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UA / Chemistry / CH 101 / Molecules can be described as what?

Molecules can be described as what?

Molecules can be described as what?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry
Professor: Paul rupar
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: everything
Cost: 50
Name: CH 101-041 FINAL STUDY GUIDE
Description: Final Study Guide
Uploaded: 04/27/2017
13 Pages 6 Views 6 Unlocks
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Final Exam Review


Molecules can be described as what?



General Biology 101-004  

John McDuffie

 Highlight = Correct Answer

CH 1 Questions

- Molecules can be described as:

- heterogeneous mixtures

- homogeneous mixtures

- mixtures of two or more pure substances

- mixtures of two or more elements that has a specific ratio between components.  - two or more atoms chemically joined together 

- All of the following will lead to a homogeneous mixture except:

- mud and water (Does not mix)

- salt and water  

- sugar and coffee  

- ice tea and lemonade

- vinegar and water

- The statement, “In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed” is called: - the Law of Conservation of Mass 


What is the statement, “in a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed” is called?



- the Law of Multiple Proportions

- the Scientific Method  

- the Law of Definite Proportions

- Dalton’s Atomic Theory  

- Dalton’s Atomic Theory states:

- that matter is composed of small indestructible particles 

- that the properties of matter are determined by the properties of the atoms Don't forget about the age old question of inorganic chemistry study guide

- that an atom is predominantly empty space

- that energy is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction.

- that all elements have several isotopes

- Which of the following statements about the phases of matter is true?

- Gaseous substances have long-range repeating order


Which statements about subatomic particles is true?



- There is only one type of geometric arrangement that the atoms or molecules in any solid can  adopt

- Solids are highly compressible  

- In both solids and liquids, the atoms or molecules pack closely to one another - Liquids have a large problem of empty volume between molecules.  We also discuss several other topics like mkt 3300

- Choose the pure substance from the list below:

- a casserole

- pomegranate juice

- tea

- carbon monoxide

Final Exam Review

- sugar water

- A scientific law:

- cannot be modified  

- is a brief statement that summarizes past observations and make predications 

- contains an explanation of observations

- is subject to change via legal action

- must have a mathematical formula

- Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment helped prove:

- the exact charge of an electron

- the exact mass of a gold atom  

- that the mass of an atom is concentrated in a very small space 

- the mass to charge ratio of an electron

- the diameter of a gold atom  

- Identify the characteristics of a liquid:

- Definite volume and definite shape

- No definite shape and no definite volume

- Definite volume and no definite shape Don't forget about the age old question of And what do they reveal about him?

- No definite shape and definite volume

- The Scientific Method:

- is a strict set of rules and procedures that lead to inarguable fact

- is based on continued observation and experiment 

- is just a theory  

- isn’t used much in modern chemistry  

- is a framework for proving an argument you know to be true

- All samples of a given compound, regardless of their source or hoe they were prepared, have the  same proportions of their constituent elements. Which law does this refer to? - Law of the Conservation of Mass

- Law of Definite Proportions 

- First Law of Thermodynamics

- Law of Multiple Proportions If you want to learn more check out 1.6e-19 constant

- Law of Modern Atomic Theory  

- Identify the description of an atom:

- protons and electrons in nucleus; neutrons in orbitals

- protons and neutrons in nucleus; electrons in orbitals 

- neutrons in nucleus; protons and electrons in orbitals

- neutrons and electrons in nucleus; protons in orbitals

- electrons in nucleus; protons and neutrons in orbitals

- What does “X” represent in the following symbol? 8035X

- Bromine 

- Mercury

- Chlorine  

- Scandium

- Selenium  

- Determine the number of protons and electrons in the following: 2512X

- p = 12, n = 13, e = 12 

- p = 12, n = 25, e = 12

- p = 12, n = 12, e = 13

Final Exam Review

- p = 12, n = 13, e = 25 We also discuss several other topics like which two industries in pa had low labor activism?
If you want to learn more check out fsu bookstore iclicker

- p = 25, n = 12, e = 13

- What element is defined by the following information: p = 11, n = 12, e = 11? - Vanadium

- Sodium 

- Magnesium

- Titanium  

- Which of the following statements about subatomic particles is true?

- Protons and neutrons have opposite, but equal in magnitude, charges

- Electrons make up most of the mass of an atom

- A neutral atom contains the same number of protons and electrons. 

- Protons have about the same mass as electrons

- Neutrons and electrons are found in the nucleus of an atom.  

CH 2 Questions

- What mass (in mg) does 2.63 moles of nickel have?

- 2.63 moles Ni x 58.7 g/mol = 154.38 g ???? 1.54 x 105 mg 

- How many iron atoms are contained in 354 g of iron?

- 354 g Fe / 55.847 g/mol = 6.339 moles x (6.02 x 1023 molecules/mole) = 3.82 x 1024 molecules - Determine the density of an object that has a mass of 149.8 g and displaces 12.1 mL of water  when placed in a graduated cylinder:  

- 149.8 g / (12.1 mL) = 12.4 g/mL 

- A student performs an experiment to determine the density of a sugar solution. She obtains the  following results: 1.11 g/mL, 1.81 g/mL, 1.95 g/mL, 1.75 g/mL. If the actual value for the density of  the sugar solution is 1.75 g/mL, which statement below best describes her results? - Her results are accurate but not precise

- Her results are both precise and accurate

- Her results are precise but not accurate

- Her results are neither precise nor accurate.  

- It isn’t possible to determine with the information given.  

- How many significant figures are in the measurement, 20.300 m?

- 20.300 (5) 

- What answer should be reported, with the correct number of significant figures, for the following  calculation: (433.621-333.9) x 11.900)?

- (433.621-333.9 ???? 99.72) x 11.900 = 1.19 x 103 

- How many mm are in 3.20 cm?

- 3.20 cm ???? 32 mm ???? 3.2 x 101 mm 

- Calculate the atomic mass of element “X” if it has 2 naturally occurring isotopes with the  following masses and natural abundances: X-107 106.90509 amu 51.84%, X-109 108.90476 amu  48.46%.

- (106.90509 x 0.5184 ???? 55.420) + (108.90476 x 0.4846 ???? 52.775) = 108.19 amu CH 3 & 4 Questions

- The number of cycles that pass through a stationary point is called:

- Wavelength  

- Amplitude

- Frequency 

- Area

- Median

Final Exam Review

- Predict the charge that a calcium ion would have:

- Calcium (Period II/Alkaline Earth Metal)- 2+ 

- Which of the following is not a metal?

- Ga

- Xe 

- Pb

- Ba

- Mg

- Only two electrons, with opposing spins, are allowed in each orbital is known as the: - Pauli Exclusion Principle

- Hund’s Rule 

- Aufbau Principle

- Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle

- Choose the valence orbital diagram that represents the ground state of Zinc - Give the ground state electron configuration for Strontium:

- Strontium (Element 38)- [Kr] 5s2 

- Give the number of valence electrons for Cadmium:

- Cadmium- Farthest orbital (4s2)- 2 electrons 

- How many valence electrons do noble gases possess?

- Noble Gases (Period 8)- 8 electrons 

- Place the following in order of increasing atomic radius: As, O, Br?

- O- Atomic Number 8- Farther up (Smallest)

- As- Atomic Number 33- Same Level, Farther Left (Largest)

- Br- Atomic Number 35- Same Level, Farther Right (Middle)

- O<Br<As 

- A cation of +2 indicates that an element has:  

- lost two neutrons

- lost two protons

- gained two protons

- lost two electrons 

- gained two electrons

- Which reaction below represents the second ionization of Sr?

- Second Ionization (Sr+) Already lost one, loses again- Sr+(g)???? Sr2+(g) + e- 

- What period 3 element has the following ionization energies (all in kJ/mol): IE1= 1012, IE2= 1900,  IE3= 2910, IE4= 4960, IE5= 6270, IE6= 22,200?

- IE5????IE6 (The largest jump)- Move to a lower energy state.  

- Start from Ne (IE6), Na (IE5), Mg (IE4), Al (IE3), Si (IE2), P (IE1), S

- But, Group 5 switches with Group 6 in ionization energy, so S is actually IE1. Therefore,  the period 3 element is P.

Final Exam Review

- For a given atom, identify the species that has the smallest radius:

- Anion

- Neutral

- Cation 

- They are all the Same Size

- Give the ground state electron configuration for Rb+:

- Rb+(Period 1 Element that loses an electron to achieve noble gas configuration)- [Ar] 4s23d104p6 - Which of the following visible colors of light has the longest wavelength? - Yellow

- Violet

- Green

- Blue

- Red 

- Calculate the wavelength (in nm) of the blue light emitted by a mercury lamp with a frequency of  6.88 x 1014 Hz?

- Wavelength = Speed of Light/Frequency = (3 x 108 m/s)/(6.88 x 1014 s-1) = 4.36 x 10-7????436 nm - Calculate the energy of the orange light emitted, per photon, by a neon sign with a frequency of  4.89 x 1014 Hz?

- E = hv = (6.626E-34)(4.89E14) = 3.24E-19 J 

- Calculate the wavelength of a baseball (m = 155 g) moving at 32.5 m/s.

- Wavelength = Planck’s Constant/(Mass x Velocity) = (6.626E-34)/(155 g ????.155 kg x 32.5 m/s) =  1.32 x 10-34 m 

- What are the possible orbitals for n = 3?

- n = 1- s

- n = 2- s, p

- n = 3- s, p, d 

- n = 4- s, p, d, f

- What value of l is represented by an f orbital?

- s- l = 0

- p- l = 1

- d- l = 2

- f- l = 3 

- Which of the following quantum numbers describes the orientation of an orbital? - Principal Quantum Number- The energy level of the orbital  

- Schrödinger Quantum Number- Not a thing

- Magnetic Quantum Number- Orientation of the orbital

- Angular Momentum Quantum Number- The shape of the orbital

- Spin Quantum Number- Orientation of the spin of the orbital

- Determine the energy change associated with the transition from n = 3 to n = 2 in the hydrogen  atom.

- E = -2.18E-18 (1/22-1/32) = -3.03E-19 

- Give the possible values for ml for a d orbital.

- s (l=0)- 0

- p (l=1)- -1,0,1

- d (l=2)- -2, 1, 0, 1, 2 

- f (l=3)- -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3  

- Give the possible value for ml for a p-orbital.

Final Exam Review

- s (l=0)- 0

- p (l=1)- -1,0,1 

- d (l=2)- -2, 1, 0, 1, 2

- f (l=3)- -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3  

- Describe the shape of an s orbital.

- Spherical- s

- Four Lobes- d

- Dumbbell Shaped- p

- Eight Lobes- f

- Three Lobes- Not a thing

- CH 5 & 6 Questions

- A covalent bond is best described as:  

- the sharing of electrons between atoms 

- the transfer of electrons

- a bond between two polyatomic ions

- a bond between a metal and a nonmetal

- a bond between a metal and a polyatomic ion

- Identify the shortest bond:

- double covalent bond

- single covalent bond

- triple covalent bond 

- All of the above bonds are the same length

- Identify the weakest bond:

- triple covalent bond

- single covalent bond 

- double covalent bond

- All of the above bonds are the same length

- Choose the bond below that is least polar.

- C-I (2.5-2.5=0)

- C-Br (2.8-2.5=.3)

- P-F (4-2.1=1.9)

- C-F (4-2.5=1.5)

- C-Cl (3-2.5=0.5)

- Choose the best Lewis structure for OCl2.

 .. .. .. 

: Cl—O—Cl : 

 .. .. .. 

- Give the number of valence electrons for XeI2.

- Xe (8) + I2 (7+7) = 22 

- Identify the compound with atoms that have an incomplete octet. - Cl2 

- CO

- CO2 

- ICl5 

- BF3 (Boron is one of the few elements that can have an incomplete octet).  - Which compound has the highest carbon-carbon bond strength? - CH2CH2 (Double Bond)

Final Exam Review

- CH3CH3 (Single Bond)

- HCCH (Triple Bond)

- All bond strengths are the same

- Determine the electron geometry (eg) and molecular geometry (mg) of CO32- - C (4) + O3 (18) = 22 + 2 electrons = 24 – 6 for bonds = 18 valence electrons  ..

 :O:

 .. – I ..

:O—C—O: (3 electron groups, no lone pairs)- Trigonal Planar, Trigonal Planar  .. ..

- Determine the electron geometry (eg) and molecular geometry (mg) of BrF3 - Br (7) + F3 (21) = 28 – 6 for bonds = 22 valence electrons

..

 :F:

 .. I ..

 :F—Br—F:

 .. .. ..

 .. (lone pairs)

- 5 electron groups, 2 lone pairs- Trigonal bipyramidal, T-shaped

- How many of the following molecules are polar: PCl5, COS, XeO3, SeBr2 - PCl5- Nonpolar

- COS- Polar

- XeO3- Polar

- SeBr2- Polar

- Polar Molecules: 3 

- Determine the electron geometry, molecular geometry, and polarity of PCl3. - P (5) + Cl3 (21) = 26 - 6 for bonds = 20 valence electrons

..

 :Cl:

 .. I ..

 :Cl—P—Cl:

 .. .. ..

- eg (Tetrahedral), mg (Trigonal Pyramidal), polarity (polar) 

- What is the empirical formula for Hg2(NO3)2?

- HgNO3 (Simplest version)

- Determine the name for TiCO3 

- CO3 has 2- charge, Ti must be 2-, therefore it is titanium (II) carbonate 

- Determine the name for CoCl2*6H2O

- Cl2 has 2- charge, Co must be 2-, therefore it is cobalt (II) chloride hexahydrate - Determine the name for N2O5 

- Dinitrogen pentoxide 

- Calculate the molar mass of Al(C2H3O2)3.

- Al (26.98 amu) + (C2H3O2)3 (3(24+3+32)????177 amu = 203.98 ≅ 204.13 amu - How many molecules of N2O4 are in 76.3 g N2O4? The molar mass of N2O4 is 92.02 g/mol. - 76.3 g / 92.02 g/mol = 0.829 moles x Avog. # = 4.99E23 molecules 

- Calculate the mass percent composition of lithium in Li3PO4.  

- Li3 (6.94 x 3????20.82)

Final Exam Review

- P (30.97)

- O4 (64)  

- Li3PO4 (20.82 + 64 + 30.97????115.79

- Li% = (20.82/115.79) = 17.98% 

- Determine the molecular formula of a compound that has a molar mass of 92 g/mol and an  empirical formula of NO2.  

- N (14) + O2 (32) = 46

- 92/46 = 2  

- NO2 x 2 = N2O4 

- Determine the empirical formula for a compound that is 36.86% N and 63.14% O by mass. - 36.86% N = 36.86 g N/ 14 = 2.633????1

- 63.14% O = 63.14 g N/ 16 = 3.946????1.5

- N1O1.5????N2O3 

- What is the empirical formula for a compound that undergoes combustion analysis and  produces 12.32 g CO2 and 6.71 g H2O?

- 12.32 g CO2 / 46 = 0.28 moles????1

- 6.71 g H2O / 18.02 = 0.37 moles????1.3

- 1CO2 + 1.3H2O ???? 3CO2 + 4H2O

- 3CO2 + 4H2O????????O2 + C3H8 

- Which of the following represents the Lewis structure for Cl?

- .. 

 :Cl: 

 . 

- Determine the molecular formula of a compound that is 49.48% carbon, 5.19% hydrogen, 28.85% nitrogen, and 16.48% oxygen. The molecular weight is 194.19 g/mol.

- 49.48% C = 49.48 g C / 12 = 4.12????4

- 5.19% H = 5.19 g H / 1 = 5.19????5

- 28.85% N = 28.85 g N / 14 = 2.06????2

- 16.48% O = 16.48 g O / 16 = 1.03????1

- C4H5N2O (48+16+5+28) = 97 amu

- 194.19/97 = 2

- C4H5N2O x 2 = C8H10N4O2 

CH 7, 8, & 9 Questions

- Identify the number of electron groups around a molecule with sp2 hybridization. - s + p + p = 3 

- A chemical change:

- occurs when methane gas is burned 

- occurs when salt is dissolved in water

- occurs when paper is shredded

- occurs when powdered lemonade is stirred into water

- occurs when water is vaporized

- Which one of the following halogen reaction contains a product with covalent bonds? - C(s) + O2(g) ???? CO2(g) (Covalent but not halogen)

- V(s) + 2Cl2(g) ???? VCl4(l) (Not covalent)

- Mg(s) + F2(g) ???? MgF2(s) (Not covalent)

- Br2(l) + Cl2(g) ???? 2BrCl(g) (Covalent and halogen)

- 2Cu(s) + I2(g) ???? 2CuI(s) (Not covalent)

Final Exam Review

- Determine the molarity of a solution formed by dissolving 468 mg og MgI2 in enough water to  yield 50 mL of solution.  

- Molarity = mole/L

- Molarity = (468 mg????.468 g /(24.305+(126.904 x 2))????0.0017 moles)/(50 mL????.05 L)= 0.0337 M - How many molecules of sucrose (C12H22O11, molar mass = 342.30 g/mol) are contained in 14.3 mL of 0.140 M sucrose solution?

- (14.3 mL????0.143 L) (0.14 mol/L) = 0.002002 moles x Avog. # = 1.21E21 molecules - According to the following reaction, what volume of 0.244 M KCl solution is required to react  exactly with 50 mL of 0.210 M Pb(NO3)2 solution?

2KCl (aq) + Pb(NO3)2 (aq)????PbCl2 (s) + 2KNO3 (aq)

- (50 mL????0.05 L)(0.210 M) = 0.105 moles Pb(NO3)2????0.210 moles KCl / (0.244 M) = 0.86  L????86.1 mL.

- What volume of 0.305 M AgNO3 is required to react exactly with 155 mL of 0.274 M Na2SO4 solution?

2AgNO3 + Na2SO4 ???? Ag2SO4 + 2NaNO3 

- (155 mL????0.155 L)(0.274 M) = 0.04247 moles Na2SO4????0.8494 moles AgNO3(0.305 M) = 0.278  L????287 mL 

- Identify HCl

- weak electrolyte, strong acid

- strong electrolyte, weak acid

- strong electrolyte, strong acid 

- nonelectrolyte

- weak electrolyte, weak acid

- Give the net ionic equation for the reaction (if any) that occurs when aqueous solutions of K2S  and Fe(NO3)2 are mixed.

K2S (aq) + Fe(NO3)2 (aq) ???? FeS (s) + KNO3 (aq)

- Fe2+(aq) + S2+ (aq) ???? FeS (s) 

- Which of the following is an acid-base reaction?

- 2HClO4(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) ???? 2H2O(l) + Ca(ClO4)2(aq) 

- C(s) + O2(g) ???? CO2(g)

- MgSO4(aq) + Ba(NO3)2(aq) ???? Mg(NO3)2(aq) + BaSO4(s)

- Fe(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) ???? 2Ag(s) + Fe(NO3)2(aq)

- None of the above are acid base reactions.

- Global warming is thought to be caused by the increase of one particular gas. Name the gas. - Carbon Dioxide 

- How many moles of nitrogen are formed when 58.6 g of KNO3 decomposes according to the  following reaction? The molar mass of KNO3 is 101.11 g/mol.

4KNO3(s) ???? 2K2O(s) + 2N2 + 5O2 

- 58.6 g KNO3 / (101.11 amu) = 0.618 moles KNO3????0.309 moles N2 

- Two samples of calcium fluoride are decomposed into their constituent elements. The first  sample produced 0.154 g of calcium and 0.146 g of fluoride. If the second sample produced 294  mg of fluoride, how many g of calcium were formed?

CaF2???? Ca + F2 

- (294 mg F????0.294 g F2) / (38 amu) = 0.0077 moles F2????0.0077 moles Ca (40.08 amu) = 0.309 g - Consider the following balanced reaction. How many grams of water are required to form 75.9 g  of HNO3? Assume that there is excess NO2 present. The molar masses are as followed: H2O=18.02  amu, HNO3=63.02 amu.

Final Exam Review

3NO2(g) + H2O(l) ???? 2HNO3(aq) + NO(g)

- 75.9 g HNO3 / (63.02 amu) = 1.204 moles HNO3 ???? 0.602 moles H2O x 18.02 amu = 10.9 g - Determine the limiting reactant and the mass of nitrogen that can be formed from 50 g N2O4 and  45 g N2H4. Some possibly useful molar masses are as follows: N2O4 = 92.02 g/mol, N2H4 = 32.05  g/mol.

N2O4(l) + 2N2H4(l) ???? 3N2(g) + 4H2O(g)

- 50 g N2O4 / 92.02 amu = 0.543 moles N2O4 ???? 1.629 moles N2 x (28) = 45.7 g 

- 45 g N2H4 / 32.05 amu = 1.404 moles N2H4 ???? 2.106 moles N2 

- Give the percent yield when 28.16 g of CO2 are formed from the reaction of 4 moles of C8H18 with  4 moles of O2.

2C8H18 + 25O2 ???? 16CO2 + 18 H2O

- 4 moles C8H18 ???? 32 moles CO2 

- 4 moles O2 ???? 2.56 moles CO2 x (46) = 117.76

- 28.16 g / 117.76 g = 0.25 ???? 25% 

- Choose the reaction that best represents the combustion of C6H12O2.

- C6H12O2(l) + 8O2 ???? 6CO2 + 6H2O 

- Why are halogens among the most active nonmetals?

- All halogens have low electron affinities

- Their valence electrons are more effectively shielded

- Their d orbitals are completely filled

- They only need one electron needed to attain noble gas configuration 

- They all have smaller diameters than other nonmetals.

- How many moles of PCl5 will be produced if 0.331 moles of P4 is reacted with an excess of Cl2 using the following equation?

P4(s) + 10Cl2(g) ???? 4PCl5(g)

- 0.331 moles P4 ???? 1.324 moles PCl5 

- Balance the following equation. What is the stoichiometric coefficient for oxygen? B2H6(g) + 3O2(g) ???? N2O3(s) + 3H2O(l)

- Give the electron geometry, molecular geometry, and hybridization for H2O  ..

H—O—H

..

- 4 electron groups, 2 lone pairs

- eg (tetrahedral), mg (bent), hybridization (sp3) 

- Give the hybridization for the O in H3O+ 

H

I

H—O—H

..

- 4 electron groups- sp3 

- Which of the following statements is true?

- The total number of molecular orbitals formed doesn’t always equal the number of atomic  orbitals in the set (FALSE, stated in MO Theory).

- When two atomic orbitals come together to form two molecular orbitals, one molecular orbital  will be lower in energy than two separate atomic orbitals and one molecular orbital will be higher  in energy than the separate atomic orbitals (True).  

- Electrons placed in antibonding orbitals stabilize the ion/molecule (FALSE).

Final Exam Review

- A bond order of 0 represents a stable chemical bond (FALSE).  

- All of the above are true.  

- Which of the following is most stable?

- F22+ 0.5(8-4)=2

- F22-0.5(8-8)=0

- F2 0.5(8-6)=1

- O22+ 0.5(8-2)=3

- Ne22+ 0.5(8-6)=1

- Which of the following are paramagnetic?

- B2 

- N22+  

- C22-

- B22+

- B22-

CH 10 Key Concepts  

- Thermochemistry- The study of energy that is exchanged between the system and the  surroundings.

- Kinetic Energy- Energy of motion or energy that is being transferred.  

- Potential Energy- Energy associated with composition or position.  

- Law of Conservation of Energy- Energy can be neither created nor destroyed.

- When energy is transferred, the total amount must be present from beginning to end.  - State Function- A mathematical function whose results only depend on initial and final  conditions.  

- Internal Energy- The sum of kinetic and potential energies of all the particles that compose the  system.  

- A state function because it only depends on initial and final energy.  

- Energy flows out of a system- Change in energy of the system is negative.

- Energy flows into the system- Change in energy of the system is positive.  

- Products have higher final energy than the reactants- Change in energy is positive.  - The energy is flowing into the surroundings.  

- Heat- The exchange of internal energy between the system and surroundings. - Temperature- The measure of thermal energy within a sample.

- The change in internal energy is equal to work energy + heat energy.

- Heat energy and work energy are not state functions, but the sum is equal to the change in  energy which is a state function.  

- Heat capacity- The amount of heat required for a temperature change.  

- Specific Heat capacity- The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram  or mole of some amount of something by 1*C or K.  

- If two objects of different temperatures come into contact, their temperatures will come to equal  each other.  

- Pressure-Volume Work- The work done by a volume change against an external pressure.  - W = P(Vf-Vi)

- Change in Enthalpy- The heat evolved in a reaction at a constant pressure. Change in enthalpy  and change in energy are generally similar unless a reaction produces a large amount of gas.  - Exothermic Reaction- When heat is released into the surroundings. Negative

- Thermal energy is released by the reaction, causing heat.  

- Caused by conversion of chemical potential energy to thermal.

Final Exam Review

- Endothermic Reaction- When heat is absorbed from the surrounding. Positive

- Thermal energy is absorbed by the reaction, causing cold.  

- Thermal energy creates chemical potential energy.  

- Hess’s Law- change in Enthalpy is extensive- The more reactants you use, the greater the  change in enthalpy will be.  

- When a reactant has a coefficient, the change in enthalpy will be affected by the coefficient. This  occurs because the amount of reactants used correlates with the change in enthalpy.  - When a reaction is reverse, the sign of the change in enthalpy is also reversed, because bonds  are going from being created to being broken or vice versa.  

- Standard State- The state of a material at a defined set of conditions.  

- Standard enthalpy state is the change in enthalpy when all the components are at their  standard state.  

- Bond energies are good for estimating change in enthalpy when all elements are in their  standard states.  

- Exothermic bond energies result in a negative bond energy, endothermic result in a  positive bond energy.  

- Standard Enthalpy of Formation- The enthalpy change for a reaction forming 1 mole of a pure  compound from its constituent elements.  

- Change in enthalpy for pure elements is 0.  

- Lattice Energy- The energy released when a solid crystal forms from separate ions in a gas  state. As the size of charges increases, the lattice energy increases. However, the lattice energy  decreases when the distance between ions increases.  

- Change in Energy = Heat + Work

- Heat = Heat Capacity x Change in Temperature  

- Heat = Mass x Specific Heat Capacity x Change in Temperature

- Work = -Pressure x Change in Volume  

- Heat of a Calorimeter = Capacity of the Calorimeter x Change in Temperature

- Change in Enthalpy = Change in Energy + (Pressure x Change in Volume)

- Work the problems in the back of the book. You’ll be fine if you do those.  - CH 11 Key Concepts

- Pressure- Caused by the constant collisions of constantly moving gas particles.  - As altitude increases, pressure decreases due to the decrease in atmospheres exerting  pressure on you.  

- Uncontrolled Decompression results in damage to the internal organs due to expanded lungs.  - Pascal- N/m2 (101,325 Pa at Sea Level)

- psi- lbs/in2 (14.7 psi at Sea Level)

- Torr- mmHg (760 torr at Sea level)

- inHg- in Hg (29.92 in Hg at Sea Level)

- Bar- bar (1.013 atm at Sea Level)

- Atmosphere- atm (1 atm at sea level).  

- Boyle’s Law- As pressure increases, volume decreases.  

- Charles’ Law- As temperature increases, volume increases.  

- Avogadro’s Law- As the number of moles increases, volume increases.  

- Ideal Gas Law: PV=nRT

- Volume of one mole at STP = 22.4 L

- Density is directly proportional to molar mass and pressure, and inversely proportional to  temperature.

Final Exam Review

- Kinetic Energy of a Gas is directly proportional to temperature.  

- 1.5 RT = KE

I really recommend doing the problems in the back of the book for anything you are shaky on.

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