasi

∙ East German secret police

∙ Goal was to root out class  enemies 

∙ Under constant surveillance  phones tapped and mail read ∙ Large companies had Stasi  inside to listen

∙ Every apartment building had  a designated Stasi reporter 

led to many people being  

arrested, interrogated or  

tortured

∙ Moved to small subtle things  to mess with people  

psychologically like fake  

documents, re-arranging  

homes or hang up phone calls

Cultural revolution

∙ Development of any kind of  elite was a failure

∙ mid 1960-‘s tried to purge  china of elite influence

∙ supposed to be a spiritual  regeneration 

∙ primary goal of Chinese  

government was this purge  

even above economic  

development 

∙ anyone who was a fan of elites or supported them were a  

target of cultural revolution

∙ young kids turned into Red  Guards

Glasnost

∙ “openness”

∙ meant ability to criticize the  party, a reigning of the KBG

(secret police) and some  

relaxation of censorship

Four modernizations

∙ goals set by Zhou Enlai

∙ 1981

∙ to strengthen fields of  

agriculture, industry, national  defense and science and  

technology in China  by  

introducing some capitalist  

elements to the economy

∙ reforms that originally began  late 1970’s

Citizenship laws

Balkan war

∙ two conflicts that took place in Balkan peninsula

∙ 1912-1913

∙ 4 Balkan states defeated  

ottoman empire in first war

∙ ottoman empire lost the bulk  of its territory in Europe

∙ Austria-Hungary became  

relatively weaker

∙ Served as prelude to first  

world war

Ayatollah Khomeini

∙ Iranian Shia Muslim religious  leader, philosopher and  

politician

∙ Found of Islamic Republic of  Iran

∙ Leader of Iranian Revolution in 1979

∙ Became country’s supreme  leader

European Union (EU)

∙ Political and economic union  of 28 states that are located  

primarily in Europe

∙ Policies aim to ensure that the  free movement of people,  

goods, services and capital  

within the internal market  

maintain common policies on  trade, agriculture, fisheries,  

and regional development 

∙ Formed after WW2

∙ European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme  nationalism which had  

devastated the continent

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