Final Exam Study Guide.pdf
Final Exam Study Guide.pdf PSY370
Popular in Human Sexual Behavior
Popular in Psychlogy
This 40 page Study Guide was uploaded by Holly Houser on Tuesday April 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY370 at University of Miami taught by Franklin Foote in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 571 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 04/28/15
Final Exam Study Guide PSY 370 Values, Attitudes, and Responsibility 1.Recognize and differentiate asceticism, contextual ethics, hedonism, legalism, and situationism - Asceticism-‐ if it feels good its bad; must be disciplined and control our impulses o An approach to life emphasizing discipline and impulse control - contextual ethics-‐ suggests that although there may be broad general guidelines for ethical behavior, each ethical decision should be made according to the individuals and situations involved - hedonism-‐ ethics should be based on what feels good; avoid pain and have pleasure - legalism-‐ basic set of laws and principles that must be followed; applies to all situations - sitiuationalism-‐ depends on context and intentions of people involved; based on human experiences; cant have inflexible rules because everyone’s situation is different - hedonism and asceticism have to do with ones approach to the physical and material aspects of life in general and to sexuality in particular - legalism and situationalism refer to methods of ethical decision making 2.Recognize and differentiate the attitudinal categories developed by NHSLS based on their data (i.e., conservative, pro-‐choice, religious, etc.). - Procreational o Conservative § Against porn § Main reason to have sex is to make babies o Pro-‐choice § Main purpose is to have babies but there are a number of circumstances where abortion is okay - Relational o Religious § Tend to think their religion is the best religion § “This is what’s best for me, and everyone else” § Most stringent in saying sex it for developing intimacy in a relationship § Accepting of premarital sex among adults § In 1990, they weren’t at all accepting of same gender sex § Mixed on pornography § Didn’t think abortion in general was okay unless it was rape or the mother’s life is in danger o Conventional § Not guided by an organized religion § Accepting of premarital sex (even teens) as long as it’s part of building a love relationship § In 1990, against same gender sex § Okay with porn & abortion on demand o Contemporary Religious § Values are guided by values of religion § “This is what’s best for me” § Accepting of premarital sex, porn, & abortion on demand for other people - Recreational o Pro-‐Life § Not accepting of abortion on demand, only special circumstances - Libertarian o If it’s fun, it’s okay to do it - Procreational o conservative-‐ pre marital sex is always wrong, never should have sex before marriage; same gender sex is also wrong, want to ban pornography, trend to ban all abortions but want to ban abortion on demand o prochoice-‐ they are okay with abortion on demand; do not accept same gender sex; pretty much again porn and premarital sex but more liberal about it - Relational o religious-‐ the ideas/attitudes based on their religion; their religion knows right from wrong and people should follow what religion says; very stringent about saying you have to be in love to have sex; married people who have fallen out of love shouldn’t have sex bc it would be immoral; okay for adults who are not married, but in love to have sex, not ok for teens to have sex unless married o conventional-‐ explicitly say attitudes not based on religion, accepting of premarital sex, even teens as long as it is based in a loving relationship; 1990 small majority against same gender sex; accepting of porn and abortion on demand o contemporary religious-‐ attitudes values guided by religions, but unlike religious people they do not expect other people to follow; accepting of premarital sex, accept same gender sex, porn and abortion on demand - Recreational o prolife-‐ against abortion on demand, have fun with sex but it you get pregnant keep it, fun begins at adulthood, teens should not engage in premarital sex; accepting of porn and abortion only in special circumstances (rape, incest, mother in danger) o libertarian-‐ if sex is for fun everyone should have fun, you can do whatever as long as everyone is having fun, accepting of premarital sex, porn, same gender sex, abortion on demand 3.What are Kant’s categorical imperative and practical imperative? - categorical imperative: if your reason for a proposed action were a universal law that everyone followed, would society continue to function and benefit? - Practical imperative: people (you and others) should be treated as important, worthwhile individuals and not only as a means to an end 4.What does enlightened hedonism mean? - act so as to avoid pain and gain pleasure for yourself, taking into account all consequences both immediate and long term 5. Understand the basic ideas of Humanism. - Values can be found only in human experience in this world, as observed by the philosopher or social scientist o A philosophical system that holds that ethical judgments must be made on the basis of human experience and human reason o Basic goals of human life: self-‐awareness, the avoidance of pain and suffering and the fulfillment of human needs o Human goodà the individual must make his or her own decisions and accept responsibility for them and their consequences o Distrustful of the legalistic approach; tend to be tolerant, compassionate, and skeptical of claims of absolute right or wrong - do no harm o to others o to yourself - people have a right to seek happiness and lead meaningful lives o people have right to free choice o people have a right to information - treat others with compassion o be tolerant o be honest o be empathetic - you have full responsibility for your decisions and your actions - critics say just a way to realize what you want to do; proponents for it say makes life tougher bc you have decide for yourself and accept consequences for what you do, huge responsibility 6.Understand the basic process suggested by Belliotti (1993) in his five tiers of sexual morality. - 5 questions you must ask yourself to decide if sexual behavior is morally approporaite; ask each one at a time and if the answer to one is yes, then move to the next; get more complex as you go - 1. Libertine agreement o no fraud or force to make someone commit something sexual - 2. General moral considerations o follow basic moral principles widely accepted by society § voluntariness (non coercion) § honesty (non decit) § NO bestiality, incest, sex with prepubescent children § Practice safer sex § Everybody directly involved has a good time - 3. Sexual exploitation o someone exploits you for sex, also should not exploit, power differences - 4. Third party effects o ex: Clinton and Lewinsky; his relations had negative effects on wife and daughter - 5. Wider social context o may not contribute to maintaining social inequity; gives a negative/immoral view to society, especially when involved people are high on the social sector/famous 7.Distinguish and understand the barriers to responsible decision-‐making discussed in class. - illusion of unique invulnerability o untouchable, thinking nothing can go wrong with you (why you do behaviors that are not appropriate) o among college women who were sexually active, asked about the possibility of getting pregnant, said 10% on average; then asked to think about all women, asked same question and answered 27% - alcohol disinhibition and myopia o #1 cause of mishaps is alcohol bc of § disinhibition: it is a depressant, depresses our inhibitions and desires to think that something § myopia: judgment is affected and you cant see the long term consequences - magical decision making o thinking something is true because we want it to be true, not because it necessarily is o life is fair and will be perfect for me o greater commitment will make things better o I love you, you’re perfect now change o This is the best I can get 8.Know the aids to responsible decision-‐making discussed in class. - know yourself - accept yourself - fully think through all possible consequences of actions and inactions - anticipate future situations and the best action for you to take in them o eg. Before you go out, decide how intimate you might want to become on that occasion o under no circumstance exceed the limit you set - accept that most decisions can have both good and bad consequences 9.Understand the basic ideas on sexuality of Buddhism, Christianity (Jesus versus St. Paul and Roman Catholic versus protestant), Hinduism, Humanism, Islam, and Judaism - Buddhism o Theravada: strict non-‐indulgence of the desires that bring joy; understanding, morals, and the discipline are emphasized o Mahayana: more active - Christianity o Jesus § Said almost nothing about sex, strive for ethical perfection; spoke out against pride, hypocrisy, injustice, and the misuse of wealth o St paul and Roman Catholic § SP had a surprisingly positive outlook on sex; struggled to reconcile the rampant sexual activities of the gentiles with the more reverential attitude of the jews; human sexuality has profound interpersonal and spiritual implications; no concern for procreation, could have allowed same gender relationships o Protestant § Abandonded clerical celibacy, approved of sexuality only in the confines of matrimony - Hinduism o Kama-‐ pursuit of pleasure, kama sutra, o Dharma and moksha-‐ ascetic, avoiding all passions including sex o In between it is permissible to marry and raise a family, thus makes active sexuality and asceticism possible in the same lifetime - Humanism o Demands a realistic approach to behavior, one that does not create arbitrary or unreasonable standards and expectations; very distrustful of legalist approach; condemns impersonal and exploitative relationships - Islam o Muhammad saw intercourse in marriage as the highest good of human life, sanctions polygamy and concubinage; but sex outside of marriage or concubinage is a sin; men’s extramarital affairs are tolerated - Judaism o Sexuality is fundamentally positive o Deep and intimate part of a relationship between two people o Sexuality can never be separated from its social consequences o Great regard for married love, affection, and sexuality 10. Compare and contrast fornication and adultery. What do some major religions say about them? - fornication-‐ sex before marriage - adultery-‐ sex outside of marriage o today most religions condemn both o some have reopened positions because of safe and reliable contraception, later age at first marriage, the fact that many people suffer the lonliness of divorce and widowhood, and empirical evidence indicating widespread sexual activity among adolescents 11. What do major religions say about contraception and abortion, and infertility and cloning? - contraception o roman Catholicism opposes any artificial means to contraception; jews and most protestants favor responsible family planning; catholics approve of rhythm method; those who do allow belive that all children should be wanted, fear of overpopulation, - abortion o prolife-‐ catholic church, orthodox jews, eastern orthodox Christians, conservative fundamentalist protestants § therapeutic abortion-‐ in cases of incest, rape, and mother’s health § elective abortion-‐ at anytime for any reason o prochoice-‐ § absolute § modified-‐ jews and most protestants - infertility o two religious communities have condemned both or all technologies § orthodox Judaism, might permit the use of technologies that would allow an otherwise infertile couple to have a child if both egg and sperm come from the couple § roman catholic • open moral question fertility techniques that remained within the woman’s body using her husband;s sperm not collected by masturbation; otherwise all techniques as as AID, IVF and surrogacy were unequivocally condemned as an assault on the dignity of the embryo and on the sanctity of marriage - cloning o reproductive cloning § substituting the genetic material from an adults cell fro the nucleus in an egg o therapeutic cloning § creating tissues or cells that are genetically identical to those of a patient who needs them to treat any number of diseases 12. About what percent of Americans believe abortion should be legal? 1. 50% 13. What major religious tradition is generally accepting of homosexuality? What form of protestant Christianity is generally accepting of homosexuality? - reform Judaism, - episcopal, quakers, Unitarians, 14. What issues are of particular concern regarding people who are HIV-‐ positive? -‐ confidentiality, who to tell, who should pay, what to teach people in school Sexual Orientation 1. Understand the term men-‐who-‐have-‐sex-‐with-‐men. - men who have sex with men can still be in a heterosexual relationship (married with kids) and not consider themselves gay 2. Distinguish sexual and emotional orientation. Know the rough approximation of the prevalence of bisexual emotional orientation. - emotional orientation-‐ most people have close friends of both genders, homosexual - sexual orientation most people are sexually heterosexual - Most people have a heterosexual sexual orientation but a bisexual emotional orientation 3. Know the difficulties in operationally defining sexual orientation. - some are bisexual, same gender, but married, - in US, man who has sex with man is considered gay or bisexual - in other cultures, man who is receiving anal sex is not thought of as gay male, but giving is 4. What is the approximate consensus among researchers regarding the percent of people who have a same-‐gender sexual orientation? How cross-‐ culturally consistent is it? - NSFG: 6.2%, 4.5%, 10.7% of males in the US, UK, and France who had engaged in sexual behavior with someone of their own gender in the last 5 years, comparable number for women= 3.6, 2.1,3.3% - 12% of females, 5% of males report > 1 same-‐gender sexual experience in adulthood - ~4% of both genders report sexual attraction to same gender - 1% of females identify as lesbian, 2% of men identify as gay 5. What happened in the following years regarding the idea of same-‐gender sexual behavior: 1886, 1969, 1973, and 2002? - 1886 o Krafft Ebing’s psychopahtia sexualis, unhealthy and immoral sexual acts (homosexuality was listed as a mental disorder) - 1969 o stonewall riot, guys decided they would not be arrested or harassed for being homosexual, beginning of gay rights movement - 1973 o homosexuality is NOT a mental disorder; still laws banning same gender behavior - 2002 o law banning same sex behaviors are unconstitutional 6. What does sexual fluidity mean? Which gender is more likely to show it? - sexual fluidity is the idea that sexual orientation can change over time - women are more likely to show it 7. Distinguish and understand homophobia, antigay prejudice, and heterosexism. - Homophobia o Strong irrational fear of homosexuals; irrational fear or disgust; some gay people have homophobia themselves - antigay prejudice o a negative attitude towards homosexuals, inferior, crazy, committing sins - heterosexism o seen everywhere; any sort of belief or process that assumes (even if only implicitly) that being straight is normal and correct and everyone is straight 8. What difficulties do gay males and lesbians have that other minorities do not have? - big difference is that most other minorities grow up in families/communities that is the same ethnicity/minority - if you are gay, your parents are probably heterosexual, possible homophobia 9. Understand Cass' (1979) stages of identity development in people with a same-‐gender sexual orientation. - 1. Identity confusion o recognizing some form of same sex attraction and is inconsistent with what most people would have - 2. Identity comparison o beginning to give up on the idea that you have an opposite gender identiy; feeling sense of grief, loss, being left out from mainstream society, a little bit of hope, try to pass as heterosexual - 3. Identity tolerance o begin to think about coming out; dated guy but told mom it was a girl - 4. Identity acceptance o fully accept same gender orientation, positive identification with it, imformed at least some straight people - 5. Identity pride o develop pride in self, a point of pride for them, a big part of their identity, no longer use a heterosexual standard, out to many friends and relatives, enthusiastic about being gay, not trusting of heterosexuals - 6. Identity synthesis o see world as complex place, being gay/lesbian is a part of their life but not the most important part, no anger at self or other groups of people 10.What often tends to happen in gay male bars and in lesbian bars? - gay male bars are typically for finding sexual partners - lesbian bars are for talking and socializing 11.How were gay baths affected by the HIV epidemic and what has happened with them more recently? - most were closed bc of HIV epidemic, some have started to reopen, but many still see as negative 12.Know about the subcultures in the same-‐gender community mentioned in the text and in class. - tearoom trade o men who would meet each other in public restrooms - “bears” o actively reject looking good - lesbian social subcultures (book club, softball team, garden club) - BDSM (lesbians and gay men) - Femme and butch and top (gives) and bottom (receives) vs egalitarian 13.What additional difficulties do long-‐term, same-‐gender couples face that heterosexual couples do not face. - face additional stress of dealing with discrimination and prejudice; even worse is family is not accepting 14.What is the effect on children of growing up in a family in which both parents are the same gender? - not much affect on children - what makes a difference is having parents that are fully loving and accepting and teach appropriate social values; wont everyone be teased for something? 15.What biological factors affect sexual orientation? - genetic factors o prenatal factors-‐ default sex is female, have to get right bath of androgens to become male o identical twins are 52% likely to both be gay, for men and women o birth order § possibly if have several older brothers more likely to be gay male because mother’s immune system acts to get rid of fetus, placenta is there to protect fetus and male is more different; possibly mom’s immune system gets stronger with each male baby and eventually gets through placenta and into brain - brain factors o some male sheep try to mate with other male sheep (had differences in brain) o found similar differences in humans, but all the gay men had died of AIDS’ comparison men were only assumed to be heterosexual, study couldn’t be replicated - hormonal imbalance o one study found that if female is exposed to too much estrogen, more likely to be a lesbian o only studied through medicated estrogen, not if naturally released 16.What do we know about psychological effects on sexual orientation? - no psychological theory has empirical support - Freudian theory o polymorphous perversity o Later even Freud said he was wrong before and he later said it’s ok to be a gay or lesbian it’s just a way of having sex who cares - irving biber’s homoseductive mother o Gay men have a mother who seduces them into being gay o No support for it - learning theory, - sociological theory o labeling becomes a self-‐fulfilling prophecy o If youre 5 and a kid calls you a wuss à you think you must be gay if you’re called gay o No support for this o - exotic becomes erotic o temperament means well like certain types of things -‐-‐> we might like to play with dolls or dump trucks -‐-‐> if we like to play with dump trucks will tend to make friends who also like to play with dump trucks and same for dolls -‐-‐> we get used to playing with boys or girls and then we notice those other ppl who are weird/exotic -‐-‐> they have cooties bc produce autonomic arousal -‐-‐> when we reach puberty, it changes from cooties to excitement o zero support for it o 17.What inter-‐cultural effect did Reiss propose that affects the rate of same-‐ gender orientation in different cultures? - male dominant dominate societies with a great rigidity of gender roles that produce the highest incidence of homosexuality - women take care of young boys because men are busy being men at work so children have hard time learning the heterosexual component for the male role - more room for the male child to reject the male role because the role is too rigid 18.According to your textbook, how efficacious is conversion therapy at changing sexual orientation? What have most professional associations said about conversion therapy? - not very effective at all and most professional associations say it should not be done 19.What special difficulties do bisexuals face? - much harder to define o are you lesbian when you have a girlfriend and straight when you have a boyfriend? Bisexual? Should they define for themselves? This makes them even harder to study - in general, most people decide to pick one person to be with for the rest of their lives - society looks down upon bisexuals more than other orientations, gays/lesbians may look down on bisexuals more; can’t make up their mind, or shouldn’t be sitting on the fence 20.What's up with monogamy and bisexuality? -‐ hard to stay monogamous because always inclined to have sex with someone else, even if in a solid relationship for a long time, will still want to have sex with other gender Intersexuals and the Transgendered 1. What are the female-‐male homologous sexual-‐reproductive organs? -‐ clitoral glans penile glans -‐ hood of clitoris penile foreskin -‐ inner labia penile shaft -‐ outer labia scrotum -‐ ovaries testes -‐ skene’s gland prostate gland -‐ bartholin’s gland cowper’s gland 2. What is an intersexual? What is DSD? Why are we moving toward using DSD and away from intersexuals? - unclear of their gender by looking at their anatomy - DSD à disorders of sexual development - We are moving away from intersexuals towards DSD because gonads and genitals develop further after birth, so could be born clearly male/female and adrenal gland doesn’t do what its supposed to and sex later becomes ambiguous 3. What do adult intersexuals currently recommend be done when an intersexual is born? - accord alliance says shouldn’t be carving up babies and giving them hormones and has convinced American Academy of Pediatrics and OB/GYNs to not do these procedures - child should grow up and decide on their own when they are able to 4. What is a sexual outlaw? - comes from social model (live has you want to be, behavior doesn’t have to conform to a role assigned by anatomical gender) o sexual outlaws don’t conform to either sex 5. Be able to compare and contrast transgender, transsexual, and transvestite. - Transgender o A belief or feeling that one’s sexual identity transcends normal form of categorization - Transsexual o Incongruence between a person’s biological/anatomical gender and the same person’s sense of what gender they feel (in every single way) o Look one gender, but physically feel another gender § Either male to female § Or female to male - Transvestite o One who gains sexual gratification from dressing as a member of the other gender 6. What is gender identity disorder? - GIDà characterized by an instance that he or she is the other gender, a preference for cross dressing, and an intense desire to participate in stereotypical play of the other gender o If continues into adulthood, person is considered transsexual o Very small percentage of children with GID persists into adulthood 7. How culturally ubiquitous is transgender? - more accepted and sometimes revered in some non-‐western cultures o two spirits, (many native American tribes) o southern India (jagapapa)à MTF’s no change of genitals o Northern India à MTF’s, do have change of genitals 8. What are the steps that a person should go through to become a transsexual according to the Harry Benjamin Association? - 1. Evaluation/counseling o to make sure they are really transgender/transsexual; goes on for at least a year with psychiatrist - 2. Real-‐life experience o at least a year of full on acting and dressing like the gender they want to be - 3. Hormone therapy o body changes with hormones o do for at least a year with constant therapy - 4. Surgery o after one year minimum and counselor agrees - 5. Follow up counseling and sometimes surgery o FTM with penis sometimes have difficulties with urethra o Follow up counseling to help them make the transition 9. Know the conflict that FTMs have about penises. - some just take hormones that involve elongating the clitoris - others use skin flaps from other parts of the body to form a penis - an important issue is creating a urethra that will run the length of the penis so the person is able to urinate standing up 10. Which is the more difficult genital change surgery: MTF or FTM? -‐ female to male is much more difficult 11. What the heck is a bucchal smear? -‐ buccal smear is a test of genetic sex; obtained from a small scraping of cells from the inside of the mouth Sexual Disorders and Therapy 1.What is the most common cause for sexual distress in women? - not lack of lubrication or orgasm - mostly due to emotional well being in relationship with your partner and in general 2.Understand the modifiers for sexual disorders: acquired versus lifelong, generalized versus situational, due to psychological versus combined factors - Acquired vs. life long o Life long: they’ve never had an orgasm o Acquired: They’ve had orgasms in thepast, but it’s been difficult - Generalize vs. situational o Generalize: they never have orgasms o Situational/specific: they do when masturbating but not when having coitus o - Psychological vs. combined factors - Mild: most of the time they don’t but every once in a while they do - Severe: never have one & the degree of distress - 3.Recognize and understand the nature of the various sexual disorders: hypoactive sexual desire, sexual aversion, hypersexual, female subjective arousal disorder, female genital arousal disorder, female combined arousal disorder, erectile disorder, persistent genital arousal disorder, inhibited ejaculation, retarded ejaculation, retrograde ejaculation, female orgasmic disorder, premature ejaculation, dyspareunia, vaginismus, and anal spasm. - hypoactive sexual desire o have less desire for sex then they think they should have; drop in how often they want to have sex, must cause mental distress - sexual aversion o the person is afraid of having sex or disgusted by the idea of sex - hypersexual o no official diagnosis for now; might be viewed as form of obsessive compulsive disorder, intense sexual fantasies or urges for at least 6 months, consumes much of their time and correlates with their mood or response to stressful events, person has had to control behavior and unable to control it, continues to engage in the behavior even if it puts them at risk for something - female subjective arousal disorder o not in any DSM o signs of physiological arousal but not being subjectively aroused, causes distress o wet, no want to have sexytime - female genital arousal disorder o wants to have sex, given appropriate amount of stimulation but fails to get sexually aroused, o want sexytime, but no wet - female combined arousal disorder o does not experience physical arousal and actual psychological disorder - erectile disorder o have stimulation to get erection but doesn’t o 2 varieties § 1. Man never gets eriction § 2. Gets erection but doesn’t keep it when you would expect him to o priapism-‐ man has erection for longer than 4 hours - persistent genital arousal disorder o not in DSM for now o extremely turned on, very uncomfortable - inhibited ejaculation o never has actual ejactulation and organs - retarded ejaculation o finally has ejacu o lation and orgasm after extended period of time - retrograde ejaculation o not a real sexual disorder o man is having sex, has orgasm and feels like he will have ejaculations but nothing comes out of his penis; his spentor muscle closes his bladder down and doesn’t work properly, semen goes into bladder o not a sexual problem but it is for reproduction - female orgasmic disorder o woman who wants to have sex, has sex, highly aroused but does not have an orgasm - premature ejaculation o man get aroused and has orgasm but happens too soon - dyspareunia o in DSM IV o pain during or immediately before/after coitus o can happen to men or women but more often in women - vaginismus o only in women, vaginal opening clamps down involuntarily to make coitus - anal spasm o anal spector shuts down involuntarily o not in any DSM for now 4.At this time what formal diagnoses are most likely to be given to a person who is hypersexual? - obsessive compulsive disorder 5.Know the various types of medical, medication, psychological, sociocultural, lifestyle, and relationship causes of sexual disorders. - psychological o anxiety or depression; general emotional problems (low self esteem, anger, anxiety, depression o prior learning (via experience or modeling) o sex specific negative emotions § performance anxiety, fear of pregnany or STDs, fear of pain, fear of intimacy, fear of discovery, denial of pleasure, intolerance of pleasure o cognitive interference § poor body image, failure to perceive arousal, misinterprets arousal, spectatoring • spectatoring-‐ watching themselves and sexual arousal state and commenting on all these things; thinking more than enjoying whats going on; cannot enjoy sex to the highest potential because of this - medical o high blood pressure (circulatory system), endocrine system, nervous system, reproductive system; infections, injuries, surgeries - sociocultural o messages from society saying sex will be bad/painful; inappropriate sexual standards; disempowering one gender - relationship o not getting alone with sexual partner will result in less desirable sex; anger, loss of trust, fear, poor communication, poor technique - medication o - lifestyle o not getting enough sleep, proper nutrition 6.What anti-‐depressant does not interfere with sexual functioning and may even improve desire? - Wellbutrin - 7.How many men report having problems with climaxing too early any time in the last 12 months? -‐ 29% of men 8.How may premature ejaculation be helpful in an evolutionary sense? - “survival of the fastest” - ejaculating rapidly would be advantageous in that the female would be less likely to get away and the male would be less likely to be attacked by other sexually aroused males while he was having sex 9.What, not necessarily positive, coping mechanisms do men who have male orgasmic disorder resort to? - faking orgasms 10. What differences in arousal occur in sexually functional and sexually dysfunctional males when anxiety is produced? i. People who view themselves as sexually functional, the anxiety just adds to their sexual arousal (“arousal is arousal is arousal”) ii. People concerned with sexual dysfunctions, anxiety distracts them & just adds to their anxiety (NOT sexual arousal) 11. Who gave the initial big boost to sexual therapy and when did this happen? - 1970 Masters and Johnson; two weeks concentrated work everday; co-‐ therapist teams; extensive assessment behavioral orientation 12. Know these treatments for sexual disorders: cognitive therapy, intracavernosal injection, Kegel, sensate focus, start and stop, squeeze, and suction treatment. - cognitive therapy o cognitive restructuring § client restructures his or her thought patterns to become more positive; changes the client’s negative attitudes - intracavernosal injection o involves injecting a drug into the corpora cavernosa of the penis o drug is vasodilator so that much more blood can accumulate there - kegel o exercise and strengthen the PC muscles o enhance arousal and facilitate orgasm by increasing awareness and comfort with genitals o vagina can grip penis more tightly - sensate focus o a part of behavior sex therapy designed by masters and Johnson in which on partner caresses the other, the other communicates what is pleasurable, and there are no performance demands o Non genital exploration; limited touch § Touches receiver from the top of the head to the feet everywhere except for the genitals & breasts § Point is exploration for the toucher § No goal, just touch; see if you can learn anything new about the person’s body § o Genital exploration § limited touch § variety of touch § Same thing but include the breast & genitals § Still exploring § Begin with limited touch like 2 fingers § Can use a more variety of touch § o Non genital pleasuring § Not to get sexually aroused § Receiver’s more active § o Genital pleasuring § Can use all parts of their body § o Simultaneous pleasuring § Doing the same thing but they’re both touching each other at the same time § - start
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