HY 104 Final Exam Study Guide
* The final exam will be on Thursday, May 4, from 810:30 in Lloyd Hall 38.
I. Identifications – Ten of the keywords from the PowerPoint slides will be on your final exam. You must choose and answer five. (5 points each, 25 points total)
1. Benito Mussolini: In 1919, Mussolini started his own political party called the Fascist Party. He hoped to bring Italy back to the days of the Roman Empire when it ruled much of Europe. The members of the party wore black clothes and became known as the "Black Shirts." They were often violent and didn't hesitate to attack those who had different views or opposed their party. Fascism is a type of political ideology, like socialism or communism. Fascism is often defined as being a type of "authoritarian nationalism." This means that the government has all the power. The people living in the country should be devoted to supporting their government and country without question. Fascist governments are usually ruled by a single strong leader or dictator. The Fascist Party became popular with the people of Italy and Mussolini began to grow in power. In 1922, Mussolini and 30,000 Black Shirts marched to Rome and took control of the government. By 1925, Mussolini had total control of the government and was established as dictator. He became known as "Il Duce", which means "the leader." Once in control of the government, Mussolini looked to build up Italy's military strength. In 1936, Italy invaded and conquered Ethiopia. Mussolini thought that this was only the beginning. He felt that Italy would soon rule much of Europe. He also allied himself with Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany in an alliance called the "Pact of Steel." In 1940, Italy entered World War II as an ally of Germany and declared war on the Allies. However, Italy was not prepared for such a large war. Early victories became defeats as the Italian army became spread out across a number of fronts. Soon the Italian people wanted out of the war. In 1943, Mussolini was removed from power and put in prison. However, German soldiers were able to break him free and Hitler put Mussolini in charge of Northern Italy, which was controlled by Germany at the time. By 1945, the Allies had taken over all of Italy and Mussolini fled for his life. As Mussolini tried to escape from the advancing Allied forces, he was captured by Italian soldiers. On April 28, 1945 they executed Mussolini and hung his body upside down at a gas station for all the world to see.
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2. Spazio Vitale: It was the territorial expansionist concept of Italian Fascism. It was defined in universal terms as "that part of the globe over which extends either the vital requirements or expansionary impetus of a state with strong unitary organization which seeks to satisfy its needs by expanding beyond its national boundaries".:47 It is similar to the German Nazi Party's concept of Lebensraum.
3. Adolph Hitler: (20 April 1889 30 April 1945) was an Austrianborn German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party. Hitler was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. He was at the center of the founding of Nazism, the start of World War II, and the Holocaust. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married his longtime mistress, Eva Braun. On 30 April 1945, less than two days later, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Red Army, and their corpses were burned. Adolf Hitler, military and political leader of Germany 1933 1945, launched World War Two and bears responsibility for the deaths of millions, including six million Jewish people in the Nazi genocide.
4. Lebensraum: living space; was a policy of the Nazis during WWII to conquer territory in Europe for German use. However, the first mention of Lebensraum actually dates back to 1901. A geographer named Friedrich Ratzel began looking at the ways that If you want to learn more check out ucr ethernet
plants, animals, and man adapted to and competed for living space. In 1901, Ratzel first used the term 'Lebensraum' and defined it as the exact geographical area need to support a living species at its current population size and mode of existence. However, Ratzel began applying this term to the fate of cultures. He described History as the permanent battle for Lebensraum.
5. Anschluss: Austrian Anschluss, March 1938. Hitler wanted all Germanspeaking nations in Europe to be a part of Germany. To this end, he had designs on reuniting Germany with his native homeland, Austria. Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, however, Germany and Austria were forbidden to be unified.
6. Rhineland: The occupation of the Rhineland took place following the Armistice with Germany of 11 November 1918. The occupying armies consisted of American, Belgian, British and French forces. Under the Treaty of Versailles, German troops were banned from all territory west of the Rhine and within 50 kilometers east of the Rhine.
7. Axis Alliance: World War II was fought between two major groups of nations. They became known as the Axis Powers and the Allied Powers. The major Axis Powers were Germany, Italy, and Japan. The alliance began to form in 1936.
8. Greater East Asia CoProsperity Sphere: An imperial concept created and promulgated for occupied Asian populations during the first third of the Shōwa era by the government and military of the Empire of Japan. We also discuss several other topics like chem 14bl ucla
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9. Mukden Incident: The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria. On September 18, 1931, Lt. Suemori Kawamoto detonated a small quantity of dynamite close to a railway line owned by Japan's South Manchuria Railway near Mukden (now Shenyang). The explosion was so If you want to learn more check out relative wage coordination argument
weak that it failed to destroy the track and a train passed over it minutes later, but the Imperial Japanese Army accused Chinese dissidents of the act and responded with a full invasion that led to the occupation of Manchuria, in which Japan established its puppet state of Manchukuo six months later. The ruse of war was soon exposed by the Lytton Report of 1932, leading Japan to diplomatic isolation and its March 1933 withdrawal from the League of Nations. The bombing act is known as the "Liutiaohu Incident", and the entire episode of events is known in Japan as the "Manchurian Incident" in China as the "September 18 Incident”
10. Rape of Nanking: Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (then spelled Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China during the Second SinoJapanese War. The massacre occurred over a period of six weeks starting on December 13, 1937, the day that the Japanese captured Nanjing. During this period, soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army murdered Chinese civilians and disarmed combatants who numbered an estimated 40,000 to over 300,000, and perpetrated widespread rape and looting. Since most Japanese military records on the killings were kept secret or destroyed shortly after the surrender of Japan in 1945, historians have not been able to accurately estimate the death toll of the massacre. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo estimated in 1946 that over 200,000 Chinese were killed in the incident.China's official estimate is more than 300,000 dead based on the evaluation of the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal in 1947. The death toll has been actively contested among scholars since the 1980s.The event remains a contentious political issue, as aspects of it have been disputed by historical negationists and Japanese nationalists, who assert that the massacre has been either exaggerated or fabricated for propaganda purposes. The controversy surrounding the massacre remains a stumbling block in SinoJapanese relations and in Japanese relations with other AsiaPacific nations, such as South Korea and the Philippines. Although the Japanese government has admitted to the killing of a large number of noncombatants, looting, and other violence committed by the Imperial Japanese Army after the fall of Nanking, and Japanese veterans who served there have confirmed that a massacre took place, a small but vocal minority within both the Japanese government and society have argued that the death toll was military in nature and that no such crimes ever occurred. Denial of the massacre and revisionist accounts of the killings have become a staple of Japanese nationalism. In Japan, public opinion of the massacres varies, but few deny outright that the conflict occurred. The event is also known as the Rape of Nanking or, using current official Pinyin Romanization, the Nanjing Massacre or Rape of Nanjing. We also discuss several other topics like casselman ucr
11. Nye Committee: The Nye Committee, officially known as the Special Committee on Investigation of the Munitions Industry, was a United States Senate committee (April 12, 1934–February 24, 1936), chaired by U.S. Senator Gerald Nye (a Republican). The committee investigated the financial and banking interests that underlay the United States' involvement in World War I, and was a significant factor in public and political support for American neutrality in the early stages of World War II.
12. Merchants of Death: Merchants of death was an epithet used in the U.S. in the 1930s to attack industries and banks that supplied and funded World War I (then called the Great War). The term originated as the title of a book by H. C. Engelbrecht and F. C. Hanighen, Merchants of Death (1934), an exposé. The term was popular in antiwar circles of both the left and the right, and was used extensively regarding the Senate hearings in 1936 by the Nye Committee.The Senate hearing examined how much influence the manufacturers of armaments had in the American decision to enter World War I. 93 hearings were held, over 200 witnesses were called, and little hard evidence was found. The Nye Committee came to an end when Chairman Nye accused President Woodrow Wilson of withholding information from Congress when he chose to enter World War I. The failure of the committee to find a conspiracy did not change public prejudice against the manufactures of armaments, thus the popular name "Merchants of death".
13. Neutrality Acts: The Neutrality Acts were laws passed in 1935, 1936, 1937, and 1939 to limit U.S. involvement in future wars. They were based on the widespread disillusionment with World War I in the early 1930s and the belief that the United States had been drawn into the war through loans and trade with the Allies.
14. Cash and Carry: a system of wholesale trading whereby goods are paid for in full at the time of purchase and taken away by the purchaser.
15. Appeasement: a system of wholesale trading whereby goods are paid for in full at the time of purchase and taken away by the purchaser.
16. Sudetenland: The Sudetenland (Czech and Slovak: Sudety, Polish: Kraj Sudetów) is the German name (used in English in the first half of the 20th century) to refer to those northern, southern, and western areas of Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by ethnic German speakers, specifically the border districts of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Czech Silesia located within Czechoslovakia, since they were part of Austria until the end of World War I. Sudetenland is a compound word where Land means "country" and Sudeten is the German name of the Sudetes mountains, which run along the northern Czech border and Lower Silesia (now in Poland), although Sudetenland encompassed areas well beyond those mountains. The word "Sudetenland" did not come into existence until the early 20th century and did not come to prominence until after the First World War, when the Germandominated AustriaHungary was dismembered and the Sudeten Germans found themselves living in the new country of Czechoslovakia. The Sudeten crisis of 1938 was provoked by the demands of Nazi Germany that the Sudetenland be annexed to Germany, which in fact took place after the later infamous Munich Agreement. Part of the borderland was invaded and annexed by Poland. When Czechoslovakia was reconstituted after the Second World War, the Sudeten Germans were largely expelled, and the region today is inhabited almost exclusively by Czech speakers. Parts of the current Czech regions of Karlovy Vary,
Liberec, Olomouc, MoraviaSilesia, and Ústí nad Labem are situated within the former Sudetenland.
17. Neville Chamberlin: 18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940. Chamberlain is best known for his appeasement foreign policy, and in particular for his signing of the Munich Agreement in 1938, conceding the Germanspeaking Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia to Germany. However, when Adolf Hitler later invaded Poland, the UK declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939, and Chamberlain led Britain through the first eight months of World War II. After working in business and local government and after a short spell as Director of National Service in 1916 and 1917, Chamberlain followed his father, Joseph Chamberlain, and older half brother, Austen Chamberlain, in becoming a member of parliament in the 1918 general election at age 49. He declined a junior ministerial position, remaining a backbencher until 1922. He was rapidly promoted in 1923 to Minister of Health and then Chancellor of the Exchequer. After a short Labourled government, he returned as Minister of Health, introducing a range of reform measures from 1924 to 1929. He was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in the National Government in 1931. When Stanley Baldwin retired in May 1937, Chamberlain took his place as Prime Minister. His premiership was dominated by the question of policy toward the increasingly aggressive Germany, and his actions at Munich were widely popular among Britons at the time. When Hitler continued his aggression, Chamberlain pledged Britain to defend Poland's independence if the latter were attacked, an alliance that brought Britain into war when Germany attacked Poland in 1939. Chamberlain resigned the premiership on 10 May 1940 after the Allies were forced to retreat from Norway, as he believed a government supported by all parties was essential, and the Labour and Liberal parties would not join a government headed by him. He was succeeded by Winston Churchill but remained very well regarded in Parliament, especially among Conservatives. Before ill health forced him to resign he was an important member of Churchill's War Cabinet, heading it in the new premier's absence. Chamberlain died of cancer six months after leaving the premiership. Chamberlain's reputation remains controversial among historians, with the initial high regard for him being entirely eroded by books such as Guilty Men, published in July 1940, which blamed Chamberlain and his associates for the Munich accord and for allegedly failing to prepare the country for war. Most historians in the generation following Chamberlain's death held similar views, led by Churchill in The Gathering Storm. Some recent historians have taken a more favourable perspective of Chamberlain and his policies, citing government papers released under the Thirty Year Rule and arguing that going to war with Germany in 1938 would have been disastrous as the UK was not ready. Nevertheless, Chamberlain is still unfavourably ranked amongst British Prime Ministers
18. NaziSoviet Pact: Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact or the German–Soviet Nonaggression Pact(officially: Treaty of Nonaggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), was a neutrality pact between
Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed in Moscow on 23 August 1939 by foreign ministers Joachim von Ribbentrop and Vyacheslav Molotov, respectively. The pact delineated the spheres of interest between the two powers, confirmed by the supplementary protocol of the GermanSoviet Frontier Treaty amended after the joint invasion of Poland. It remained in force for nearly two years, until the German government of Adolf Hitler ended the pact by launching an attack on the Soviet positions in Eastern Poland during Operation Barbarossa on 22 June 1941.The clauses of the NaziSoviet Pact provided a written guarantee of nonbelligerence by each party towards the other, and a declared commitment that neither government would ally itself to, or aid, an enemy of the other party. In addition to stipulations of nonaggression, the treaty included a secret protocol that divided territories of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Finland, and Romania, into German and Soviet "spheres of influence", anticipating "territorial and political rearrangements" of these countries. Thereafter, Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939. Soviet Union leader Joseph Stalin ordered the Soviet invasion of Poland on 17 September; one day after a SovietJapanese ceasefire at the Khalkhin Gol came into effect. In November, parts of the Karelia and Salla regions in Finland were annexed by the Soviet Union after the Winter War. This was followed by Soviet annexations of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and parts of Romania (Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, and the Hertza region). Advertised concern about ethnic Ukrainians and Belarusians had been proffered as justification for the Soviet invasion of Poland. Stalin's invasion of Bukovina in 1940 violated the pact, as it went beyond the Soviet sphere of influence agreed with the Axis. The territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union after the 1939 NaziSoviet invasion of Poland remained in the USSR at the end of World War II. The new border was set up along the Curzon Line. Only the region around Białystok and a small part of Galicia east of the San river around Przemyśl were returned to the Polish state from that line. Of all other territories annexed by the USSR in 1939–40, the ones detached from Finland (Karelia, Petsamo), Estonia (Ingrian area and Petseri County) and Latvia (Abrene) remain part of the Russian Federation, the successor state of the USSR upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Northern Bukovina, Southern Bessarabia and Hertza remain part of Ukraine. The existence of the secret protocol was denied by the Soviet government until 1989, when it was finally acknowledged and denounced. Sometime later the new Russian nationalists and revisionists including Russian amateur negationist Alexander Dyukov and Nataliya Narotchnitskaya, whose book carried an approving foreword by the Russian foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, described the pact as a necessary measure because of the British and French failure to enter into an antifascist pact. Vladimir Putin has also defended the pact.
19. Joseph Stalin: Born on December 18, 1879, in Gori, Georgia, Joseph Stalin rose to power as General Secretary of the Communist Party, becoming a Soviet dictator upon Vladimir Lenin's death. Stalin forced rapid industrialization and the collectivization of agricultural land, resulting in millions dying from famine while others were sent to camps. His Red Army helped defeat Nazi Germany during WWII.
20. Chiang Kaishek: Chinese military and political leader Chiang Kaishek joined the Chinese Nationalist Party (known as the Kuomintang, or KMT) in 1918. Succeeding party founder Sun Yatsen as KMT leader in 1925, he expelled Chinese communists from the party and led a successful unification of China. Despite a professed focus on reform, Chiang’s government concentrated on battling Communism within China as well as confronting Japanese aggression. When the Allies declared war on Japan in 1941, China took its place among the Big Four. Civil war broke out in 1946, ending in a victory by Mao Zedong’s Communist forces and the creation of the People’s Republic of China. From 1949 until his death, Chiang led the KMT government in exile in Taiwan, which many countries continued to recognize as China’s legitimate government.
21. Arsenal of Democracy: was a phrase used by President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882– 1945) to describe the United States as he tried to arouse popular support for sending military aid to nations fighting against the Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan, among others) during World War II (1939–1942).
22. Atlantic Charter: The Atlantic Charter was a joint declaration released by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill on August 14, 1941 following a meeting of the two heads of state in Newfoundland. The Atlantic Charter provided a broad statement of U.S. and British war aims.
23. LendLease: Proposed in late 1940 and passed in March 1941, the LendLease Act was the principal means for providing U.S. military aid to foreign nations during World War II. It authorized the president to transfer arms or any other defense materials for which Congress appropriated money to “the government of any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States.” By allowing the transfer of supplies without compensation to Britain, China, the Soviet Union and other countries, the act permitted the United States to support its war interests without being overextended in battle. The LendLease Act of March 11, 1941, was the principal means for providing U.S. military aid to foreign nations during World War II. The act authorized the president to transfer arms or any other defense materials for which Congress appropriated money to “the government of any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States.” Britain, the Soviet Union, China, Brazil, and many other countries received weapons under this law. By allowing the president to transfer war matériel to a beleaguered Britain–and without payment as required by the Neutrality Act of 1939–the act enabled the British to keep fighting until events led America into the conflict. It also skirted the thorny problems of war debts that had followed World War I. LendLease brought the United States one step closer to entry into the war. Isolationists, such as Republican senator Robert Taft, opposed it. Taft correctly noted that the bill would “give the President power to carry on a kind of undeclared war all over the world, in which America would do everything except actually put soldiers in the frontline trenches where the fighting is.”
24. Hiroshima: Hiroshima is perhaps best known as the first city in history to be targeted by a nuclear weapon when the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) dropped an atomic bomb on the city (and later on Nagasaki) at 8:15 a.m. on August 6, 1945, near the end of World War II.
25. Nagasaki: In 1945, a second atom bomb is dropped on Japan by the United States, at Nagasaki, resulting finally in Japan’s unconditional surrender. The devastation wrought at Hiroshima was not sufficient to convince the Japanese War Council to accept the Potsdam Conference’s demand for unconditional surrender. The United States had already planned to drop their second atom bomb, nicknamed “Fat Man,” on August 11 in the event of such recalcitrance, but bad weather expected for that day pushed the date up to August 9th. So at 1:56 a.m., a specially adapted B29 bomber, called “Bock’s Car,” after its usual commander, Frederick Bock, took off from Tinian Island under the command of Maj. Charles W. Sweeney. Nagasaki was a shipbuilding center, the very industry intended for destruction. The bomb was dropped at 11:02 a.m., 1,650 feet above the city. The explosion unleashed the equivalent force of 22,000 tons of TNT. The hills that surrounded the city did a better job of containing the destructive force, but the number killed is estimated at anywhere between 60,000 and 80,000 (exact figures are impossible, the blast having obliterated bodies and disintegrated records). General Leslie R. Groves, the man responsible for organizing the Manhattan Project, which solved the problem of producing and delivering the nuclear explosion, estimated that another atom bomb would be ready to use against Japan by August 17 or 18—but it was not necessary. Even though the War Council still remained divided (“It is far too early to say that the war is lost,” opined the Minister of War), Emperor Hirohito, by request of two War Council member’s eager to end the war, met with the Council and declared that “continuing the war can only result in the annihilation of the Japanese people…” The Emperor of Japan gave his permission for unconditional surrender.
26. Rosie the Riveter: American women entered the workforce in unprecedented numbers during World War II, as widespread male enlistment left gaping holes in the industrial labor force. Between 1940 and 1945, the female percentage of the U.S. workforce increased from 27 percent to nearly 37 percent, and by 1945 nearly one out of every four married women worked outside the home. “Rosie the Riveter,” star of a government campaign aimed at recruiting female workers for the munitions industry, became perhaps the most iconic image of working women during the war.
27. Double V Campaign: Segregation and discrimination had reached a point that was no longer tolerable, and according to the Pittsburgh Courier, it was time for a campaign. The “Double V Campaign,” as it was called, stood for two victories for black Americans: a victory at home and a victory abroad.
28. Philip Randolph: Labor leader and social activist A. Philip Randolph was born on April 15, 1889 in Crescent City, Florida. During World War I, Randolph tried to unionize AfricanAmerican shipyard workers and elevator operators, and colaunched a magazine designed to encourage demand for higher wages. He later founded the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, which by 1937 would become the first official AfricanAmerican labor union. In the 1940s, Randolph's abilities as an organizer had grown to such lengths that he became the driving force in ending racial discrimination in government defense factories and desegregating the armed forces, both done via presidential decree. Becoming involved in additional civil rights work, he was a principal organizer of the 1963 March on Washington. Randolph died in New York City in 1979.
29. Isei: The United States has always been considered the 'land of opportunity': a place for people to get a fresh start, to pursue their dreams, and to find a better life. During the 1800s and 1900s, the United States saw a massive influx of immigrants, or people moving from one country to another, who wanted to create a new home for themselves. A large percentage of these immigrants came from Japan. From the mid 1800s to mid 1900s, hundreds of thousands of Japanese immigrated to Hawaii (not a state until 1959) and the United States. The first men and women from a family to establish a new home in a foreign country are referred to as first generation. First generation Japanese immigrants are called Issei. The Issei faced widespread discrimination when they came to the United States. Many of them found lowpaying jobs harvesting sugar or other crops. Discrimination against Issei continued to grow in western states like California, where Japanese immigration was the highest. In 1900, Congress passed a law that prevented first generation Japanese from becoming U.S. citizens, and state laws enforced segregation. Depending on the state, some Japanese immigrants weren't even allowed to buy or own property. Despite this overwhelming 'You're unwelcome' message from the United States, the Issei were undeterred and worked tirelessly to build a better life for themselves.
30. Nisei: Now you're probably well aware that many married men and women have children and start families. The Issei were no different; their children became second generation immigrants, or people born in a country who have at least one parent who was born somewhere else. Second generation Japanese were known as Nisei. Unlike their Issei parents who could not legally become U.S. citizens, the Nisei were automatically citizens. According to the 14th Amendment, anyone born in the United States is a naturalized citizen. The Nisei faced the same discrimination as their Issei parents, even though they were born and raised in the United States, went to American schools, and spoke English.
31. 100th Infantry Battalion: The 100th Infantry Battalion is the only infantry unit in the United States Army Reserve. In World War II, the thenprimarily Nisei battalion was composed largely of former members of the Hawaii Army National Guard.
Regimental Combat Team: The 442nd Regimental Combat Team is an infantry regiment of the United States Army, part of the Army Reserve. The regiment was a fighting unit composed almost entirely of American soldiers of Japanese ancestry (mostly from Hawaii) who fought in World War II.
33. Daniel Inouye: The son of Japanese immigrants, Daniel Ken Inouye volunteered for the U.S. Army after the Pearl Harbor attack in 1941 and joined the famed JapaneseAmerican 442nd Regimental Combat Team. He lost his right arm in a firefight with Germans in Italy in 1945, and would win the Distinguished Service Crossand belatedly, the Medal of Honorfor his war service. Elected to the House of Representatives as a Democrat in 1959, the year Hawaii became a state, Inouye entered the Senate in 1963. Over his long career, he was a steadfast voice for his state in Washington and drew national attention for his quiet but courageous leadership on highprofile Senate committees investigating the Watergate scandal and the IranContra affair. At the time of his death, Inouye was the longestserving current U.S. senator, having been elected to nine consecutive terms over 49 years.
34. Munson Report: Intelligence report on Japanese Americans on the West Coast filed by businessman Curtis B. Munson in the weeks prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor at the request of presidential envoy John Franklin Carter. Based on first hand research and consultation with navy and Federal Bureau of Investigation agents, the report largely concluded that Japanese Americans presented no security risk. A misleading summary of the report sent by Carter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt may have contributed to the report and its conclusions being largely ignored by the administration.
35. Executive Order 9066: Ten weeks after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066, authorizing the removal of any or all people from military areas “as deemed necessary or desirable.” The military in turn defined the entire West Coast, home to the majority of Americans of Japanese ancestry or citizenship, as a military area. By June, more than 110,000 Japanese Americans were relocated to remote internment camps built by the U.S. military in scattered locations around the country. For the next two and a half years, many of these Japanese Americans endured extremely difficult living conditions and poor treatment by their military guards. On December 17, 1944, U.S. Major General Henry C. Pratt issued Public Proclamation No. 21, declaring that, effective January 2, 1945, Japanese American “evacuees” from the West Coast could return to their homes. During the course of World War II, 10 Americans were convicted of spying for Japan, but not one of them was of Japanese ancestry. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed a bill to recompense each surviving internee with a taxfree check for $20,000 and an apology from the U.S. government.
36. Fred Korematsu: January 30, 1919 – March 30, 2005) was an American civil rights activist who objected to the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II. Shortly after the Imperial Japanese Navy launched its attack on Pearl Harbor, President
Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, which authorized the removal of individuals of Japanese ancestry living on the West Coast from their homes and their mandatory imprisonment in internment camps, but Korematsu instead challenged the orders and became a fugitive. The legality of the internment order was upheld by the
Supreme Court of the United States in Korematsu v. United States; this ruling has never been explicitly overturned. Korematsu's conviction for evading internment was overturned decades later after the disclosure of new evidence challenging the necessity of the internment, evidence which had been withheld from the courts by the U.S. government during the war. To commemorate his journey as a civil rights activist posthumously, "Fred Korematsu Day of Civil Liberties and the Constitution" was observed for the first time on his 92nd birthday, January 30, 2011, by the state of California, the first such commemoration for an Asian American in the United States. In 2015, Virginia passed legislation to make it the second state and first commonwealth to permanently recognize each January 30 as Fred Korematsu Day. The Fred T. Korematsu Institute was founded in 2009 to carry on Korematsu's legacy as a civil rights advocate by educating and advocating for civil liberties for all communities.
37. Gordon Hirabayashi: Gordon Kiyoshi Hirabayashi; April 23, 1918 – January 2, 2012; was an American sociologist, best known for his principled resistance to the Japanese American internment during World War II, and the court case which bears his name, Hirabayashi v. United States.
38. Mitsuye Endo/Ex parte Endo : or Ex parte Mitsuye Endo, 323 U.S. 283 (1944), was a United States Supreme Court ex parte decision handed down on December 18, 1944, in which the Justices unanimously ruled that the U.S. government could not continue to detain a citizen who was "concededly loyal" to the United States.
39. German Democratic Republic: After World War II, Germany was occupied and divided into four zones administered by the main Allied powers. After tensions mounted between the Soviet Union on the one side, and the United States, Great Britain, and France on the other, the Western powers combined their zones and allowed the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Soviets responded by forming the German Democratic Republic (GDR) to govern their occupation zone. The United States refused to recognize the GDR until 1974. The GDR was absorbed by the FRG in 1990 when Germany reunified.
40. Federal Republic of Germany: The Federal Republic of Germany (popularly known as West Germany) is formally established as a separate and independent nation. This action marked the effective end to any discussion of reuniting East and West Germany. In the period after World War II, Germany was divided into four occupation zones, with the British, French, Americans, and Soviets each controlling one zone. The city of Berlin was also divided in a like fashion. This arrangement was supposed to be temporary, but as Cold War animosities began to harden, it became increasingly evident that the division between the communist and noncommunist controlled sections of Germany and Berlin
would become permanent. In May 1946, the United States halted reparation payments from West Germany to the Soviet Union. In December, the United States and Great Britain combined their occupation zones into what came to be known as Bizonia. France agreed to become part of this arrangement, and in May 1949, the three zones became one. On May 23, the West German Parliamentary Council met and formally declared the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany. Although Konrad Adenauer, the president of the council and future president of West Germany, proudly proclaimed, “Today a new Germany arises,” the occasion was not a festive one. Many of the German representatives at the meeting were subdued, for they had harbored the faint hope that Germany might be reunified. Two communist members of the council refused to sign the proclamation establishing the new state. The Soviets reacted quickly to the action in West Germany. In October 1949, the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was officially announced. These actions in 1949 marked the end of any talk of a reunified Germany. For the next 41 years, East and West Germany served as symbols of the divided world, and of the Cold War animosities between the Soviet Union and the United States. In 1990, with Soviet strength ebbing and the Communist Party in East Germany steadily losing its grip on power, East and West Germany were finally reunited as one nation.
41. Lesson of Munich: The Munich Agreement is one of the most criticized diplomatic agreements in history. In 1938, Adolf Hitler turned his sights on absorbing the Sudetenland, the part of Czechoslovakia dominated by ethnic Germans, into Germany. With tensions rising, British prime minister Neville Chamberlain rushed to Germany in September for talks to keep the continent at peace. Without consulting with Czechoslovakian leaders, he agreed to Hitler's demand, a decision that was ultimately formalized when Germany, Britain, France, and Italy signed the Munich Agreement on September 30. Chamberlain returned from Munich proclaiming that he had achieved "peace for our time." He was wrong. Less than a year later, German troops invaded Poland. The Second World War had begun. James M. Lindsay, CFR's senior vice president and director of studies, highlights the lesson learned from the Munich Agreement: Appeasing an adversary's demands may defuse a crisis, but it can also increase the chances of war by emboldening that adversary to demand more. Chamberlain thought that if Germany gained the Sudetenland that Hitler would finally be satisfied with the status quo in Europe. But Hitler instead viewed Munich as confirming his belief that Britain and France both lacked the will to stop German expansion. Lindsay invites his audience to consider on what issue or conflict the United States might repeat Chamberlain's mistake.
42. Eastern Bloc: The term Eastern Bloc referred to the former Communist states of Eastern and Central Europe, including the countries of the Warsaw Pact, along with Yugoslavia and Albania, which were not aligned with the Soviet Union after 1948 and 1960 respectively.
43. Iron Curtain: the notional barrier separating the former Soviet bloc and the West prior to the decline of communism that followed the political events in eastern Europe in 1989.
44. Truman Doctrine: the principle that the US should give support to countries or peoples threatened by Soviet forces or communist insurrection. First expressed in 1947 by US President Truman in a speech to Congress seeking aid for Greece and Turkey, the doctrine was seen by the communists as an open declaration of the Cold War.
45. Marshall Plan: The Marshall Plan, also known as the European Recovery Program, channeled over $13 billion to finance the economic recovery of Europe between 1948 and 1951. The Marshall Plan successfully sparked economic recovery, meeting its objective of ‘restoring the confidence of the European people in the economic future of their own countries and of Europe as a whole.’ The plan is named for Secretary of State George C. Marshall, who announced it in a commencement speech at Harvard University on June 5, 1947. At the time, Americans perceived the plan as a generous subvention to Europe. The Soviet Union, however, viewed the Marshall Plan as an attempt to interfere in the internal affairs of other states and refused to participate. Ultimately, the Soviets prevented Poland and Czechoslovakia from taking part, despite their eagerness to do so. Revisionist historians have challenged the assertion that the plan represented American altruism. They have argued that the export of dollars to Europe kept the United States from backsliding into depression by providing a market for U.S. capital goods. The Marshall Plan, according to revisionists, allowed the United States to remake the European economy in the image of the American economy. The plan promoted European economic integration and federalism, and created a mixture of public organization of the private economy similar to that in the domestic economy of the United States. This reorganization of the European economy provided a more congenial environment for American investment.
46. National Security Act: The National Security Act of 1947 was a major restructuring of the United States government's military and intelligence agencies following World War II. The majority of the provisions of the Act took effect on September 18, 1947, the day after the Senate confirmed James Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense.
47. Berlin Airlift: After World War II, the Allies partitioned the defeated Germany into a Sovietoccupied zone, an Americanoccupied zone, a Britishoccupied zone and a Frenchoccupied zone. Berlin, the German capital city, was located deep in the Soviet zone, but it was also divided into four sections. In June 1948, the Russians–who wanted Berlin all for themselves–closed all highways, railroads and canals from western occupied Germany into westernoccupied Berlin. This, they believed, would make it impossible for the people who lived there to get food or any other supplies and would eventually drive Britain, France and the U.S. out of the city for good. Instead of retreating from West Berlin, however, the U.S. and its allies decided to supply their sectors of the city from the air. This effort, known as the “Berlin Airlift,” lasted for more than a year and carried more than 2.3 million tons of cargo into West Berlin.
48. North Atlantic Treaty Organization: The United States and 11 other nations establish the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a mutual defense pact aimed at containing possible Soviet aggression against Western Europe. NATO stood as the main U.S.led military alliance against the Soviet Union throughout the duration of the Cold War. Relations between the United States and the Soviet Union began to deteriorate rapidly in 1948. There were heated disagreements over the postwar status of Germany, with the Americans insisting on German recovery and eventual rearmament and the Soviets steadfastly opposing such actions. In June 1948, the Soviets blocked all ground travel to the American occupation zone in West Berlin, and only a massive U.S. airlift of food and other necessities sustained the population of the zone until the Soviets relented and lifted the blockade in May 1949. In January 1949, President Harry S. Truman warned in his State of the Union Address that the forces of democracy and communism were locked in a dangerous struggle, and he called for a defensive alliance of nations in the North Atlantic—U.S military in Korea. NATO was the result. In April 1949, representatives from Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal joined the United States in signing the NATO agreement. The signatories agreed, “An armed attack against one or more of them… shall be considered an attack against them all.” President Truman welcomed the organization as “a shield against aggression.” Not all Americans embraced NATO. Isolationists such as Senator Robert A. Taft declared that NATO was “not a peace program; it is a war program.” Most, however, saw the organization as a necessary response to the communist threat. The U. S. Senate ratified the treaty by a wide margin in June 1949. During the next few years, Greece, Turkey, and West Germany also joined. The Soviet Union condemned NATO as a warmongering alliance and responded by setting up the Warsaw Pact (a military alliance between the Soviet Union and its Eastern Europe satellites) in 1955. NATO lasted throughout the course of the Cold War, and continues to play an important role in postCold War Europe. In recent years, for example, NATO forces were active in trying to bring an end to the civil war in Bosnia.
49. Warsaw Pact: The Soviet Union and seven of its European satellites sign a treaty establishing the Warsaw Pact, a mutual defense organization that put the Soviets in command of the armed forces of the member states. The Warsaw Pact, so named because the treaty was signed in Warsaw, included the Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria as members. The treaty called on the member states to come to the defense of any member attacked by an outside force and it set up a unified military command under Marshal Ivan S. Konev of the Soviet Union. The introduction to the treaty establishing the Warsaw Pact indicated the reason for its existence. This revolved around “Western Germany, which is being remilitarized, and her inclusion in the North Atlantic bloc, which increases the danger of a new war and creates a threat to the national security of peaceloving states.” This passage referred to the decision by the United States and the other members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) on May 9, 1955 to make West Germany a member of NATO and allow that nation to remilitarize. The Soviets obviously saw this as a direct threat and
responded with the Warsaw Pact. The Warsaw Pact remained intact until 1991. Albania was expelled in 1962 because, believing that Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev was deviating too much from strict Marxist orthodoxy, the country turned to communist China for aid and trade. In 1990, East Germany left the Pact and reunited with West Germany; the reunified Germany then became a member of NATO. The rise of non communist governments in other eastern bloc nations, such as Poland and Czechoslovakia, throughout 1990 and 1991 marked an effective end of the power of the Warsaw Pact. In March 1991, the military alliance component of the pact was dissolved and in July 1991, the last meeting of the political consultative body took place.
50. George Kennan: Few in the West had experience with the communist state and even fewer understood what motivated the Soviets. One man who had first hand knowledge was a Foreign Service officer, George F. Kennan. In 1946, while he was Chargé d’Affaires in Moscow, Kennan sent an 8,000word telegram to the Department—the nowfamous “long telegram”—on the aggressive nature of Stalin’s foreign policy. Kennan, writing as “Mr. X,” published an outline of his philosophy in the prestigious journal Foreign Affairs in 1947. His conclusion was that “the main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of a longterm patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies.” Containment provided a conceptual framework for a series of successful initiatives undertaken from 1947 to 1950 to blunt Soviet expansion.
51. Article X: Article X of the Covenant of the League of Nations is the section calling for assistance to be given to a member that experiences external aggression. It was signed by the major Peacemakers (Allied Forces) following the First World War, most notably Britain and France.
52. NSC68: National Security Council Report 68 (NSC68) was a 58page top secret policy paper by the United States National Security Council presented to President Harry S. Truman on April 14, 1950. It was one of the most important statements of American policy that launched the Cold War.
53. People’s Republic of China: The history of the People's Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen. The PRC has for several decades been synonymous with China, but it is only the most recent political entity to govern mainland China, preceded by the Republic of China (ROC) and thousands of years of imperial dynasties.
54. Second Red Scare: As the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States intensified in the late 1940s and early 1950s, hysteria over the perceived threat posed by Communists in the U.S. became known as the Red Scare. (Communists were often referred to as “Reds” for their allegiance to the red Soviet flag.) The Red Scare led to a
range of actions that had a profound and enduring effect on U.S. government and society. Federal employees were analyzed to determine whether they were sufficiently loyal to the government, and the House UnAmerican Activities Committee, as well as U.S. Senator
Joseph R. McCarthy, investigated allegations of subversive elements in the government and the Hollywood film industry. The climate of fear and repression linked to the Red Scare finally began to ease by the late 1950s.
55. Federal Employee Loyalty Program: Federal Employee Loyalty Program established. President Harry S. Truman signed Executive Order 9835, which established the Federal Employee Loyalty Program. The program instituted invasive measures designed to identify and remove Communist sympathizers from government.
56. House UnAmerican Activities Committee: The House UnAmerican Activities Committee (HUAC) was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having Communist ties.
57. Elia Kazan: (September 7, 1909 – September 28, 2003) was a GreekAmerican director, producer, writer and actor, described by The New York Times as "one of the most honored and influential directors in Broadway and Hollywood history".
58. Joseph McCarthy: Joseph McCarthy was born on November 14, 1908, near Appleton, Wisconsin. In 1946 he was elected to the U.S. Senate, and in 1950 he publicly charged that 205 communists had infiltrated the U.S. State Department. Reelected in 1952, he became chair of the Senate's subcommittee on investigations, and for the next two years he investigated various government departments and questioned innumerable witnesses, resulting in what would be known as the Red Scare. A corresponding Lavender Scare was also directed at LGBT federal employees, causing scores of citizens to lose their jobs. After a televised hearing in which he was discredited and condemned by Congress, McCarthy fell out of the spotlight. He died on May 2, 1957.
59. TaftHartley Act: The TaftHartley Act (61 Stat. 136), also known as the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947, was created after a great number of largescale strikes had nearly disabled the automobile, steel, and packing industries, among others. These work stoppages had caused a ripple effect through the economy, leading to public panic. The TaftHartley Act, an amendment to the Wagner Act of 1935, was designed to benefit all parties to a labor agreement—the employer, employees, and the labor union. Whereas the Wagner Act had spoken only of the right to participate in union activities, the new act included the right to refrain from union activities. It was clear that this new act was designed to level the unfair playing field formerly tipped in favor of labor unions.
60. Kim IlSung: Kim Ilsung was born on April 15, 1912, in Mangyondae, near Pyongyang, Korea, and went on to become a guerrilla fighter against Japanese occupation. Kim also
fought with the Soviet army during World War II and returned to his home region to become premier of North Korea, soon setting in motion the Korean War. He was elected country president in 1972, and held the position until his death on July 8, 1994.
61. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: North Korea : officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang is the nation's capital and largest city. To the north and northwest the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok (known as the Yalu in China) and Tumen rivers; it is bordered to the south by South Korea, with the heavily fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) separating the two.
62. Syngman Rhee: Syngman Rhee was born on April 26, 1875, in Kaesong, Korea. When he was 22, he was elected president of the Korean Provisional Government. He became South Korea’s first president in 1948. Rhee stayed in power after the Korean War, and was reelected twice, but he was overthrown by an uprising in 1960. Afterwards, he retired to Hawaii. Syngman Rhee died in Honolulu, Hawaii on July 19, 1965.
63. Republic of Korea: South Korea: officially the Republic of Korea is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Highly urbanized at 92%, South Koreans lead a distinctive urban lifestyle, as half of them live in highrises concentrated in the Seoul Capital Area with 25 million residents and the world's sixth leading global city with the fourth largest economy and seventh most sustainable city in the world.
64. Douglas MacArthur: Douglas MacArthur (26 January 1880 – 5 April 1964) was an American fivestar general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II.
65. Demilitarized Zone (DMZ): The Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) is a region on the Korean peninsula that demarcates North Korea from South Korea. Roughly following the 38th parallel, the 150milelong DMZ incorporates territory on both sides of the ceasefire line as it existed at the end of the Korean War (1950–53). The areas north and south of the demarcation are heavily fortified, though skirmishes between the two sides are rare. Located within the territory is the “truce village” of P’anmunjom, but most of the rest of the land has reverted to nature, making it one of the most pristine undeveloped areas in Asia.
66. Mohammad Mossadegh: 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967), was an Iranian politician. He was the head of a democratically elected government, holding office as the Prime Minister of Iran from 1951 until 1953, when his government was overthrown in a coup d'état aided by the United States' Central Intelligence Agency and the United Kingdom's Secret Intelligence Service An author, administrator, lawyer, and prominent parliamentarian, his administration introduced a range of progressive social and political
reforms such as social security and land reforms, including taxation of the rent on land. His government's most notable policy, however, was the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry, which had been under British control since 1913 through the AngloPersian Oil Company (APOC/AIOC) (later British Petroleum and BP). Many Iranians regard Mosaddegh as the leading champion of secular democracy and resistance to foreign domination in Iran's modern history. Mosaddegh was removed from power in a coup on 19 August 1953, organised and carried out by the CIA at the request of MI6, which chose Iranian General Fazlollah Zahedi to succeed Mosaddegh.While the coup is commonly referred to in the West as Operation Ajax after its CIA cryptonym, in Iran it is referred to as the 28 Mordad 1332 coup, after its date on the Iranian calendar. Mosaddegh was imprisoned for three years, then put under house arrest until his death and was buried in his own home so as to prevent a political furor.
67. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi: Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was born on October 26, 1919 in Tehrn, Iran. He was the shah of Iran from 1941 to 1979. He maintained a proWestern foreign policy and fostered economic development in Iran but corruption in his government, unequal distribution of oil wealth and political turmoil resulted in his exile to Egypt followed by the declaration of an Islamic republic in Iran. He died in 1980
68. AngloIranian Oil Company: The AngloPersian Oil Company (APOC) was a British company founded in 1908 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. It was the first company to extract petroleum from Iran. In 1935 APOC was renamed the AngloIranian Oil Company (AIOC) and in 1954 it became the British Petroleum Company (BP), one of the antecedents of the modern BP public limited company
69. Dwight D. Eisenhower: Dwight D. Eisenhower was born on October 14, 1890, in Denison, Texas. In 1945 he was appointed U.S. Army chief of staff. He became the first Supreme Allied Commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1951. In 1952 he was elected U.S. president. He served two terms before retiring to Gettysburg in 1961. Eisenhower died on March 28, 1969, at the Walter Reed Army Hospital in Washington, D.C.
70. Allen Dulles: Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an American diplomat and lawyer who became the first civilian Director of Central Intelligence and its longestserving director to date. As head of the Central Intelligence Agency during the early Cold War, he oversaw the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état, Operation Ajax (the overthrow of Iran's elected government), the Lockheed U 2 aircraft program and the Bay of Pigs Invasion. Following the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Dulles was one of the members of the Warren Commission. Between his stints of government service, Dulles was a corporate lawyer and partner at Sullivan & Cromwell. His older brother, John Foster Dulles, was the Secretary of State during the Eisenhower Administration.
71. John Foster Dulles: John Foster Dulles (18881959) was a powerful U.S. secretary of state under President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Born into a family of statesmen, Dulles became an international lawyer for a Wall Street firm and attended the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 as part of the Reparations Commission and Economic Council. He negotiated the Japanese peace treaty in the early 1950s as a consultant to President Harry S. Truman, but later became a vocal critic of the administration’s foreign policy. Named secretary of state in 1953, Dulles was known for a strong stance against communism and his management of the crises of Suez, Indochina and Lebanon. Dulles, grandson of one secretary of state (John Foster) and nephew of another (Robert Lansing), served Dwight D. Eisenhower in that capacity from January 1953 until his death, from cancer, in 1959. An international lawyer and senior partner in the prestigious Wall Street firm of Sullivan and Cromwell, he built a modest reputation in the twenties as an authority on the tangled issue of Allied war debts and German reparations. Long an unreconstructed Wilsonian, Dulles opposed American involvement in Europe in the thirties on the grounds that the victors of 1919 had ignored Woodrow Wilson’s call for ‘peaceful change’ and sought only to preserve the harsh features of the Versailles settlement. Dulles emerged during World War II as the principal lay spokesman for the Federal Council of Churches in its effort to promote the proposed United Nations. But at the same time, New York governor Thomas E. Dewey, he was also emerging as a leading proponent of the foreign policy views of the eastern wing of the Republican party. Senator Arthur Vandenberg and he were the architects of postwar bipartisan foreign policy. By the late forties he was a Republican adviser, and later consultant, to the Truman administration and in that capacity negotiated the Japanese peace treaty in 19501951. But by 1952 partisanship and policy differences led him to become one of Harry S. Truman’s and Dean Acheson’s most acerbic critics, especially on Far Eastern policy. His well publicized article in Life magazine condemned the containment policy of the Truman administration as merely a negative attempt to restrain Soviet expansionism and demanded a new policy of boldness that would restore the initiative to the United States. During the 1952 campaign he called stridently not only for the ‘rollback’ of Soviet gains in Eastern Europe but also for the ‘unleashing’ of Chiang Kaishek. As secretary of state Dulles was often portrayed as the stern Presbyterian moralist who made speeches condemning atheistic communism and threatening massive retaliation. For many historians he was the very model of the ‘cold warrior,’ a reductionist whose rhetoric intensified the ideological gulf between East and West. Moreover, since Eisenhower was perceived as a chief executive who reigned but did not govern, Dulles was regarded as the architect of American foreign policy. Later it became evident that Eisenhower was an activist and that his foreign policy was a joint creation, not simply the work of his secretary of state. Declassified documents, moreover, indicated that Dulles was far more complex and flexible than previously thought. He considered the possibility of genuine negotiations with the Soviets, recognized the process of change in postStalinist Russia, did not always regard neutrality as immoral, and, above all, was prudent and cautious on atomic issues. Despite the campaign rhetoric of 1952, he, in effect, accepted the underlying postulates of containment, and his stewardship of American foreign policy deserves to be remembered more for what it preserved from the TrumanAcheson
heritage than for its innovations. And despite the furor over massive retaliation and the crises over Suez, Dien Bien Phu, and Lebanon, Dulles was adept at crisis management and presided over a sixyear period during which the United States was, at least technically, at peace.
72. Jacobo Arbenz Guzman: Colonel Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán ( September 14, 1913 – January 27, 1971), nicknamed The Big Blonde or The Swiss for his Swiss origins, was a Guatemalan military officer who was the second democratically elected President of Guatemala, serving from 1951 to 1954. He was also the Minister of Defense from 1944 to 1951. He was a major figure in the tenyear Guatemalan Revolution, which represented some of the few years of representative democracy in Guatemalan history. The landmark program of agrarian reform Árbenz enacted as president was enormously influential across Latin America. Árbenz was born in 1913 to a middleclass family, son of a Swiss German father and a Guatemalan mother. He graduated with high honors from a military academy in 1935, and served in the army until 1944, quickly rising through the ranks. During this period, he witnessed the violent repression of agrarian laborers by the United Statesbacked dictator Jorge Ubico, and was personally required to escort chaingangs of prisoners, an experience that radicalized him. In 1938 he met and married his wife María Villanova, who was a great ideological influence on him, as was José Manuel Fortuny, a Guatemalan communist. In October 1944 several civilian groups and progressive military factions led by Árbenz and Francisco Arana rebelled against Ubico's repressive policies. In the elections that followed, Juan José Arévalo was elected president, and began a highly popular program of social reform. Árbenz was appointed Minister of Defense, and played a crucial role in putting down a military coup in 1949. After the death of Arana, Árbenz contested the presidential elections that were held in 1950 and without significant opposition defeated Miguel Ydígoras Fuentes, his nearest challenger, by a margin of over 50%. He took office on March 15, 1951, and continued the social reform policies of his predecessor. These reforms included an expanded right to vote, the ability of workers to organize, legitimizing political parties, and allowing public debate.The centerpiece of his policy was an agrarian reform law under which uncultivated portions of large landholdings were expropriated in return for compensation and redistributed to povertystricken agricultural laborers. Approximately 500,000 people benefited from the decree. The majority of them were indigenous people, whose forebears had been dispossessed after the Spanish invasion. His policies ran afoul of the United Fruit Company, which lobbied the United States government to have him overthrown. The US was also concerned by the presence of communists in the Guatemalan government, and Árbenz was ousted in the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état engineered by the US Department of State and the Central Intelligence Agency. Colonel Carlos Castillo Armas replaced him as president. Árbenz went into exile through several countries, where his family gradually fell apart. His daughter committed suicide, and he descended further into alcoholism, eventually dying in Mexico in 1971. In October 2011, the Guatemalan government issued an official apology for Árbenz's overthrow.
73. Carlos Castillo Armas: Col. Carlos Castillo Armas is elected president of the junta that overthrew the administration of Guatemalan President Jacobo Arbenz Guzman in late June 1954. The election of Castillo Armas was the culmination of U.S. efforts to remove Arbenz and save Guatemala from what American officials believed to be an attempt by international communism to gain a foothold in the Western Hemisphere. In 1944, Guatemala went through a revolution that saw the removal of a longtime dictator and the establishment of the first democratically elected government in the nation’s history. In 1950, Guatemala witnessed another first with the peaceful transfer of power to the newly elected president, Arbenz. Officials in the United States had watched the developments in Guatemala with growing concern and fear. The Guatemalan government, particularly after Arbenz came to power in 1950, had launched a serious effort at land reform and redistribution to Guatemala’s landless masses. When this effort resulted in the powerful Americanowned United Fruit Company losing many acres of land, U.S. officials began to believe that communism was at work in Guatemala. By 1953 and into 1954, the U.S. government was intent on removing Arbenz from power and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was given this task by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The CIA established a multifaceted covert operation (code named PBSUCCESS). Beginning in June 1954, the CIA saturated Guatemala with propaganda over the radio and through leaflets dropped over the country, and also began small bombing raids using unmarked airplanes. It also organized and armed a small force of “freedom fighters”–mostly Guatemalan refugees and mercenaries–headed by Castillo Armas. This force, which never numbered more than a few hundred men, had little impact on subsequent events. By late June, the Arbenz government, diplomatically and economically isolated by the United States, came to the conclusion that resistance against the “giant of the north” was futile, and Arbenz resigned on June 27. A short time later, Castillo Armas and his “army” marched into Guatemala City and established a ruling junta. On July 8, 1954, Castillo Armas was elected president of the junta. For the United States, the election of Castillo Armas was the culmination of a successful covert operation against international communism. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles declared that Guatemala had been saved from “communist imperialism.” The overthrow of Arbenz had added “a new and glorious chapter to the already great tradition of the American states.” Many Guatemalans came to have a different perspective. The new regime rounded up thousands of suspected communists, and executed hundreds of prisoners. Labor unions, which had flourished since 1944, were crushed, and United Fruit’s lands were restored. Castillo Armas, however, did not long enjoy his success. He was assassinated in 1957. Guatemalan politics then degenerated into a series of coups and countercoups, coupled with brutal repression of the country’s people.
74. Fulgencio Batista: Fulgencio Batista was born on January 16, 1901, in Banes, Cuba. He joined the army in 1921 and in September 1933, he organized a revolt that toppled the regime at the time. He was elected president in 1940. His term ended in 1944. Eight years later, Batista returned and gained power as a brutal, controlling dictator. Fidel Castro toppled his regime in 1958, and Batista lived the remainder of his life in exile. He died in Spain on August 6, 1973.
75. Fidel Castro: Cuban leader Fidel Castro (19262016) established the first communist state in the Western Hemisphere after leading an overthrow of the military dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1959. He ruled over Cuba for nearly five decades, until handing off power to his younger brother Raúl in 2008. During that time, Castro’s regime was successful in reducing illiteracy, stamping out racism and improving public health care, but was widely criticized for stifling economic and political freedoms. Castro’s Cuba also had a highly antagonistic relationship with the United States–most notably resulting in the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis. The two nations officially normalized relations in July 2015, ending a trade embargo that had been in place since 1960, when U.S.owned businesses in Cuba were nationalized without compensation. Castro died on November 25, 2016, at 90.
76. John F. Kennedy: Elected in 1960 as the 35th president of the United States, 43yearold John F. Kennedy became the youngest man and the first Roman Catholic to hold that office. He was born into one of America’s wealthiest families and parlayed an elite education and a reputation as a military hero into a successful run for Congress in 1946 and for the Senate in 1952. As president, Kennedy confronted mounting Cold War tensions in Cuba, Vietnam and elsewhere. He also led a renewed drive for public service and eventually provided federal support for the growing civil rights movement. His assassination on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, sent shockwaves around the world and turned the alltoohuman Kennedy into a largerthanlife heroic figure. To this day, historians continue to rank him among the bestloved presidents in American history.
77. Bay of Pigs: On January 1, 1959, a young Cuban nationalist named Fidel Castro (1926) drove his guerilla army into Havana and overthrew General Fulgencio Batista (1901 1973), the nation’s Americanbacked president. For the next two years, officials at the U.S. State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) attempted to push Castro from power. Finally, in April 1961, the CIA launched what its leaders believed would be the definitive strike: a fullscale invasion of Cuba by 1,400 Americantrained Cubans who had fled their homes when Castro took over. However, the invasion did not go well: The invaders were badly outnumbered by Castro’s troops, and they surrendered after less than 24 hours of fighting.
78. Cuban Missile Crisis: During the Cuban Missile Crisis, leaders of the U.S. and the Soviet Union engaged in a tense, 13day political and military standoff in October 1962 over the installation of nucleararmed Soviet missiles on Cuba, just 90 miles from U.S. shores. In a TV address on October 22, 1962, President John Kennedy (191763) notified Americans about the presence of the missiles, explained his decision to enact a naval blockade around Cuba and made it clear the U.S. was prepared to use military force if necessary to neutralize this perceived threat to national security. Following this news, many people feared the world was on the brink of nuclear war. However, disaster was avoided when the U.S. agreed to Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev’s (18941971) offer to
remove the Cuban missiles in exchange for the U.S. promising not to invade Cuba. Kennedy also secretly agreed to remove U.S. missiles from Turkey.
79. Containment Culture: These narratives, which embodied an American postwar foreign policy charged with checking the spread of Communism, also operated, Nadel argues, within a wide spectrum of cultural life in the United States to contain atomic secrets, sexual license, gender roles, nuclear energy, and artistic expression.
80. Dixiecrats: Dixiecrat, also called States’ Rights Democrat, member of a rightwing Democratic splinter group in the 1948 U.S. presidential election organized by Southerners who objected to the civil rights program of the Democratic Party. It met at Birmingham, Ala., and on July 17, 1948, nominated Gov. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina for president and Gov. Fielding L. Wright of Mississippi for vice president. The Dixiecrats, who opposed federal regulations they considered to interfere with states’ rights, carried South Carolina, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama, to receive 39 electoral votes; their popular vote totalled over 1,000,000.
81. Strom Thurmond: Strom Thurmond was born on December 5, 1902, in Edgefield, South Carolina. After fighting in World War II, he was elected South Carolina governor. Appointed to the Senate in 1954 as a Democrat, he later switched to the Republican Party and was known for his stance against integration, though it was later revealed that he had a biracial daughter. Serving in Congress until age 100, Thurmond died on June 26, 2003.
82. Executive Order 9981: Executive Order 9981 was an executive order issued on July 26, 1948, by President Harry S. Truman. It abolished racial discrimination in the United States Armed Forces and eventually led to the end of segregation in the services.
83. Freedom Train: Two national Freedom Trains have toured the United States: the 1947– 49 special exhibit Freedom Train and the 1975–76 American Freedom Train that celebrated the United States Bicentennial.
84. Brown v. Board of Education: On May 17, 1954 the United States Supreme Court handed down its ruling in the landmark case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. The Court’s unanimous decision overturned provisions of the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision, which had allowed for “separate but equal” public facilities, including public schools in the United States. Declaring that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal,” the Brown v. Board decision helped break the back of state sponsored segregation, and provided a spark to the American civil rights movement. This unanimous decision handed down by the Supreme Court on May 17, 1954, ended federal tolerance of racial segregation. In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) the Court had ruled that “separate but equal” accommodations on railroad cars conformed to the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee of equal protection. That decision was used to justify
segregating all public facilities, including schools. In addition, most school districts, ignoring Plessy’s “equal” requirement, neglected their black schools.
85. Clark Doll Test: In the 1940s, psychologists Kenneth and Mamie Clark designed and conducted a series of experiments known colloquially as “the doll tests” to study the psychological effects of segregation on AfricanAmerican children. Drs. Clark used four dolls, identical except for color, to test children's racial perceptions.
86. Orval Faubus: Orval Eugene Faubus (January 7, 1910 – December 14, 1994) was an American Democratic politician who served as 36th Governor of Arkansas from 1955 to 1967. He is best remembered for his 1957 stand against desegregation of the Little Rock School District during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied a unanimous decision of the U.S. Supreme Court made in the 1954 case Brown v. Board of Education by ordering the Arkansas National Guard to prevent black students from attending Little Rock Central High School.
87. James Meredith: James H. Meredith, who in 1962 became the first African American to attend the University of Mississippi, is shot by a sniper shortly after beginning a lone civil rights march through the South. Known as the “March Against Fear,” Meredith had been walking from Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi, in an attempt to encourage voter registration by African Americans in the South. A former serviceman in the U.S. Air Force, Meredith applied and was accepted to the University of Mississippi in 1962, but his admission was revoked when the registrar learned of his race. A federal court ordered “Ole Miss” to admit him, but when he tried to register on September 20, 1962, he found the entrance to the office blocked by Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett. On September 28, the governor was found guilty of civil contempt and was ordered to cease his interference with desegregation at the university or face arrest and a fine of $10,000 a day. Two days later, Meredith was escorted onto the Ole Miss campus by U.S. Marshals, setting off riots that resulted in the deaths of two students. He returned the next day and began classes. In 1963, Meredith, who was a transfer student from allblack Jackson State College, graduated with a degree in political science. Three years later, Meredith returned to the public eye when he began his March Against Fear. On June 6, just one day into the march, he was sent to a hospital by a sniper’s bullet. Other civil rights leaders, including Martin Luther King, Jr., and Stokely Carmichael, arrived to continue the march on his behalf. It was during the March Against Fear that Carmichael, who was leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, first spoke publicly of “Black Power”–his concept of militant African American nationalism. James Meredith later recovered and rejoined the march he had originated, and on June 26 the marchers successfully reached Jackson, Mississippi.
88. Medgar Evers: Civil rights activist Medgar Evers was born on July 2, 1925, in Decatur, Mississippi. In 1954, he became the first state field secretary of the NAACP in Mississippi. As such, he organized voterregistration efforts, demonstrations, and economic boycotts of companies that practiced discrimination.
89. George Wallace: George C. Wallace was born in Clio, Alabama, on August 25, 1919. After law school and military service, he embarked on a career as a judge and local politician. He served four terms as Alabama governor, from the 1960s through the 1980s, and ran unsuccessfully for the U.S. presidency three times. Despite his later efforts to revise his public image, Wallace is remembered for his strong support of racial segregation in the '60s. He died in Montgomery, Alabama, on September 13, 1998.
90. Emmet Till: Fourteenyearold Emmett Till was visiting relatives in Money, Mississippi, on August 24, 1955, when he was accused of whistling at Carolyn Bryant, a white woman who was a cashier at a grocery store. Four days later, Bryant's husband Roy and his half brother J.W. Milam kidnapped Till, beat him and shot him in the head. The men were tried for murder, but an allwhite, male jury acquitted them. Till's murder and open casket funeral galvanized the emerging Civil Rights Movement. Over six decades after Till's brutal abduction and murder, in January 2017, Timothy Tyson, author of The Blood of Emmett Till and a senior research scholar at Duke University, revealed that in a 2007 interview Carolyn admitted to him that she had lied about Till making advances toward her.
91. Rosa Parks: Civil rights activist Rosa Parks was born on February 4, 1913, in Tuskegee, Alabama. Her refusal to surrender her seat to a white passenger on a Montgomery, Alabama bus spurred a citywide boycott. The city of Montgomery had no choice but to lift the law requiring segregation on public buses. Rosa Parks received many accolades during her lifetime, including the NAACP's highest award.
92. Martin Luther King Jr: Martin Luther King Jr. was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia. King, a Baptist minister and civilrights activist, had a seismic impact on race relations in the United States, beginning in the mid1950s. Among his many efforts, King headed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Through his activism and inspirational speeches he played a pivotal role in ending the legal segregation of AfricanAmerican citizens in the United States, as well as the creation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. King received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, among several other honors. He was assassinated in April 1968, and continues to be remembered as one of the most influential and inspirational AfricanAmerican leaders in history.
93. Freedom Riders: On May 4, 1961, a group of 13 AfricanAmerican and white civil rights activists launched the Freedom Rides, a series of bus trips through the American South to protest segregation in interstate bus terminals. The Freedom Riders, who were recruited by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), a U.S. civil rights group, departed from Washington, D.C., and attempted to integrate facilities at bus terminals along the way into the Deep South. AfricanAmerican Freedom Riders tried to use “whitesonly” restrooms and lunch counters, and vice versa. The group encountered tremendous violence from white protestors along the route, but also drew international attention to
their cause. Over the next few months, several hundred Freedom Riders engaged in similar actions. In September 1961, the Interstate Commerce Commission issued regulations prohibiting segregation in bus and train stations nationwide.
94. Civil Rights Act: The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub.L. 88–352, 78 Stat. 241, enacted July 2, 1964) is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
95. Freedom Summer: In 1964, civil rights organizations including the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE) and Student NonViolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) organized a voter registration drive, known as the Mississippi Summer Project, or Freedom Summer, aimed at dramatically increasing voter registration in Mississippi. The Freedom Summer, comprised of black Mississippians and more than 1,000 outofstate, predominately white volunteers, faced constant abuse and harassment from Mississippi’s white population. The Ku Klux Klan, police and even state and local authorities carried out a systematic series of violent attacks; including arson, beatings, false arrest and the murder of at least three civil rights activists. Freedom Summer was a 1964 voter registration project in Mississippi, part of a larger effort by civil rights groups such as the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE) and the Student NonViolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) to expand black voting in the South. The Mississippi project was run by the local Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), an association of civil rights groups in which sncc was the most active member. About a hundred white college students had helped cofo register voters in November 1963, and several hundred more students were invited in 1964 for Freedom Summer, a muchexpanded voter registration project. On June 15, 1964, the first three hundred arrived. The next day, two of the white students, Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman, both from New York, and a local AfroAmerican, James Chaney, disappeared. Although their badly beaten bodies were not discovered for six weeks, certainty that they had been murdered swept the country and helped precipitate the passage of a longpending civil rights bill in Congress. In Mississippi, the murders shook the project profoundly. Surrounded by threats and violence, the workers resented the lack of federal protection and the slowness of the investigation. Distrust grew between white and black workers; would the public outcry have been the same, some asked, if all three victims had been black? The Mississippi project did establish fifty Freedom Schools to carry on community organizing, but it managed to register only twelve hundred Afro Americans. Another blow came in August when, with the acquiescence of party liberals and civil rights leaders, the Democratic National Convention refused to seat a protest slate of delegates elected through COFO’s Mississippi Freedom Democratic party. The events of Freedom Summer deepened the division between those in the civil rights movement who still believed in integration and nonviolence and others, especially young AfroAmericans, who now doubted whether racial equality was achievable by peaceful means. The civil rights movement continued to be active, but after 1964, it began to lose the hopeful solidarity that had infused its earlier years.
96. SNCC: The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, often pronounced / ˈ ɪ sn k/ snick) was one of the most important organizations of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a student meeting organized by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in April 1960.
97. CORE: Founded in 1942, CORE is the third oldest and one of the "Big Four" civil rights groups in the United States. From the protests against "Jim Crow" laws of the 40's through the "Sitins" of the 50's, the "Freedom Rides" of the 60's, the cries for "Self Determination" in the 70's, "Equal Opportunity" in the 80's, community development in the 90's, to the current demand for equal access to information, CORE has championed true equality. As the "shock troops" and pioneers of the civil rights movement, CORE has paved the way for the nation to follow.
98. Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party: The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) was an American political party created in 1964 as a branch of the populist Freedom Democratic organization in the state of Mississippi during the Civil Rights Movement.
99. Fannie Lou Hamer: Fannie Lou Hamer was born on October 6, 1917, in Montgomery County, Mississippi. In 1962, she met civil rights activists who encouraged blacks to register to vote, and soon became active in helping. Hamer also worked for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, which fought racial segregation and injustice in the South. In 1964, she helped found the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. Hamer died in 1977
100. Voting Rights Act: The Voting Rights Act, signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson (190873) on August 6, 1965, aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote under the 15th Amendment (1870) to the Constitution of the United States. The act significantly widened the franchise and is considered among the most farreaching pieces of civil rights legislation in U.S. history.
101. Black Panther Party: Black Panther Party, original name Black Panther Party for SelfDefense, African American revolutionary party, founded in 1966 in Oakland, California, by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. The party's original purpose was to patrol African American neighbourhoods to protect residents from acts of police brutality.
102. Huey Newton: Dr. Huey Percy Newton (February 17, 1942 – August 22, 1989) was an AfricanAmerican political activist and revolutionary who, along with Bobby
Seale, cofounded the Black Panther Party in 1966. He continued to pursue an education, eventually earning a Ph.D. in social philosophy.
103. Bobby Seale: Robert George "Bobby" Seale (born October 20, 1936) is an American political activist. He and fellow activist Huey P. Newton cofounded the Black Panther Party.
104. Black Power: a movement in support of rights and political power for black people, especially prominent in the US in the 1960s and 1970s.
105. Watts Riot: In the predominantly black Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, racial tension reaches a breaking point after two white policemen scuffle with a black motorist suspected of drunken driving. A crowd of spectators gathered near the corner of Avalon Boulevard and 116th Street to watch the arrest and soon grew angry by what they believed to be yet another incident of racially motivated abuse by the police. A riot soon began, spurred on by residents of Watts who were embittered after years of economic and political isolation. The rioters eventually ranged over a 50squaremile area of South Central Los Angeles, looting stores, torching buildings, and beating whites as snipers fired at police and firefighters. Finally, with the assistance of thousands of National Guardsmen, order was restored on August 16. The five days of violence left 34 dead, 1,032 injured, nearly 4,000 arrested, and $40 million worth of property destroyed. The Watts riot was the worst urban riot in 20 years and foreshadowed the many rebellions to occur in ensuing years in Detroit, Newark, and other American cities.
106. McCarranWalter Act: The McCarrenWalter Act takes effect and revises America’s immigration laws. The law was hailed by supporters as a necessary step in preventing communist subversion in the United States, while opponents decried the legislation as being xenophobic and discriminatory. The act, named after Senator Pat McCarren (DemocratNevada) and Representative Francis Walter (Democratic Pennsylvania), did relatively little to alter the quota system for immigration into the United States that had been established in the Immigration Act of 1924. The skewed nature of the quotas was readily apparent. Immigrants from Great Britain, Ireland, and Germany were allotted twothirds of the 154,657 spots available each year. However, the act did specifically remove previously established racial barriers that had acted to exclude immigrants from nations such as Japan and China. These countries were now assigned very small quotas. The changes that were of more concern for many critics centered on the act’s provision of much more strenuous screening of potential immigrants. It banned admission to anyone declared a subversive by the attorney general and indicated that members of communist and “communistfront” organizations were subject to deportation. In defending the act, Senator McCarren declared, “If this oasis of the world should be overrun, perverted, contaminated, or destroyed, then the last flickering light of humanity will be extinguished.” President Harry S. Truman took a very different view, calling the legislation “unAmerican” and inhumane. When the bill was passed in June 1952, Truman vetoed the bill. Congress overrode his veto, and the act took effect in December.
The McCarrenWalter Act set America’s immigration standards until new legislation was passed in 1965.
107. Bracero Program: The Bracero Program (from the Spanish term bracero, meaning "manual laborer" or "one who works using his arms") was a series of laws and diplomatic agreements, initiated on August 4, 1942, when the United States signed the Mexican Farm Labor Agreement with Mexico.
108. Caucasian Race Equal Privileges Resolution: passed in Texas, stated that since all nations of North and South American continents united in struggle against Nazism, "all persons of the Caucasian race" entitle to equal treatment in places of public accommodation, Texas law defined mexicans as white.
109. Chinese Confession Program: the Chinese Confession Program was a program run by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) in the United States between 1956 and 1965, that sought confessions of illegal entry from US citizens and residents of Chinese origin, with the (somewhat misleading) offer of legalization of status in exchange.
110. War Brides Act: The War Brides Act (Public Law 271) was enacted on December 28, 1945, to allow alien spouses, natural children, and adopted children of members of the United States Armed Forces, "if admissible," to enter the U.S. as non quota immigrants after World War II.
111. Refugee Acts: The United States Refugee Act of 1980 (Public Law 96212) is an amendment to the earlier Immigration and Nationality Act and the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act, and was created to provide a permanent and systematic procedure for the admission to the United States of refugees of special humanitarian concern to the U.S., and to provide comprehensive and uniform provisions for the effective resettlement and absorption of those refugees who are admitted. The act was completed on March 3, 1980, was signed by President Jimmy Carter on March 17, 1980 and became effective on April 1, 1980. This was the first comprehensive amendment of U.S. general immigration laws designed to face up to the realities of modern refugee situations by stating a clearcut national policy and providing a flexible mechanism to meet the rapidly shifting developments of today's world policy. The main objectives of the act were to create a new definition of refugee based on the one created at the UN Convention and Protocol on the Status of Refugees, raise the limitation from 17,400 to 50,000 refugees admitted each fiscal year, provide emergency procedures for when that number exceeds 50,000, and to establish the Office of U.S. Coordinator for Refugee Affairs and the Office of Refugee Resettlement. Most importantly, it established explicit procedures on how to deal with refugees in the U.S. by creating a uniform and effective resettlement and absorption policy.
112. 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act: The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965; enacted June 30, 1968, also known as the Hart–Celler Act, changed the way quotas were allocated by ending the National Origins Formula that had been in place in the United States since the Emergency Quota Act of 1921.
113. Model Minority: A model minority is a minority group (whether based on ethnicity, race or religion) whose members are perceived to achieve a higher degree of socioeconomic success than the population average. This success is typically measured relatively by income, education, low criminality and high family/marital stability. The concept is controversial, as it has historically been used to suggest there is no need for government action to adjust for socioeconomic disparities between certain groups. In the United States, the term was coined to describe Japanese Americans, although it has evolved to become associated with American Jews and Asian Americans, but more specifically with East Asians (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) and the South Asian community (mainly the Indian community) The concept of a model minority has faced backlash from the Asian American community. According to Asian Americans Advancing Justice Los Angeles, "the misperception that Asian Americans are doing fine on their own has serious policy implications... politicians won't talk about our community's needs if they assume people don't require assistance."
114. Second Indochina War: The Second Indochina War (called the Vietnam War in the West or the American War in Vietnam) began as a conflict between the United Statesbacked South Vietnamese government and its opponents, both the North Vietnamesebased communist Viet Cong (National Liberation Front) and the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), known in the West as the North Vietnamese Army (NVA). The conflict began in the late 1950s and lasted until 1975 when the North Vietnamese conquered South Vietnam. The United States, which had supported France during the first Indochina war, backed the South Vietnam government in opposition to the National Liberation Front and the Communistallied NVA. The North benefited from military and financial support from China and the Soviet Union, members of the Communist bloc. Fighting also occurred during this time in Cambodia between the USbacked government, the NVA, and the Communistbacked Khmer Rouge (known as the Cambodian Civil War, 1967–1975) and in Laos between the USbacked government, the NVA, and the Communistbacked Pathet Lao (known as the Laotian Civil War or Secret War, 1962– 1975).
115. Ho Chi Minh: Ho Chi Minh first emerged as an outspoken voice for Vietnamese independence while living as a young man in France during World War I. Inspired by the Bolshevik Revolution, he joined the Communist Party and traveled to the Soviet Union. He helped found the Indochinese Communist Party in 1930 and the League for the Independence of Vietnam, or Viet Minh, in 1941. At World War II’s end, Viet Minh forces seized the northern Vietnamese city of Hanoi and declared a Democratic State of Vietnam (or North Vietnam) with Ho as president. Known as “Uncle Ho,” he would
serve in that position for the next 25 years, becoming a symbol of Vietnam’s struggle for unification during a long and costly conflict with the strongly antiCommunist regime in South Vietnam and its powerful ally, the United States.
116. Dien Bien Phu: The Battle of Dien Bien Phu was the decisive engagement in the first Indochina War (1946–54). After French forces occupied the Dien Bien Phu valley in late 1953, Viet Minh commander Vo Nguyen Giap amassed troops and placed heavy artillery in caves of the mountains overlooking the French camp. Boosted by Chinese aid, Giap mounted assaults on the opposition’s strong points beginning in March 1954, eliminating use of the French airfield. Viet Minh forces overran the base in early May, prompting the French government to seek an end to the fighting with the signing of the Geneva Accords of 1954.The battle that settled the fate of French Indochina was initiated in November 1953, when Viet Minh forces at Chinese insistence moved to attack Lai Chau, the capital of the T’ai Federation (in Upper Tonkin), which was loyal to the French. As Peking had hoped, the French commander in chief in Indochina, General Henri Navarre, came out to defend his allies because he believed the T’ai “maquis” formed a significant threat in the Viet Minh “rear” (the T’ai supplied the French with opium that was sold to finance French special operations) and wanted to prevent a Viet Minh sweep into Laos. Because he considered Lai Chau impossible to defend, on November 20, Navarre launched Operation Castor with a paratroop drop on the broad valley of Dien Bien Phu, which was rapidly transformed into a defensive perimeter of eight strong points organized around an airstrip. When, in December 1953, the T’ais attempted to march out of Lai Chau for Dien Bien Phu, they were badly mauled by Viet Minh forces. Viet Minh commander Vo Nguyen Giap,with considerable Chinese aide, massed troops and placed heavy artillery in caves in the mountains overlooking the French camp. On March 13, 1954, Giap launched a massive assault on strong point Beatrice, which fell in a matter of hours. Strong points Gabrielle and AnneMarie were overrun during the next two days, which denied the French use of the airfield, the key to the French defense. Reduced to airdrops for supplies and reinforcement, unable to evacuate their wounded, under constant artillery bombardment, and at the extreme limit of air range, the French camp’s morale began to fray. As the monsoons transformed the camp from a dust bowl into a morass of mud, an increasing number of soldiers–almost four thousand by the end of the siege in May–deserted to caves along the Nam Yum River, which traversed the camp; they emerged only to seize supplies dropped for the defenders. The “Rats of Nam Yum” became POWs when the garrison surrendered on May 7. Despite these early successes, Giap’s offensives sputtered out before the tenacious resistance of French paratroops and legionnaires. On April 6, horrific losses and low morale among the attackers caused Giap to suspend his offensives. Some of his commanders, fearing U.S. air intervention, began to speak of withdrawal. Again, the Chinese, in search of a spectacular victory to carry to the Geneva talks scheduled for the summer, intervened to stiffen Viet Minh resolve: reinforcements were brought in, as were Katyusha multitube rocket launchers, while Chinese military engineers retrained the Viet Minh in siege tactics. When Giap resumed his attacks, human wave assaults were abandoned in favor of siege techniques that pushed forward webs of trenches to isolate
French strong points. The French perimeter was gradually reduced until, on May 7, resistance ceased. The shock and agony of the dramatic loss of a garrison of around fourteen thousand men allowed French prime minister Pierre Mendes to muster enough parliamentary support to sign the Geneva Accords of July 1954, which essentially ended the French presence in Indochina.
117. Ngo Dinh Diem: Ngo Dinh Diem was born January 3, 1901 into a noble Vietnamese Catholic family. A staunch antiCommunist, he joined the U.S.backed government, making himself president in 1955. He imprisoned and murdered hundreds of Buddhists, causing the U.S. to remove its support. Diem's assassination in 1963 left Vietnam vulnerable to the Communist threat from the north, eventually resulting in civil war.
118. Viet Minh: The Vietnam Doc Lap Dong Minh (Vietnam Independence League), or Viet Minh as it would become known to the world, was a Communist front organization founded by Ho Chi Minh in 1941 to organize resistance against French colonial rule and occupying Japanese forces. With the end of the Japanese occupation in 1945, the French attempted to reimpose colonial rule. The Viet Minh launched a long and bloody guerrilla war against French colonial forces in what came to be known as the First Indochina War. Ultimately, the Viet Minh, under the leadership of General Vo Nguyen Giap, decisively defeated the French at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in May 1954. On August 1, the armistice ending the war went into effect. The triumphant Viet Minh marched into Hanoi as the French prepared to withdraw their forces. Under the provisions of the agreement signed at the Geneva Conference in July, Vietnam was to be temporarily split into approximately equal halves. The two halves were to be separated by a Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) running along the 17th parallel. The northern half was to be governed by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, which had been proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh, and the southern half would be governed by the noncommunist State of Vietnam until 1956, at which time the two zones were to be reunified following internationally supervised elections. Ngo Dinh Diem, who had become premier of the State of Vietnam in June, was a Catholic and staunchly anticommunist. Diem disliked the Geneva Accords and set about to consolidate his power in the south. By the middle of 1955, Diem had effectively gained control of most of South Vietnam, and in July of that year, he declared his refusal to permit the elections called for at Geneva. This announcement led to a steppedup insurgency in the south and ultimately to the Second Indochina War, when North Vietnamese regular units were committed in the south and U.S. forces arrived. Vietnam was not reunited until April 1975, when North Vietnamese troops captured Saigon.
119. Viet Cong/National Liberation Front: Viet Cong (VC), in full Viet Nam Cong San, English Vietnamese Communists, the guerrilla force that, with the support of the North Vietnamese Army, fought against South Vietnam (late 1950s– 1975) and the United States (early 1960s–1973). The name is said to have first been used by South Vietnamese Pres./ North Vietnam announces the formation of the National
Front for the Liberation of the South at a conference held “somewhere in the South.” This organization, more commonly known as the National Liberation Front (NLF), was designed to replicate the success of the Viet Minh, the umbrella nationalist organization that successfully liberated Vietnam from French colonial rule. The NLF reached out to those parts of South Vietnamese society who were displeased with the government and policies of President Ngo Dinh Diem. One hundred delegates representing more than a dozen political parties and religious groups–both communists and noncommunists–were in attendance at the conference. However, from the beginning, the NLF was dominated by the Lao Dong Party Central Committee (North Vietnamese Communist Party) and served as the North’s shadow government in South Vietnam. The Saigon regime dubbed the NLF the “Viet Cong,” a pejorative contraction of Viet Nam Cong San (Vietnamese Communists). The NLF’s military arm was the People’s Liberation Armed Forces (PLAF). In February 1965, the PLAF attacked U.S. Army installations at Pleiku and Qui Nhon, which convinced President Lyndon B. Johnson to send the first U.S. ground troops to South Vietnam a month later. Ultimately, more than 500,000 U.S. troops were sent to Vietnam to fight the PLAF and the People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN, or North Vietnamese Army). The NLF reached the height of its power during the 1968 Tet Offensive, when the communists launched a massive coordinated attack against key urban centers throughout South Vietnam. Although the Viet Cong forces were soundly defeated during the course of the offensive, they achieved a great psychological victory because the attack prompted many long time supporters of the war to question the Johnson administration’s optimistic predictions.
120. Tonkin Gulf: On August 2, 1964, the U.S. destroyer Maddox exchanged shots with North Vietnamese torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin. Two days later, the Maddox and another destroyer reported once again coming under fire. Although most historians, including those employed by the U.S. military, have since concluded that the second of those attacks never actually occurred, it served as the pretext for an immediate rampup of the Vietnam War. By the end of the day, President Lyndon B. Johnson had ordered retaliatory air strikes, and by late 1965 some 180,000 American troops were on the ground, with more on the way.After World War II, France reoccupied its former colonies in Southeast Asia, only to be kicked out again by the forces of Communist leader Ho Chi Minh. In 1954, as the conflict wound down, the world’s powers reached an agreement to temporarily divide Vietnam in two, with all Ho supporters going north and all French supporters going south. Elections were supposed to reunite the country within a couple of years, but the United States opposed them over concerns that Ho would win the presidency. Instead, it propped up the corrupt and authoritarian government of Ngo Dinh Diem. South Vietnam “was essentially the creation of the United States,” the Defense Department would later admit in the Pentagon Papers. Within a few years, a rebellion had sprung up against Diem, aided by Ho’s forces in the north, who oversaw a string of assassinations against nonCommunist village leaders. Under presidents Harry S. Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, the United States gave France—and then South Vietnam—economic aid and weapons with which to fight the Communist rebels. It also sent over more and more military advisors, some of
whom participated in raids despite ostensibly being there only for selfdefense. As part of one such covert operation, the United States trained and directed South Vietnamese sailors to bombard radar stations, bridges and other targets along the North Vietnamese coast. Meanwhile, U.S. warships such as the Maddox conducted electronic espionage missions in order to relay intelligence to South Vietnam. The rebels continued gaining ground, however, both before and after U.S. officials sanctioned a coup in which Diem was murdered. At this point, U.S. involvement in Vietnam remained largely in the background. But in the predawn hours of July 31, 1964, U.S.backed patrol boats shelled two North Vietnamese islands in the Gulf of Tonkin, after which the Maddox headed to the area. As it cruised along on August 2, it found itself facing down three Sovietbuilt, North Vietnamese torpedo boats that had come out to chase it away. The Maddox fired first, issuing what the U.S. authorities described as warning shots. Undeterred, the three boats continued approaching and opened up with machinegun and torpedo fire of their own. With the help of F8 Crusader jets dispatched from a nearby aircraft carrier, the Maddox badly damaged at least one of the North Vietnamese boats while emerging completely unscathed, except for a single bullet that lodged in its superstructure. The following day, the U.S. destroyer Turner Joy was sent to reinforce the Maddox, and U.S. backed raids took place against two additional North Vietnamese defense positions. Then, on August 4, the Maddox and Turner Joy reported that they had been ambushed, with enemy boats firing 22 torpedoes at them. In response, President Johnson ordered air strikes against North Vietnamese boat bases and an oil storage depot. “Aggression by terror against the peaceful villagers of South Vietnam has now been joined by open aggression on the high seas against the United States of America,” he said that evening in a televised address. He also requested a congressional resolution, known as the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which on August 7 passed unanimously in the House and with only two dissenting votes in the Senate, essentially giving him the power to wage war in Southeast Asia as he saw fit. Throughout these hectic few days, the Johnson administration asserted that the destroyers had been on routine patrol in international waters. In actuality, however, the destroyers were on an espionage mission in waters claimed by North Vietnam. The Johnson administration also described the two attacks as unprovoked; it never disclosed the covert U.S.backed raids taking place. Another problem: the second attack almost certainly never occurred. Instead, it’s believed that the crewmembers of the Maddox mistook their own sonar’s pings off the rudder for North Vietnamese torpedoes. In the confusion, the Maddox nearly even fired at the Turner Joy. Yet when U.S. intelligence officials presented the evidence to policy makers, they “deliberately” omitted most of the relevant communications intercepts, according to National Security Agency documents declassified in 2005. “The overwhelming body of reports, if used, would have told the story that no attack had happened,” an NSA historian wrote. “So a conscious effort ensued to demonstrate that an attack occurred.” The Navy likewise says it is now “clear that North Vietnamese naval forces did not attack Maddox and Turner Joy that night.” In private, Johnson himself expressed doubts about the Gulf of Tonkin incident, reportedly telling a State Department official that “those dumb, stupid sailors were just shooting at flying fish!” He also questioned the idea of being in Vietnam at all. “A man can fight if he can see daylight down the road somewhere,” he told a
senator in March 1965. “But there ain’t no daylight in Vietnam, there’s not a bit.” Yet even as he said that, he was committing the first ground combat units and initiating a massive bombing campaign. The United States would not withdraw from Vietnam until 1973, by which time a disillusioned Congress had voted to repeal the same Gulf of Tonkin Resolution it had so overwhelmingly supported just a few years earlier.
121. Operation Rolling Thunder: During the Vietnam War (195475), as part of the strategic bombing campaign known as Operation Rolling Thunder, U.S. military aircraft attacked targets throughout North Vietnam from March 1965 to October 1968. This massive bombardment was intended to put military pressure on North Vietnam’s Communist leaders and reduce their capacity to wage war against the U.S.supported government of South Vietnam. Operation Rolling Thunder marked the first sustained American assault on North Vietnamese territory and thus represented a major expansion of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. Historians differ in their assessments of the strategic value of Operation Rolling Thunder. Some claim that the bombing campaign came close to crippling North Vietnam’s capacity to wage war, while others contend the campaign’s effectiveness was limited.
122. Napalm: Napalm is a flammable liquid used in warfare. It is a mixture of a gelling agent and either gasoline (petrol) or a similar fuel. It was initially used as an incendiary device against buildings and later primarily as an antipersonnel weapon, as it sticks to skin and causes severe burns when on fire.
123. Agent Orange: Agent Orange was a powerful mixture of chemical defoliants used by U.S. military forces during the Vietnam War to eliminate forest cover for North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops, as well as crops that might be used to feed them. The U.S. program of defoliation, codenamed Operation Ranch Hand, sprayed more than 19 million gallons of herbicides over 4.5 million acres of land in Vietnam from 1961 to 1972. Agent Orange, which contained the chemical dioxin, was the most commonly used of the herbicide mixtures, and the most effective. It was later revealed to cause serious health issues–including tumors, birth defects, rashes, psychological symptoms and cancer–among returning U.S. servicemen and their families as well as among the Vietnamese population.
124. Richard Nixon: Born on January 9, 1913, in Yorba Linda, California, Richard Nixon was a Republican congressman who served as vice president under Dwight D. Eisenhower. Nixon ran for president in 1960 but lost to charismatic Massachusetts senator John F. Kennedy. Undeterred, Nixon return to the race eight years later and won the White House by a solid margin. In 1974, he resigned rather than be impeached for covering up illegal activities of party members in the Watergate affair. He died on April 22, 1994, at age 81, in New York City.
125. Vietnamization: (in the Vietnam War) the US policy of withdrawing its troops and transferring the responsibility and direction of the war effort to the government of South Vietnam.
126. Khmer Rouge: The Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK), otherwise known as the Khmer Rouge, took control of Cambodia on April 17, 1975. The CPK created the state of Democratic Kampuchea in 1976 and ruled the country until January 1979.
127. Pathet Lao: The Pathet Lao was a communist political movement and organization in Laos, formed in the mid20th century. The group was ultimately successful in assuming political power in 1975, after the Laotian Civil War.
128. Hmong: The Hmong/Mong is an ethnic group from the mountainous regions of China, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand. The Hmong are also one of the sub groups of the Miao ethnicity in China.
129. Lyndon Baines Johnson: Lyndon B. Johnson (190873) became the 36th president of the United States following the November 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy (19171963). Upon taking office, Johnson, a Texan who had served in both the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate, launched an ambitious slate of progressive reforms aimed at alleviating poverty and creating what he called a “Great Society” for all Americans. Many of the programs he introduced–including Medicare and Head Start–made a lasting impact in the areas of health, education, urban renewal, conservation and civil rights. Despite his impressive domestic achievements, however, Johnson’s legacy was equally defined by his failure to lead the nation out of the quagmire of the Vietnam War (195475). He declined to run for a second full term in office, and retired to his Texas ranch after leaving the White House in January 1969.
130. The Great Society: The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65. The main goal was the elimination of poverty and racial injustice.
131. Food Stamp Act: The Food Stamp Act was part of President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society Program. The Great Society Programs substantially expanded social welfare programs within the national government.
132. Office of Economic Opportunity: The Office of Economic Opportunity was the agency responsible for administering most of the War on Poverty programs created as part of United States President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society legislative agenda.
133. VISTA: AmeriCorps VISTA is a national service program designed to alleviate poverty. President John F. Kennedy originated the idea for VISTA, which was founded as
Volunteers in Service to America in 1965, and incorporated into the AmeriCorps network of programs in 1993.
134. Social Security Act: An act to provide for the general welfare by establishing a system of Federal oldage benefits, and by enabling the several States to make more adequate provision for aged persons, blind persons, dependent and crippled children,
maternal and child welfare, public health, and the administration of their unemployment compensation laws; to establish a Social Security Board; to raise revenue; and for other purposes.
135. Head Start: Head Start is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to lowincome children and their families.
136. New Left: In the United States, the "New Left" was the name loosely associated with liberal, radical, Marxist political movements that took place during the 1960s, primarily among college students. At the core of this was the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS).
137. Counterculture: The counterculture of the 1960s refers to an anti establishment cultural phenomenon that developed first in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) and then spread throughout much of the Western world between the early 1960s and the mid1970s, with London, New York City, and San Francisco being hotbeds of early countercultural activity. The aggregate movement gained momentum as the American Civil Rights Movement continued to grow, and became revolutionary with the expansion of the US government's extensive military intervention in Vietnam. As the 1960s progressed, widespread social tensions also developed concerning other issues, and tended to flow along generational lines regarding human sexuality, women's rights, traditional modes of authority, experimentation with psychoactive drugs, and differing interpretations of the American Dream. Many key movements related to these issues were born or advanced within the counterculture of the 1960s.
138. Students for a Democratic Society: Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was a student activist movement in the United States that was one of the main representations of the New Left. The organization developed and expanded rapidly in the mid1960s before dissolving at its last convention in 1969.
139. Free Speech Movement: The Free Speech Movement (FSM) was a student protest which took place during the 1964–65 academic year on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley under the informal leadership of students Mario Savio, Jack Weinberg, Michael Rossman, George Barton, Brian Turner, Bettina Aptheker, Steve Weissman, Michael Teal, Art Goldberg, Jackie Goldberg, and others. In
protests unprecedented in scope, students insisted that the university administration lift the ban of oncampus political activities and acknowledge the students' right to free speech and academic freedom.
140. Tet Offensive: The Free Speech Movement (FSM) was a student protest which took place during the 1964–65 academic year on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley under the informal leadership of students Mario Savio,Jack Weinberg, Michael Rossman, George Barton, Brian Turner, Bettina Aptheker, Steve Weissman, Michael Teal, Art Goldberg, Jackie Goldberg, and others. In protests unprecedented in scope, students insisted that the university administration lift the ban of oncampus political activities and acknowledge the students' right to free speech and academic freedom.
141. Kent State and Jackson State: On this date in 1970, two Black students at Jackson State University were killed and many others injured by Jackson police. These killings were never as publicized as the Kent State shootings of four white students that had occurred only a few days earlier. ... Upon hearing this rumor, a small group of students rioted.
142. John Kerry: Born in 1943 in Denver, Colorado, John Kerry was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1984 and was reelected in 1990, 1996, 2002 and 2008. While serving in the Senate, he supported free trade, expansive U.S. foreign and military policy, investment in education and environmental protection. In 2004, Kerry lost the presidential election to George W. Bush. He became U.S. secretary of state under President Barack Obama in 2013.
143. Second Wave Feminism: Secondwave feminism is a period of feminist activity and thought that first began in the early 1960s in the United States, and eventually spread throughout the Western world and beyond. In the United States the movement lasted through the early 1980s.
144. Betty Friedan: (February 4, 1921 – February 4, 2006) was an American writer, activist, and feminist. A leading figure in the women's movement in the United States, her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique is often credited with sparking the second wave of American feminism in the 20th century.
145. National Organization for Women: The National Organization for Women (NOW) is an American feminist organization founded in 1966. The organization consists of 550 chapters in all 50 U.S. states and in Washington, D.C.
146. Roe v. Wade: legal case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on January 22, 1973, ruled (7–2) that unduly restrictive state regulation of abortion is unconstitutional. In a majority opinion written by Justice Harry A. Blackmun, the court held that a set of Texas statutes criminalizing abortion in most instances violated a
woman’s constitutional right of privacy, which it found to be implicit in the liberty guarantee of the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment (“…nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law”).
147. Red Power Movement: The Red Power was a political movement in the 1960's. The Native Americans were fighting to get back their land. They felt that they had to get violent in order to regain their civil rights.
148. Young Americans for Freedom: Young Americans for Freedom (YAF) is an ideologically conservative youth activism organization that was founded in 1960 as a coalition between traditional conservatives and libertarians on American college campuses. It is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization and the chapter affiliate of Young America's Foundation.
149. Young Americans for Freedom: (Born in Phoenix, Arizona, on January 2, 1909, Barry Goldwater ran his family’s department store before embarking on a political career. He served in the senate for 30 years, gaining recognition for his fiscal conservatism. Goldwater lost the 1964 campaign for the presidency to Lyndon B. Johnson in unprecedented landslide. He died in Paradise Valley, Arizona, on May 29, 1998.
150. Hard Hat Riots: occurred on May 8, 1970 in New York City. ... The Hard Hat Riot, breaking out first near the intersection of Wall Street and Broad Street in Lower Manhattan, soon spilled into New York City Hall, and lasted approximately two hours.
151. New Right: is used in several countries as a descriptive term for various policies or groups that are rightwing. It has also been used to describe the emergence of Eastern European parties after the collapse of the Soviet Union and systems using Sovietstyle communism.
152. Hyde Amendment: Since 1976, the Hyde Amendment has blocked federal Medicaid funding for abortion services (since 1994, there have been three extremely narrow exceptions: when continuing the pregnancy will endanger the woman’s life, or when the pregnancy results from rape or incest). This means Medicaid cannot cover abortion even when a woman’s health is at risk and her doctor recommends she get an abortion. When insurance coverage provides for all pregnancyrelated health care except abortion, it interferes with the private health decisions that are best left to the woman, her doctor, and her family. The Hyde Amendment is a dangerous and unfair policy that lets politicians interfere in a woman’s personal health care decisions.
153. Equal Rights Amendment: The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal rights for all citizens regardless of gender; it seeks to end the legal distinctions between men and women in terms of divorce, property, employment, and other matters.
154. Phyllis Schlafly: Phyllis Stewart Schlafly was born on August 15, 1924 to John Bruce Stewart and Odile Dodge in St. Louis, Missouri. Her father was a lawyer and her mother worked to support them as a librarian and school teacher. At the age of 19, she earned her A.B. from Washington University in 1944 and then went on to receive a Master’s degree in Political Science from Harvard in 1945. She also earned a J.D. from the Washington University Law School in St. Louis in 1978. Schlafly came to prominence with the publication of A Choice Not An Echo, her bestselling book from 1964. She quickly became a leader of the conservative movement and in 1972, founded the Eagle Forum, a volunteer organization that works on public policymaking. In the 1970s, she led the battle to oppose the Equal Rights Amendment. Her movement, called “STOP,” stood for “Stop Taking our Privileges.” Schlafly argued that the ERA would take away key privileges for women, such as the exemption from Selective Service registration and the “dependent wife” clause in Social Security benefits. During her career, she has managed Republican campaigns, served as a Delegate to the Republican National Convention, and served as various chairs for the Daughters of the American Revolution. She is also the author of 20 books on subjects such as the family and feminism, education and phonics. She has also published The Phyllis Schlafly Report, a monthly newsletter and is heard daily on the “Eagle Forum Live,” her radio talk show focused on education. Schlafly was named one of the 100 most important women of the 20th century by Ladies’ Home Journal. She also received the Woman of Achievement Award in 1963, where presenter Richard Amberg, publisher of the St. Louis Globe Democrat said, “Phyllis Schlafly stands for everything that has made America great and for those things which will keep it that way.”
155. Southern Strategy: In American politics, the southern strategy was the Republican Party's policy to gain political support in the South by appealing to the racism against African Americans harbored by many southern white voters. As the Civil Rights Movement and dismantling of Jim Crow laws in the 1950s and 1960s visibly deepened preexisting racial tensions in much of the Southern United States, Republican politicians such as presidential candidate Richard Nixon and Senator Barry Goldwater developed strategies that successfully contributed to the political realignment of many white, conservative voters in the South to the Republican Party that had traditionally supported the Democratic Party. It also helped push the Republican Party much more right. In academia, "southern strategy" refers primarily to "top down" narratives of the political realignment of the South, which suggest that Republican leaders consciously appealed to many white southerners' racial resentments in order to gain their support. This topdown narrative of the southern strategy is generally believed to be the primary force that transformed southern politics following the civil rights era. This view has been questioned by historians such as Matthew Lassiter, Kevin M. Kruse and Joseph Crespino, who have presented an alternative, "bottom up" narrative, which Lassiter has called the "suburban strategy". This narrative recognizes the centrality of racial backlash to the political realignment of the South, but suggests that this backlash took the form of a defense of de facto segregation in the suburbs, rather
than overt resistance to racial integration, and that the story of this backlash is a national, rather than a strictly southern one. The perception that the Republican Party had served as the "vehicle of white supremacy in the South," particularly during the Goldwater campaign and the presidential elections of 1968 and 1972, made it difficult for the Republican Party to win the support of black voters in the South in later years. In 2005, Republican National Committee chairman Ken Mehlman formally apologized to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), a national civil rights organization, for exploiting racial polarization to win elections and ignoring the black vote.
156. Henry Kissinger: Born in Germany in 1923, Henry Kissinger escaped the Nazi regime to become a powerful and controversial U.S. statesman. He first rose to prominence as a Harvard University professor and advisor to Presidents John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon. As national security advisor (196975) and secretary of state (197377) to Nixon and Gerald Ford, he negotiated arms treaties with the Soviet Union and earned a Nobel Prize for ending U.S. involvement in North Vietnam. After leaving the cabinet, he chaired the National Bipartisan Commission on Central America and served on the Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board. A German Jewish refugee from Nazi Germany, Kissinger rose to prominence as a Harvard University professor of government in the 1950s and 1960s. He then became the most celebrated and controversial U.S. diplomat since the Second World War in the administrations of Richard M. Nixon and Gerald Ford. As Nixon’s national security adviser he concentrated power in the White House and rendered Secretary of State William Rogers and the professional foreign service almost irrelevant by conducting personal, secret negotiations with North Vietnam, the Soviet Union, and China. He negotiated the Paris agreements of 1973 ending direct U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, engineered a shortlived era of détente with the Soviet Union, and opened frozen relations with the People’s Republic of China. As secretary of state he shuttled among the capitals of Israel, Egypt, and Syria after the 1973 Middle East war. A gregarious but manipulative man, Kissinger, seeking power and favorable publicity, cultivated prominent officials and influential reporters. For a while he achieved more popularity than any modern American diplomat. The Gallup poll listed him as the most admired man in America in 1972 and 1973. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1973 for his negotiations leading to the Paris peace accords that ended U.S. military action in Vietnam. Journalists lauded him as a “genius” and the “smartest guy around” after his secret trip to Beijing in July 1971 prepared the way for Nixon’s visit to China in February 1972. Egyptian politicians called him “the magician” for his disengagement agreements separating Israeli and Arab armies. Kissinger’s reputation faded after 1973. During the Watergate scandal, congressional investigators discovered that he had ordered the fbi to tap the telephones of subordinates on the staff of the National Security Council, a charge he had denied earlier. Congress also learned that he had tried to block the accession to power of Chile’s President Salvador Allende Gossens in 1970 and had helped destabilize Allende’s Socialist party government thereafter. Some of Kissinger’s foreign policy achievements crumbled in 1975 and 1976. The Communists’ victory in Vietnam and Cambodia
destroyed the Paris peace accords, and détente with the Soviet Union never fulfilled the hopes Kissinger had aroused. By 1976 the United States and the Soviet Union had not moved beyond the 1972 Interim Agreement limiting strategic arms to conclude a full fledged Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. Kissinger became a liability for President Ford during the 1976 presidential election. Ronald Reagan, challenging Ford for the Republican nomination, and Democrat Jimmy Carter both assailed Kissinger’s policy of détente with the Soviet Union for ignoring Soviet abuses of human rights and Moscow’s greater assertiveness in international relations. Reagan complained that Kissinger’s program offered “the peace of the grave.” Carter accused him of conducting “lone ranger diplomacy” by excluding Congress and foreign affairs professionals from foreign policy matters. Kissinger’s flair for dramatic diplomatic gestures brought him fame, and it encouraged diplomats in the Carter, Reagan, and George Bush administrations to try to emulate his accomplishments. He failed, however, to create the “structure of peace” he had promised. By 1977 he had lost control over American foreign policy, and no one after him ever dominated the process as he had from 1969 to 1974.
157. Triangular Diplomacy: U.S., USSR, and China. ... Given the long history of animosity between those two nations, Nixon and his adviser Henry Kissinger, decided to exploit that rivalry to win advantages for the United States. That policy became known as triangular diplomacy.
158. Two China Policy: the term Two Chinas refers to the current situation where two political entities each name themselves "China": People's Republic of China (PRC), commonly known as "China", established in 1949, controlling mainland China and two special administrative regions, Hong Kong and Macau.
159. Détente: (a French word meaning release from tension) is the name given to a period of improved relations between the United States and the Soviet Union that began tentatively in 1971 and took decisive form when President Richard M. Nixon visited the secretarygeneral of the Soviet Communist party, Leonid I. Brezhnev, in Moscow, May 1972. Both countries stood to gain if trade could be increased and the danger of nuclear warfare reduced. In addition, Nixon–a candidate for reelection–was under fire at home from those demanding social change, racial equality, and an end to the Vietnam War. The trip to Russia, like his historic trip to China a few months earlier, permitted him to keep public attention focused on his foreign policy achievements rather than his domestic problems. Nixon’s trip to China had also heightened the Soviets’ interest in détente; given the growing antagonism between Russia and China, Brezhnev had no wish to see his most potent rivals close ranks against him. On May 22 Nixon became the first U.S. president to visit Moscow. He and Brezhnev signed seven agreements covering the prevention of accidental military clashes; arms control, as recommended by the recent Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (salt); cooperative research in a variety of areas, including space exploration; and expanded commerce. The salt treaty was approved by Congress later that summer, as was a threeyear agreement on the sale of grain to the Soviets. In June 1973, Brezhnev visited the United States for Summit II; this
meeting added few new agreements, but did symbolize the two countries’ continuing commitment to peace. Summit III, in June 1974, was the least productive; by then, the salt talks had ground to a halt, several commercial agreements had been blocked in Congress because of Soviet treatment of Jews, and the Watergate investigation was approaching a climax. Nixon’s successor in the talks, President Jimmy Carter, supported salt ii, but also pressed a military buildup and a human rights campaign, which cooled relations between the countries. With the election of Ronald Reagan, who emphasized military preparedness as the key to SovietAmerican relations, détente as Nixon had envisioned it came to an end.
160. Pentagon Papers: The Pentagon Papers, officially titled United States – Vietnam Relations, 1945–1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense, is a United States Department of Defense history of the United States' politicalmilitary involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967.
161. Watergate: Early in the morning of June 17, 1972, several burglars were arrested inside the office of the Democratic National Committee (DNC), located in the Watergate building in Washington, D.C. This was no ordinary robbery: The prowlers were connected to President Richard Nixon’s reelection campaign, and they had been caught while attempting to wiretap phones and steal secret documents. While historians are not sure whether Nixon knew about the Watergate espionage operation before it happened, he took steps to cover it up afterwards, raising “hush money” for the burglars, trying to stop the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from investigating the crime, destroying evidence and firing uncooperative staff members. In August 1974, after his role in the Watergate conspiracy had finally come to light, the president resigned. His successor, Gerald Ford, immediately pardoned Nixon for all the crimes he “committed or may have committed” while in office. Although Nixon was never prosecuted, the Watergate scandal changed American politics forever, leading many Americans to question their leadership and think more critically about the presidency.
162. Committee to ReElect the President: The Committee for the ReElection of the President (also known as the Committee to Reelect the President), abbreviated CRP, but often mocked by the acronym CREEP, was a fundraising organization of United States President Richard Nixon's administration.
163. Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein: Between 1972 and 1976, Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein emerged as two of the most famous journalists in America and became forever identified as the reporters who broke the biggest story in American politics. Beginning with the investigation of a "thirdrate burglary" of the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate complex, Woodward and Bernstein uncovered a system of political "dirty tricks" and crimes that eventually led to indictments of forty White House and administration officials, and ultimately to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
164. Spiro Agnew: elected U.S. vice president under Richard Nixon, but resigned from his second term after being charged with bribery, conspiracy and tax fraud. Spiro Agnew was born on November 9, 1918, in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1966, he was elected governor of Maryland. He was elected vice president under Richard Nixon in 1969, but resigned from his second term in 1973 after being charged with bribery, conspiracy and tax fraud. Following the scandal, Agnew became a business consultant and wrote a novel. He died on September 17, 1996, in Berlin, Maryland.
165. Gerald Ford: America’s 38th president, Gerald Ford (19132006) took office on August 9, 1974, following the resignation of President Richard Nixon (19131994), who left the White House in disgrace over the Watergate scandal. Ford became the first unelected president in the nation’s history. A longtime Republican congressman from Michigan, Ford had been appointed vice president less than a year earlier by President Nixon. He is credited with helping to restore public confidence in government after the disillusionment of the Watergate era.
166. Six Day War: The SixDay War between Israel and its Arab neighbors ends with a United Nationsbrokered ceasefire. The outnumbered Israel Defense Forces achieved a swift and decisive victory in the brief war, rolling over the Arab coalition that threatened the Jewish state and more than doubling the amount of territory under Israel’s control. The greatest fruit of victory lay in seizing the Old City of Jerusalem from Jordan; thousands of Jews wept while bent in prayer at the Second Temple’s Western Wall. Increased tensions and skirmishes along Israel’s northern border with Syria were the immediate cause of the third ArabIsraeli war. In 1967, Syria intensified its bombardment of Israeli settlements across the border, and Israel struck back by shooting down six Syrian MiG fighters. After Syria alleged in May 1967 that Israel was massing troops along the border, Egypt mobilized its forces and demanded the withdrawal of the U.N. Emergency Force from the IsraelEgypt ceasefire lines of the 1956 conflict. The U.N. peacekeepers left on May 19, and three days later Egypt closed the Strait of Tiran to Israeli shipping. On May 30, Jordan signed a mutualdefense treaty with Egypt and Syria, and other Arab states, including Iraq, Kuwait, and Algeria, sent troop contingents to join the Arab coalition against Israel.With every sign of a panArab attack in the works, Israel’s government on June 4 authorized its armed forces to launch a surprise preemptive strike. On June 5, the SixDay War began with an Israeli assault against Arab air power. In a brilliant attack, the Israeli air force caught the formidable Egyptian air force on the ground and largely destroyed the Arabs’ most powerful weapon. The Israeli air force then turned against the lesser air forces of Jordan, Syria, and Iraq, and by the end of the day had decisively won air superiority. Beginning on June 5, Israel focused the main effort of its ground forces against Egypt’s Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula. In a lightning attack, the Israelis burst through the Egyptian lines and across the Sinai. The Egyptians fought resolutely but were outflanked by the Israelis and decimated in lethal air attacks. By June 8, the Egyptian forces were defeated, and Israel held the Gaza Strip and the Sinai to the Suez Canal. Meanwhile, to the east of Israel, Jordan began shelling its Jewish neighbor on June 5, provoking a rapid and
overwhelming response from Israeli forces. Israel overran the West Bank and on June 7 captured the Old City of East Jerusalem. The chief chaplain of the Israel Defense Forces blew a ram’s horn at the Western Wall to announce the reunification of East Jerusalem with the Israeliadministered western sector. To the north, Israel bombarded Syria’s fortified Golan Heights for two days before launching a tank and infantry assault on June 9. After a day of fierce fighting, the Syrians began a retreat from the Golan Heights on June 10. On June 11, a U.N.brokered ceasefire took effect throughout the three combat zones, and the SixDay War was at an end. Israel had more than doubled its size in the six days of fighting. The U.N. Security Council called for a withdrawal from all the occupied regions, but Israel declined, permanently annexing East Jerusalem and setting up military administrations in the occupied territories. Israel let it be known that Gaza, the West Bank, the Golan Heights, and the Sinai would be returned in exchange for Arab recognition of the right of Israel to exist and guarantees against future attack. Arab leaders, stinging from their defeat, met in August to discuss the future of the Middle East. They decided upon a policy of no peace, no negotiations, and no recognition of Israel, and made plans to zealously defend the rights of Palestinian Arabs in the occupied territories. Egypt, however, would eventually negotiate and make peace with Israel, and in 1982 the Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt in exchange for full diplomatic recognition of Israel. Egypt and Jordan later gave up their respective claims to the Gaza Strip and the West Bank to the Palestinians, who beginning in the 1990s opened “land for peace” talks with Israel. The East Bank territory has since been returned to Jordan. In 2005, Israel left the Gaza Strip. Still, a permanent Israeli Palestinian peace agreement remains elusive, as does an agreement with Syria to return the Golan Heights.
167. Yom Kippur War: On October 6, 1973, hoping to win back territory lost to Israel during the third ArabIsraeli war, in 1967, Egyptian and Syrian forces launched a coordinated attack against Israel on Yom Kippur, the holiest day in the Jewish calendar. Taking the Israeli Defense Forces by surprise, Egyptian troops swept deep into the Sinai Peninsula, while Syria struggled to throw occupying Israeli troops out of the Golan Heights. Israel counterattacked and recaptured the Golan Heights. A ceasefire went into effect on October 25, 1973.
168. OPEC: The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a permanent, intergovernmental Organization, created at the Baghdad Conference on September 10–14, 1960, by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.
169. Stagflation: is when the economy experiences stagnant economic growth, high unemployment, and high inflation. It's an unusual situation. A sluggish economy usually reduces demand enough to keep prices from rising. As workers get laid off, they buy less. As a result, businesses lower prices to attract whatever customers remain. Slow growth in a normal market economy prevents inflation.
170. Deindustrialization: It's a process in which the industrial activity in a country or region is removed or reduced because of a major economic or social change. There are many reasons why this can happen. Overall, deindustrialization usually occurs because a particular industrial activity is no longer economically viable. For example, maybe a region containing lots of steelworks can no longer compete with cheaper steel from abroad. When that happens, those steelworks are forced to go out of business. It can also happen simply because the focus of a society changes. Perhaps fewer people want to work in a particular industry anymore, or the pollution created by the industry is no longer desirable, and so there are no longer any economic incentives provided by the government. One common thing that happens to many societies is that they go through an industrial period and, as the wealth of the country or region increases, the emphasis shifts to services and more luxury goods.
171. Detroit Riot: In the early morning hours of July 23, 1967, one of the worst riots in U.S. history breaks out on 12th Street in the heart of Detroit’s predominantly African American inner city. By the time it was quelled four days later by 7,000 National Guard and U.S. Army troops, 43 people were dead, 342 injured, and nearly 1,400 buildings had been burned. By the summer of 1967, the predominantly AfricanAmerican neighborhood of Virginia Park was ready to explode. Some 60,000 poor people were crammed into the neighborhood’s 460 acres, living in squalor in divided and subdivided apartments. The Detroit Police Department, which had only about 50 African Americans at the time, was viewed as a white occupying army. The only other whites seen in the neighborhood commuted from the suburbs to run their stores on 12th Street. At night, 12th Street was a center of Detroit innercity nightlife, both legal and illegal. At the corner of 12th and Clairmount, William Scott operated an illegal afterhours club on weekends out of the office of the United Community League for Civic Action, a civil rights group. The police vice squad often raided establishments like this on 12th Street, and at 3:35 a.m. on Sunday morning, July 23, they moved against Scott’s club. That night, the establishment was hosting a party for several veterans, including two servicemen recently returned from Vietnam, and the bar’s patrons were reluctant to leave. Out in the street, a crowd began to gather as police waited for paddy wagons to take the 85 patrons away. Tensions between area blacks and police were high at the time, partly because of a rumor (later proved to be untrue) that police had shot and killed a black prostitute two days before. Then a rumor began to circulate that the vice squad had beaten one of the women being arrested. An hour passed before the last prisoner was taken away, and by then about 200 onlookers lined the street. A bottle crashed into the street. The remaining police ignored it, but then more bottles were thrown, including one through the window of a patrol car. The police fled as a riot erupted. Within an hour, thousands of people had spilled out onto the street. Looting began on 12th Street, and some whites arrived to join in. Around 6:30 a.m., the first fire broke out, and soon much of the street was set ablaze. By midmorning, every policeman and fireman in Detroit was called to duty. On 12th Street, officers fought to control the mob. Firemen were attacked as they tried to battle the flames. Detroit Mayor Jerome P. Cavanaugh asked Michigan Governor George Romney to send in the state police, but these 300 more
officers could not keep the riot from spreading to a 100block area around Virginia Park. The National Guard was called in shortly after but didn’t arrive until evening. By the end of the day, more than 1,000 were arrested, but still the riot kept growing. Five people were dead. On Monday, 16 people were killed, most by police or guardsmen. Snipers fired at firemen, and fire hoses were cut. Governor Romney asked President Lyndon Johnson to send in U.S. troops. Nearly 2,000 army paratroopers arrived on Tuesday and began patrolling the street in tanks and armored carriers. Ten more people died that day, and 12 more on Wednesday. On Thursday, July 27, order was finally restored. More than 7,000 people were arrested during the four days of rioting. A total of 43 were killed. Some 1,700 stores were looted and nearly 1,400 buildings burned, causing $50 million in property damage. Some 5,000 people were left homeless. The so called 12th Street Riot was the worst U.S. riot in 100 years, occurring during a period of numerous riots in America. A report by the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, appointed by President Johnson, identified more than 150 riots or major disorders between 1965 and 1968. In 1967 alone, 83 people were killed and 1,800 were injured–the majority of them African Americans–and property valued at more than $100 million was damaged, looted, or destroyed.
172. Kerner Commission: The President’s National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders releases its report, condemning racism as the primary cause of the recent surge of riots. The report, which declared that “our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white–separate and unequal,” called for expanded aid to African American communities in order to prevent further racial violence and polarization. Unless drastic and costly remedies were undertaken at once, the report said, there would be a “continuing polarization of the American community and, ultimately, the destruction of basic democratic values.” The report identified more than 150 riots or major disorders between 1965 and 1968 and blamed “white racism” for sparking the violence–not a conspiracy by African American political groups as some claimed. Statistics for 1967 alone included 83 people killed and 1,800 injured–the majority of them African Americans–and property valued at more than $100 million damaged or destroyed. The 11member commission, headed by Governor Otto Kerner of Illinois, was appointed by President Lyndon B. Johnson in July 1967 to uncover the causes of urban riots and recommend solutions.
173. Earl Butz: (July 3, 1909 – February 2, 2008) was a United States government official who served as Secretary of Agriculture under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. His policies favored largescale corporate farming and an end to New Deal programs, but he is best remembered for a series of verbal gaffes that eventually cost him his job.
174. 1973 Farm Bill: The Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 (P.L. 93 86, also known as the1973 U.S. Farm Bill) was the 4year farm bill that adopted target prices and deficiency payments as a tool that would support farm income but reduce forfeitures to the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) of surplus stocks.
175. Jimmy Carter: The Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 (P.L. 9386, also known as the1973 U.S. Farm Bill) was the 4year farm bill that adopted target prices and deficiency payments as a tool that would support farm income but reduce forfeitures to the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) of surplus stocks.
176. Iranian Revolution: The Iranian Revolution of 197779 was the first in a series of mass popular civil insurrections which would result in the overthrow of authoritarian regimes in dozens of countries over the next three decades. Unlike most of the other uprisings that would topple dictators in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and parts of Asia and Africa, the result of the Iranian struggle was not the establishment of liberal democracy but of a new form of authoritarianism. However, except for a series of short battles using light weaponry in the final hours of the uprising, the revolutionary forces themselves were overwhelmingly nonviolent. The autocratic monarchy of Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi faced a broad coalition of opposition forces, including Marxists and constitutional liberals, but the opposition ultimately became dominated by the mullahs of the country’s Shia hierarchy. Despite severe repression against protestors, a series of demonstrations and strikes over the previous two years came to a peak in the fall of 1978, as millions of opponents of the Shah’s regime clogged the streets of Iran’s cities and work stoppages paralyzed the country. The Shah fled into exile in January 1979 and exiled cleric Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini returned from exile to lead the new Islamic Republic.
177. Malaise Speech: On July 15, 1979, 65 million Americans tuned in to watch as President Jimmy Carter delivered the most famous speech of his presidency. The speech later came to be known as the “Malaise Speech,” despite the fact that the word “malaise” was not used. It addressed the crisis of confidence that Carter felt was pervading the nation. The speech addressed the barrage of tragic events that were causing the American spirit to suffer; the assassinations of Martin Luther King Jr., John F Kennedy and Robert F Kennedy, the war in Vietnam, and the Watergate Scandal. America was slowly losing pride in its identity; the people were beginning to feel that our time as a great nation had finally ended. Originally, Carter was planning on delivering his fifth speech on energy. But according to Rosalynn Carter, the president felt that people just were not listening anymore. Mrs. Carter recalls: “Jimmy had made several speeches on energy… and it just seemed to be going nowhere with the public. So he just said, ‘I’m not going to make the speech,’ and instead went to Camp David and brought in lots of people to talk about what could be done.” In his “Crisis of Confidence” speech, Carter spent the majority of his time discussing the nation’s problems – the energy crisis, the gas lines, among others. Carter even reported the criticisms of average American citizens and various political figures, whom he spoke to during his stay at Camp David. One quote came from an uncredited young governor, Bill Clinton, who said “Mr. President, you are not leading this Nation— you’re just managing the Government.” The overall message was one of disappointment, in both Jimmy Carter and the
government. During these meetings Carter faced scathing criticism, and he in turn faced the nation with brutal honesty. He told them how the problems with America were not only due to the economy, and inflation; the problems were intrinsic as well. The nation’s immediate reaction seemed positive – it was reported that Carter’s approval rating went up 37% in the weeks immediately following his speech. Stuart Eizenstat recalled that the speech “was initially quite wellreceived.” But soon enough, the American eye began to tear its message apart, seeing the speech in a more critical light. One commentator even cited it as “One of the most ineffective pieces of political rhetoric in history.” Hendrik Hertzberg worked on the speech, and later would admit that “was more like a sermon than a political speech. It had the themes of confession, redemption, and sacrifice. He was bringing the American people into this spiritual process that he had been through, and presenting them with an opportunity for redemption as well as redeeming himself.” If Carter was trying to raise the American spirit, a pessimistic speech about America’s flaws might have not been the best route. People interpreted it as Carter blaming the American people for the county’s issues. He chided them on their lifestyle, saying “Too many of us now tend to worship selfindulgence and consumption. Human identity is no longer defined by what one does but by what one owns.” He spelled out the problem, but was unable to offer a solution. The “Crisis of Confidence” speech proved that rhetoric was one of the most valuable skills that a leader can possess. During his campaign for a second term, his staff recommended “what we need is a presidential rhetoric that describes and defines the world as Jimmy Carter sees it.” But it was too late. Carter was not reelected, while Ronald Reagan – a man often cited for his phenomenal grasp of inspiring rhetoric – was chosen as his successor. This can partly be attributed to the fact that Reagan’s speeches inspired the people – he made them proud to be American rather than ashamed.
178. Iranian Hostage Crisis: In U.S. history, events following the seizure of the American embassy in Tehran by Iranian students on Nov. 4, 1979. The overthrow of Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi of Iran by an Islamic revolutionary government earlier in the year had led to a steady deterioration in IranU.S. relations.
179. Ronald Reagan: in U.S. history, events following the seizure of the American embassy in Tehran by Iranian students on Nov. 4, 1979. The overthrow of Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi of Iran by an Islamic revolutionary government earlier in the year had led to a steady deterioration in IranU.S. relations.
180. Jerry Falwell: In June of 1956, at the age of 22, Jerry Falwell started Thomas Road Baptist Church in his hometown of Lynchburg, Va., with 35 members. Also in 1956, Falwell began the “Old Time Gospel Hour,” a nationally syndicated radio and television ministry that has led millions to Christ. In 1967, Falwell implemented his
vision to build a Christian educational system for evangelical youth. He began with the establishment of Lynchburg Christian Academy, an accredited Christian day school for grades K12. In 1971, he founded Liberty University, an accredited Christian university for evangelical believers. In 1985 Falwell announced his goal of 50,000 students. Today
his vision has been fulfilled, with more than 15,000 students attending classes on campus in Lynchburg, Va., and more than 94,000 students from all 50 states and 85 countries taking courses through Liberty University Online. Falwell may be best known outside Lynchburg for his political activism. In June 1979, he organized the Moral Majority, a conservative political lobbying group that was prolife, profamily, pro Israel and favored a strong national defense. The group chose California Governor Ronald Reagan as "their candidate" for the 1980 presidential election, registered millions of new voters and mobilized a sleeping giant — 80 million Americans committed to faith, family and JudeoChristian values. Although he became a national figure, his passion was being a pastor and a Christian educator. He often stated that his heartbeat was to “train young Champions for Christ” in every walk of life. Falwell passed away on the morning of May 15, 2007 at the age of 73. He was married for 49 years to Macel Pate Falwell, who died in 2015 at the age of 82. Their three children are: Jerry Jr., president of Liberty University; Jonathan, senior pastor of Thomas Road Baptist Church; and Jeannie, a surgeon; and eight grandchildren.
181. Moral Majority: The Reverend Jerry Falwell, an evangelical Christian, formed the Moral Majority, a civic advocacy and a political action group, in 1979. The name was meant to project strength by highlighting and validating the ethical and numerical supremacy of ordinary Americans, especially in rural areas and religious communities, over affluent, urban, and more educated people. Of particular concern were secular, individualistic, liberal movements—including pacifist, gay, and feminist groups—and their impact on private life, popular culture, and public policy. The members of the Moral Majority frequently perceived the modern lifestyle as decadent, promiscuous, selfindulgent, and vacuous. They wanted to challenge its prevalence and its influence.
182. George H.W. Bush: George Herbert Walker Bush (1924), served as the 41st U.S. president from 1989 to 1993. He also was a twoterm U.S. vice president under Ronald Reagan, from 1981 to 1989. Bush, a World War II naval aviator and Texas oil industry executive, began his political career in the U.S. House of Representatives in 1967. During the 1970s, he held a variety of government posts, including CIA director. In 1988, Bush defeated Democratic rival Michael Dukakis to win the White House. In office, he launched successful military operations against Panama and Iraq; however, his popularity at home was marred by an economic recession, and in 1992 he lost his bid for reelection to Bill Clinton. In 2000, Bush’s son and namesake was elected the 43rd U.S. president; he served until 2009.
183. Voodoo Economics: an economic policy perceived as being unrealistic and ill advised, especially a policy of maintaining or increasing levels of public spending while reducing taxation.
184. Evil Empire: On March 8, 1983, Ronald Reagan delivered a speech that shocked many, amused some, and inspired more. Attending the annual meeting of the National Association of Evangelicals in Orlando, Florida, Reagan decided to address the topic of
sin and evil in the modern world. Drawing significantly upon C.S. Lewis’s The Screw tape Letters, Reagan offered a personal testimony about his faith and about his convictions regarding the state of the modern world.
185. Strategic Defense Initiative: (SDI), also known as Star Wars, was a program first initiated on March 23, 1983 under President Ronald Reagan. The intent of this program was to develop a sophisticated antiballistic missile system in order to prevent missile attacks from other countries, specifically the Soviet Union.
186. Mujahideen: guerrilla fighters in Islamic countries, especially those who are fighting against nonMuslim forces.
187. Sandinistas: The FSLN overthrew Anastasio Somoza Debayle in 1979, ending the Somoza dynasty, and established a revolutionary government in its place. Following their seizure of power, the Sandinistas ruled Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as part of a Junta of National Reconstruction.
188. Contras: a member of a guerrilla force in Nicaragua that opposed the leftwing Sandinista government 1979–90, and was supported by the US for much of that time. It was officially disbanded in 1990, after the Sandinistas' electoral defeat.
189. Boland Amendment: The Boland Amendment is a term describing three U.S. legislative amendments between 1982 and 1984, all aimed at limiting U.S. government assistance to the Contras in Nicaragua.
190. Oliver North: Born on October 7, 1943, in San Antonio, Texas. He trained at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis. During the Vietnam War, he led a marine platoon and won a Silver Star and a Purple Heart. In 1981, President Reagan appointed him deputydirector of the National Security Council. He was later implicated in the IranContra affair and convicted, but by 1990 he was cleared of all charges.
191. IranContra: The IranContra Affair was a clandestine action not approved of by the United States Congress. It began in 1985, when President Ronald Reagan's administration supplied weapons to Iran¹ — a sworn enemy — in hopes of securing the release of American hostages held in Lebanon by Hezbollah terrorists loyal to the Ayatollah Khomeini, Iran's leader. This article is rooted in the Iran Hostage Crisis. The U.S. took millions of dollars from the weapons sale and routed them and guns to the rightwing "Contra"² guerrillas in Nicaragua. The Contras were the armed opponents of Nicaragua's Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction, following the July 1979 overthrow of strongman Anastasio Somoza Debayle and the ending of the Somoza family's 43year reign.
192. Mikhail Gorbachev: Mikhail Gorbachev was born on March 2, 1931, in Privolnoye, Russia. In 1961, he became a delegate to the Communist Party Congress. He
was elected general secretary in 1985. He became the first president of the Soviet Union in 1990, and won the Nobel Prize for Peace that same year. He resigned in 1991, and has since founded the Gorbachev Foundation and remains active in social and political causes.
193. Velvet Revolution: The Velvet Revolution (Czech: sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution (Slovak: nežná revolúcia) was a nonviolent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from November 17 to December 29, 1989. Popular demonstrations against the oneparty government of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia combined students and older dissidents. The result was the end of 41 years of oneparty rule in Czechoslovakia, and the subsequent dismantling of the planned economy and conversion to a parliamentary republic.
194. New World Order: As a conspiracy theory, the term New World Order or NWO refers to the emergence of a totalitarian world government. The common theme in conspiracy theories about a New World Order is that a secretive power elite with a globalist agenda is conspiring to eventually rule the world through an authoritarian world government—which will replace sovereign nationstates—and an allencompassing propaganda whose ideology hails the establishment of the New World Order as the culmination of history's progress. Many influential historical and contemporary figures have therefore been purported to be part of a cabal that operates through many front organizations to orchestrate significant political and financial events, ranging from causing systemic crises to pushing through controversial policies, at both national and international levels, as steps in an ongoing plot to achieve world domination.
195. Manuel Antonio Noriega: In 1983, Manuel Noriega unified the armed forces into the Panamanian Defense Forces, promoted himself to the rank of general and became de facto leader of Panama. In 1989, Noriega canceled the presidential elections and attempted to rule through a puppet government. After a military coup against Noriega failed, the United States invaded Panama, and Noriega finally surrendered In January 1990.
196. Gulf War: Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein ordered the invasion and occupation of neighboring Kuwait in early August 1990. Alarmed by these actions, fellow Arab powers such as Saudi Arabia and Egypt called on the United States and other Western nations to intervene. Hussein defied United Nations Security Council demands to withdraw from Kuwait by midJanuary 1991, and the Persian Gulf War began with a massive U.S.led air offensive known as Operation Desert Storm. After 42 days of relentless attacks by the allied coalition in the air and on the ground, U.S. President George H.W. Bush declared a ceasefire on February 28; by that time, most Iraqi forces in Kuwait had either surrendered or fled. Though the Persian Gulf War was initially considered an unqualified success for the international coalition, simmering conflict in
the troubled region led to a second Gulf War–known as the Iraq War–that began in 2003.
197. Saddam Hussein: Born on April 28, 1937, in Tikrit, Iraq, Saddam Hussein was a secularist who rose through the Baath political party to assume a dictatorial presidency. Under his rule, segments of the populace enjoyed the benefits of oil wealth, while those in opposition faced torture and execution. After military conflicts with U.S.led armed forces, Hussein was captured in 2003. He was later executed.
198. Bill Clinton: Bill Clinton was born on August 19, 1946, in Hope, Arkansas. In 1975, he married Hillary Rodham. The following year, he was elected attorney general of Arkansas, and in 1978 he became the youngest governor in the country. Elected U.S. president in 1992, Clinton enacted such legislation as the Family and Medical Leave Act and oversaw two terms of economic prosperity. He was impeached by the House of Representatives in 1998 following the revelation of his affair with Monica Lewinsky, but was acquitted by the Senate in 1999. Since leaving office, Clinton has remained on the global stage by working with the Clinton Foundation and campaigning for his wife, Hillary Clinton, who ran for U.S. president in the 2008 and 2016 elections.
199. Operation Restore Hope: A United States initiative (codenamed Operation Restore Hope), UNITAF was charged with carrying out United Nations Security Council Resolution 794 to create a protected environment for conducting humanitarian operations in the southern half of the country.
200. Mogadishu: known locally as Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia. Located in the coastal Banaadir region on the Indian Ocean, the city has served as an important port for millennia. According to the United Nations Development Programme the population in 2005 was 901,183 and according to the CIA factbook in 2015 it was estimated to be 2,138,000. According to Demographia as of April 2016, it has a population of 2,265,000 residents. Tradition and old records assert that southern Somalia, including the Mogadishu area, was historically inhabited by huntergatherers. These were later joined by Cushiticspeaking agropastoralists, who would go on to establish local aristocracies. During its medieval Golden Age, Mogadishu was ruled by the Muzaffar dynasty, a vassal of the Ajuran Sultanate. It subsequently fell under the control of an assortment of local Sultanates and polities, most notably the Sultanate of the Geledi. The city later became the capital of Italian Somaliland (1889–1936) in the colonial period. After the Somali Republic became independent in 1960, Mogadishu became known and promoted as the White Pearl of the Indian Ocean. After the ousting of the Siad Barre regime in 1991 and the ensuing Somali Civil War, various militias fought for control of the city, later to be replaced by the Islamic Courts Union in the mid2000s. The ICU thereafter splintered into more radical groups, notably alShabaab, which fought the Transitional Federal Government (2004–2012) and its African Union Mission to Somalia allies. With a change in administration in late 2010, government
troops and their military partners had succeeded in forcing out AlShabaab by August 2011. Mogadishu has subsequently experienced a period of intense reconstruction.
201. Rwandan Genocide: From April to July 1994, members of the Hutu ethnic majority in the eastcentral African nation of Rwanda murdered as many as 800,000 people, mostly of the Tutsi minority. Begun by extreme Hutu nationalists in the capital of Kigali, the genocide spread throughout the country with staggering speed and brutality, as ordinary citizens were incited by local officials and the Hutu Power government to take up arms against their neighbors. By the time the Tutsiled Rwandese Patriotic Front gained control of the country through a military offensive in early July, hundreds of thousands of Rwandans were dead and many more displaced from their homes. The RPF victory created 2 million more refugees (mainly Hutus) from Rwanda, exacerbating what had already become a fullblown humanitarian crisis.
202. Hutus: also called Bahutu or Wahutu, Bantuspeaking people of Rwanda and Burundi. Numbering about 9,500,000 in the late 20th century, the Hutu comprise the vast majority in both countries but were traditionally subject to the Tutsi, warriorpastoralists of Nilotic stock.
203. Tutsi: a member of a people forming a minority of the population of Rwanda and Burundi, who formerly dominated the Hutu majority. Historical antagonism between the peoples led in 1994 to largescale ethnic violence, especially in Rwanda.
204. Balkan Crisis: It includes two crises of two different periods.1. The First Balkan Crisis 1908. It started when AustriaHungary annexed Bosnia because they wanted to expand their empire into the Balkans. But, Serbia annoyed by this because they wanted Bosnia to become part of a 'Greater Serbia'. At that time, Russia backed up Serbia as the protector of the Slavic people. Serbia and Russia had to back down because Germany backed up AustriaHungary, as per Triple Alliance of 1882. Germany's army was far stronger than Russia's, and so backing down was their only option. However, Russia began to modernize its armed forces and increase the speed of their mobilization. 2. The Second Balkan Crisis 1912 & 1913. The Second Balkan Crisis consisted of two Balkan Wars: 1. The First Balkan war of 1912. 2. The Second Balkan War of 1913
205. Kosovo War: conflict (1998–99) in which ethnic Albanians opposed ethnic Serbs and the government of Yugoslavia (the rump of the former federal state, comprising the republics of Serbia and Montenegro) in Kosovo. The conflict gained widespread international attention and was resolved with the intervention of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
206. Slobodan Milošević: Slobodan Milošević, (born Aug. 29, 1941, Požarevac, Yugos.—found dead March 11, 2006, The Hague, Neth.), politician and administrator, who, as Serbia’s party leader and president (1989–97), pursued Serbian nationalist policies that contributed to the breakup of the socialist Yugoslav federation. He
subsequently embroiled Serbia in a series of conflicts with the successor Balkan states. From 1997 to 2000 he served as president of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
207. GlassSteagall Act: An act the U.S. Congress passed in 1933 as the Banking Act, which prohibited commercial banks from participating in the investment banking business. The GlassSteagall Act was sponsored by Senator Carter Glass, a former Treasury secretary, and Rep. Henry Steagall, a member of the House of Representatives and chairman of the House Banking and Currency Committee. The Act was passed as an emergency measure to counter the failure of almost 5,000 banks during the Great Depression. The GlassSteagall lost its potency in subsequent decades and was partially repealed in 1999.
208. Globalization: process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical wellbeing in societies around the world.
209. North American Free Trade Agreement: The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libreéchange nordaméricain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
210. World Trade Organization: The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business.
211. Monica Lewinsky: (born July 23, 1973) is an American activist, television personality, fashion designer, and former White House intern with whom President Bill Clinton admitted to having had what he called an "inappropriate relationship" while she worked at the White House, in 1995 and 1996.
212. Al Gore: born on March 31, 1948, in Washington, D.C., served in both the House and Senate. He lost his bid for the Democratic presidential nomination to Michael Dukakis in 1988, but was President Bill Clinton's successful running mate in 1992 and again in 1996. In his 2000 presidential campaign, Gore won the popular vote, but eventually conceded defeat to Republican George W. Bush.
213. George W. Bush: (1946), America’s 43rd president, served in office from 2001 to 2009. Before entering the White House, Bush, the oldest son of George H.W. Bush, the 41st U.S. president, was a twoterm Republican governor of Texas. A graduate of
Yale University and Harvard Business School, Bush worked in the Texas oil industry and was an owner of the Texas Rangers baseball team before becoming governor. In 2000, he won the presidency after narrowly defeating Democratic challenger Al Gore. Bush’s time in office was shaped by the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks against America. In response to the attacks, he declared a global “war on terrorism,” established the Department of Homeland Security and authorized U.S.led wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.
214. “New Democrats”: also called Centrist Democrats, Clinton Democrats or Moderate. Democrats, are a relatively "centrist" ideological faction within the Democratic Party that emerged after the victory of Republican George H. W. Bush in the 1988 presidential election.
215. Hillary Clinton: Hillary Clinton was born on October 26, 1947, in Chicago, Illinois, going on to earn her law degree from Yale University. She married fellow law school graduate Bill Clinton in 1975. She later served as first lady from 1993 to 2001, and then as a U.S. senator from 2001 to 2009. In early 2007, Clinton announced her plans to run for the presidency. During the 2008 Democratic primaries, she conceded the nomination when it became apparent that Barack Obama held a majority of the delegate vote. After winning the national election, Obama appointed Clinton secretary of state. She was sworn in as part of his cabinet in January 2009 and served until 2013. In the spring of 2015, she announced her plans to run again for the U.S. presidency. In 2016, she became the first woman in U.S. history to become the presidential nominee of a major political party. After a polarizing campaign against GOP candidate Donald Trump, Clinton was defeated in the general election that November.
216. Newt Gingrich: After the 1994 midterm elections, Newt Gingrich became the first Republican Speaker of the House in 40 years. Most of the legislative items in his wellpublicized "Contract with America" were passed by the House and many became law. His term as Speaker was marked by his opposition to many of President Bill Clinton's policies, which led to a budget showdown, government shutdowns and acrimonious impeachment proceedings. Yet, after having become known for his own ethics scandals, Gingrich resigned from Congress in 1999. He has authored several books, and stayed involved in politics, serving as a political commentator and consultant for various think tanks. In May 2011 Gingrich announced he would seek the Republican nomination for president in 2012, which eventually went to Mitt Romney. Since then, Gingrich has kept his presence in politics alive with his active support of businessman Donald Trump, who won the presidential election via electoral college victory in 2016.
217. Contract with America: a document signed Sept. 27, 1994, on the Capitol steps in Washington, D.C., by members of the Republican minority before the Republican Party gained control of Congress in 1994. The “Contract with America” outlined legislation to be enacted by the House of Representatives within the first 100 days of the
104th Congress (1995–96). Among the proposals were tax cuts, a permanent lineitem veto, measures to reduce crime and provide middleclass tax relief,
and constitutional amendments requiring term limits and a balanced budget. With the exception of the constitutional amendment for term limits, all parts of the “Contract with America” were passed by the House, under the leadership of the speaker of the House, Newt Gingrich.
218. Pat Robertson: is an American media mogul, executive chairman, and former Southern Baptist minister who advocates conservative Christian ideals. He presently serves as chancellor and CEO of Regent University and chairman of the Christian Broadcasting Network. Spanning over five decades, Robertson has a career as the founder of several major organizations and corporations as well as a university: The Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN), the International Family Entertainment Inc. (ABC Family Channel), Regent University, the American Center for Law & Justice (ACLJ), the Founders Inn and Conference Center, the Christian Coalition, an L 1011 Flying Hospital, Operation Blessing International Relief and Development Corporation, and CBN Asia. He is a bestselling author and the host of The 700 Club, a Christian News and TV program broadcast live weekdays on Freeform (formerly ABC Family) via satellite from CBN studios, as well as on channels throughout the United States, and on CBN network affiliates worldwide.
219. Christian Coalition: a 501(c)(4) organization, is the successor to the original Christian Coalition created in 1989 by religious broadcaster and former presidential candidate Marion Gordon "Pat" Robertson. This US Christian advocacy group includes members of various Christian denominations, including Baptists (50%), mainline Protestants (25%), Roman Catholics (16%), Pentecostals (10% to 15%), among communicants of other Churches.
220. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act: is a United States federal law considered to be a major welfare reform. The bill was a cornerstone of the Republican Contract with America and was authored by Rep. E. Clay Shaw, Jr. (RFL 22). President Bill Clinton signed PRWORA into law on August 22, 1996, fulfilling his 1992 campaign promise to "end welfare as we have come to know it". PRWORA instituted Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), which became effective July 1, 1997. TANF replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program—which had been in effect since 1935—and supplanted the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training program (JOBS) of 1988. The law was heralded as a "reassertion of America's work ethic" by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, largely in response to the bill's workfare component. TANF was reauthorized in the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005.
221. Bob Dole: Born in Kansas in 1923, Bob Dole began his political career by serving as a member of the Kansas state legislature (1951–53), and later served four terms as prosecuting attorney for Russell County. From 1961 to 1969, Dole served as a
member of the U.S. House of Representatives. From 1969 to 1996, he served in the U.S. Senate, where he earned titles as minority leader and majority leader. After defeat as Gerald Ford's running mate in 1976, Dole ran for president in 1996, but lost to President Bill Clinton, who won election to a second term. Since leaving politics, Dole has written several books, practiced law and made numerous appearances as a spokesperson for consumer products.
222. Dot.coms: is a company that does most of its business on the Internet, usually through a website that uses the popular toplevel domain ".com" (in turn derived from the word "commercial"). While the term can refer to presentday companies, it is also used specifically to refer to companies with this business model that came into being during the late 1990s. Many such startups were formed to take advantage of the surplus of venture capital funding. Many were launched with very thin business plans, sometimes with nothing more than an idea and a catchy name. The stated goal was often to "get big fast", i.e. to capture a majority share of whatever market was being entered. The exit strategy usually included an IPO and a large payoff for the founders. Others were existing companies that restyled themselves as Internet companies, many of them legally changing their names to incorporate a .com suffix.
223. LA Riot: The 1992 Los Angeles riots, also known as the Rodney King riots, the South Central riots, the 1992 Los Angeles civil disturbance, the 1992 Los Angeles civil unrest, and the Los Angeles uprising, were a series of riots, lootings, arsons, and civil disturbances that occurred in Los Angeles County, California in April and May of 1992. The unrest began in South Central Los Angeles on April 29 after a trial jury acquitted four officers of the Los Angeles Police Department of the use of excessive force in the videotaped arrest and beating of Rodney King. It then spread throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area as thousands of people rioted over a sixday period following the announcement of the verdict.
224. OJ Simpson: O.J. Simpson was born in 1947 in San Francisco, California. He became a college football superstar at USC, winning the Heisman Trophy in 1968, and later enjoyed a recordsetting career in the NFL and tremendous popularity among his fans. Amid a moderately successful postplaying career as an actor and broadcaster, Simpson was charged in 1994 for murdering his former wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and her friend Ron Goldman. He was acquitted in a highprofile criminal trial, though he was found liable for their deaths in civil court. Simpson later was sentenced to up to 33 years in prison in 2008 for kidnapping and armed robbery.
225. Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell: The discriminatory "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" ban on gay and lesbian service members is officially in the dustbin of history. For 17 years, the law prohibited qualified gay and lesbian Americans from serving in the armed forces and sent a message that discrimination was acceptable.
226. Defense of Marriage Act: Enacted September 21, 1996, 1 U.S.C. § 7 and 28 U.S.C. § 1738C) was a United States federal law that, prior to being
ruled unconstitutional, defined marriage for federal purposes as the union of one man and one woman, and allowed states to refuse to recognize samesex marriages granted under the laws of other states. Until Section 3 of the Act was struck down in 2013 (United States v. Windsor), DOMA, in conjunction with other statutes, had barred same sex married couples from being recognized as "spouses" for purposes of federal laws, effectively barring them from receiving federal marriage benefits. DOMA's passage did not prevent individual states from recognizing samesex marriage, but it imposed constraints on the benefits received by all legally married samesex couples.
227. Ralph Nader: Enacted September 21, 1996, 1 U.S.C. § 7 and 28 U.S.C. § 1738C) was a United States federal law that, prior to being ruled unconstitutional, defined marriage for federal purposes as the union of one man and one woman, and allowed states to refuse to recognize samesex marriages granted under the laws of other states. Until Section 3 of the Act was struck down in 2013 (United States v. Windsor), DOMA, in conjunction with other statutes, had barred samesex married couples from being recognized as "spouses" for purposes of federal laws, effectively barring them from receiving federal marriage benefits. DOMA's passage did not prevent individual states from recognizing samesex marriage, but it imposed constraints on the benefits received by all legally married samesex couples.
228. Hanging Chads: Chad refers to fragments sometimes created when holes are made in a paper, card or similar synthetic materials, such as computer punched tape or punched cards. "Chad" has been used both as a mass noun (as in "a pile of chad") and as a countable noun (pluralizing as in "many chads"). In the 2000 United States presidential election, many Florida votes used Votomaticstyle punched card ballots where incompletely punched holes resulted in partially punched chads: either a "hanging chad", where one or more corners were still attached, or a "fat chad" or "pregnant chad", where all corners were still attached, but an indentation appears to have been made. These votes were not counted by the tabulating machines. The aftermath of the controversy caused the rapid discontinuance of punch card ballots in the United States.
II. Short Answer – Four of the following questions will be on the final exam. You must choose and answer two. (15 points each, 30 points total)
1. How were Asians and Asian Americans racialized during the period covered by this course? How and why does this racialization change over time?
The U.S. immigration reform of 1965 produced a tremendous influx of immigrants and refugees from Asia and Latin America that has dramatically altered U.S. race relations. Latinos now outnumber African Americans. It is clearer than ever that race relations in the United States are not limited to the central black/white axis. In fact this has always been true: Indian wars were central to the history of this country since its origins and race relations in the West have always centered on the interactions between whites and natives, Mexicans, and Asians. The “new thinking” about race relations as multipolar is overdue. However, one cannot simply replace the black/white model with one that merely adds other groups. The reason is that other groups of color have faced discrimination that is quite different both in form and content than that which has characterized black/white relations. The history of many peoples and regions, as well as distinct issues of nationality oppression—U.S. settler colonialism, Indian wars, U.S. foreign relations and foreign policy, immigration, citizenship, the U.S.Mexico War, language, reservations, treaties, sovereignty issues, etc.—must be analyzed and woven into a considerably more complicated new framework. In this light, AsianAmerican history is important because it was precedentsetting in the racialization of nationality and the incorporation of nationality into U.S. race relations. The racial formation of Asian Americans was a key moment in defining the color line among immigrants, extending whiteness to European immigrants, and targeting non white immigrants for racial oppression. Thus nativism was largely overshadowed by white nativism, and it became an important new form of racism. This development resonates powerfully today in the discrimination faced by the millions of immigrants from the global South over the past forty years, while white European immigrants face virtually none. And lately the Bush administration has formed a new link between war, racism, and attacks on immigrants in his “permanent war on terrorism at home and abroad.” While Asian Americans were this country’s first “aliens ineligible to citizenship,” today Arab Americans are its most prominent racialized enemy aliens. Between 1850 and 1930, demographic upheaval in the United States was connected to reorganization of the racial order. Socially and politically recognized boundaries between groups shifted, new groups emerged, others disappeared, and notions of who belonged in which category changed. All recognized racial groups—blacks, whites, Indians, Asians, Mexicans and others—were affected. This article investigates how and why census racial classification policies changed during this period, only to stabilize abruptly before World War II. In the context of demographic transformations and their political consequences, we find that census policy in any given year was driven by a combination of scientific, political, and ideological motivations. Based on this analysis, we rethink existing theoretical approaches to censuses and racial classification, arguing that a nation's census is deeply implicated in and helps to construct its social and political order. Censuses provide the concepts, taxonomy, and substantive information by which a nation understands its component parts as well as the contours of the whole; censuses both create the image and provide the mirror of that image for a
nation's selfreflection. We conclude by outlining the meaning of this period in American history for current and future debates over race and classification
2. Compare the First and Second Red Scares. What are some similarities? How are they different?
Thesis: In both the first and second red scares, nationwide panics occurred in a post war period, when the public was calling for a "return to normalcy. In both of these cases, constitutional rights were severely abused in the process of discriminating against radicals, communists, and anarchists.
began following Bolshevik revolution of 1917, as anarchist and left wing social agitation aggravated national, social, and political tensions
"CASE AGAINST THE REDS", Palmer, describes movement as robbery and looting eating into American homes
Palmer raids, deport left radicals and anarchists, very illegal, but says better for security, 600 convicted
popularly known as "McCarthyism" after senator McCarthy
belief coincided with increased fear of communist espionage to a soviet eastern Europe, the Berlin blockade, and the Chinese civil war, the confessions of spying for the soviet union given by high rank officials
McCarthy, "DEMOCRATES AND COMMUNISTS", US showed its most powerful, but communism threatens to take it away
made outrageous charges, those who questioned him were the subject of attacks and smear campaigns
both illegal and different but same basis
The term Red Scare is used to describe periods of extreme anticommunism in the United States. "Red" comes from the color of the Soviet Union flag. "Scare" comes from the fact that many people were scared that communism would come to the United States. There were two Red Scare periods. The first occurred after World War I and the Russian Revolution. The second occurred during the Cold War after World War II. Similarities: America feared the increase of communism. Both nationwide issues occurred in an immediate postwar period, when the public was calling for a "return to normalcy." In both cases, constitutional rights were severely abused in the process of discriminating against radicals, communists, and anarchists. Difference: The First Red Scare was about worker revolution & political radicalism. 2nd Red Scare was focused on national and foreign communists; a lot to do with McCarthyism and assumptions; second red scare was overreaction which caused hundreds of people thrown in prison and thousands of people losing jobs. Both nationwide panics occurred in an immediate postwar period, when the public was calling for a "return to normalcy." In both cases, constitutional rights were severely abused in the process of discriminating against radicals, communists, and anarchists. The first Red Scare began following the Bolshevik Russian Revolution of 1917 and the intensely patriotic years of World War I as anarchist and leftwing social agitation aggravated national, social, and political tensions. The second Red Scare occurred after World War II (1939–45), and was
popularly known as "McCarthyism" after its most famous supporter and namesake, Senator Joseph McCarthy. McCarthyism coincided with increased popular fear of communist espionage consequent to a Soviet Eastern Europe, the Berlin Blockade (1948–49), the Chinese Civil War, the confessions of spying for the Soviet Union given by several highranking U.S. government officials, and the Korean War.
3. Discuss Anne Moody’s experiences during and perspective on the Civil Rights Movement. How and why does she get involved? What does her work tell us about the grassroots activism of the movement, and its radicalization?
Anne Moody is a wellknown, black Mississippi author. She has written an autobiographical work depicting life in Mississippi and the struggles of black people in the South. Her books help people understand what life was like in the segregated South before and during the civil rights movement. Anne Moody was born Essie Mae Moody in Wilkinson County, Mississippi, on September 15, 1940, to Fred and Elnire (Williams) Moody. She attended Natchez Junior College from 1959 through 1961 and completed her education with a B. S. degree in 1964 at Tougaloo College in Jackson. While at Tougaloo, Moody became active in the Civil Rights Movement. She married Austin Stratus and had one child named Sascha. In 1969, but the marriage ended in divorce. Anne’s popular memoir Coming of Age in Mississippi begins in her hometown of Centerville, Mississippi. Moody tells the story of her struggles and triumphs in this rural Mississippi town. She talks about racism from a child’s perspective. Moody never thought of herself as a writer but rather as a civil rights activist. Throughout Moody’s life, she has won many awards and honors for her literary work. Coming of Age in Mississippi received the Brotherhood Award from the National Council of Christians and Jews and the Best Book of the Year Award from the National Library Association, both in 1969. She also received the silver medal from Mademoiselle magazine for her short story New Hopes for the Seventies. Moody’s other work includes Mr. Death: Four Stories. Moody also has sound recordings of her book of short stories in Mr. Death and her short story Bobo. During Anne Moody’s career, she worked hard as a civil rights activist and worked for the Congress of Racial Equality. She spoke and participated in many civil rights activities like the famous Woolworth luncheon sitin in 1963 in Jackson, Mississippi, and the March on Washington ( when Dr. Martin Luther King made his famous “I Have a Dream” speech.). Reverend Edward King and Anne Moody had a close professional relationship. Also in 1972, Moody was the artistinresidence in Berlin, Germany. She worked at Cornell University later as a civil rights project coordinator. Moody had moved to New York in the 1960’s where she continued to write and serve her community as a Counselor for New York City’s poverty program. Moody remained a more private citizen and rarely did interviews. Moody’s works have interested people throughout the world. University students, as well as high school students, have read her books as historical references because Moody’s writing allows people to feel the time period. In addition, they interest people because her writing helps the reader visualize the events that occurred in the 50’s and 60’s. Anne Moody later moved back to Gloster, Mississippi, where, according to her sister Adline Moody, she never felt at ease and always had someone, usually her son Sascha, with her if she went anywhere. She died February 5, 2015, at her home in Gloster, Mississippi, at the age of seventyfour. Anne Moody’s Coming of Age in Mississippi, talked extensively about the civil rights movement that
she had participated in. The civil rights movement dealt with numerous issues that many people had not agreed with. Coming of Age in Mississippi gave the reader a firsthand look at the efforts many people had done to gain equal rights. Anne Moody, like many other young people, joined the civil rights movement because they wanted to make a difference in their state. They wanted their freedom and the same rights as the white people had. Many other young people joined the civil rights movement because they felt that a change was needed in the way black people were treated. They felt that this change would not come if they did not join the civil rights movement. Anne Moody was a strong believer of black rights and felt that it was important for her to help black people fight for equal rights. These civil rights workers felt that their freedom would only come if most of the black community supported the efforts of the civil rights workers. Anne Moody, and other young people, thought that the only way that they would get equal rights for black people was to prove that they really wanted them. These civil rights workers, for example, showed that they really did care by joining various civil rights organizations and engaging in Freedom Marches. These Freedom marches were very organized, and they occurred all over the United States, which proved that black people wanted the same rights as the white people had. Anne Moody, and many other young people, joined the civil rights movement because they felt a change was needed and that it was their duty to fight for equal rights. Anne Moody had thought about joining the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), but she never did until she found out one of her roommates at Tougaloo college was the secretary. Her roommate asked, “why don’t you become a member”, so Anne did. Once she went to a meeting, she became actively involved. She was always participating in various freedom marches, would go out into the community to get black people to register to vote. She always seemed to be working on getting support from the black community, sometimes to the point of exhaustion. Anne Moody was very optimistic about the desegregation cases. She always tested the Supreme Court decision of Brown versus the Board of Education numerous times by doing sitins and freedom marches. She was determined to fight for her rights, despite numerous threats against her life. When Kennedy was assassinated, she was devastated. Anne really thought that Kennedy was the answer that she and other members of SNCC were waiting for. She walked around in a daze wondering what would happen next. Governmental leaders were essential during the civil rights movement. Without the help of government officials, black people would not have had the same rights they have today. Anne Moody’s Coming of Age in Mississippi, talked extensively about the civil rights movement that she had participated in. The civil rights movement proved successful in achieving equal rights for Black Americans, despite strong opposition. Black Americans got equal rights because of the untiring efforts young people, like Anne Moody, had. Without the efforts of these young people, the role of Black Americans in society may have been different today.
4. Why do US leaders commit the country to fighting communism in Vietnam? How do Americans’ understanding of the conflict differ from that of the Vietnamese?
Thesis: The Vietnam war to the US government was a fight of containment against communism, but was seen by the American people as a pointless war that was killing US troops for an unknown reason and by the Vietnamese people as a local issue of liberation.
got involved for containment to keep communism out of U.S.
once involved, can’t go back, leaders continue to stay committed
already good amount of time and resources invested, don't want to go to waste what we've done views were not the same
first war U.S. could see (tv) not popular
article "COMPROMISE SOLUTION IN SOUTH VIETNAM", stated that once heavy amount of troops are deployed it will start a war with south Vietnam and create irreversible process Vietnamese saw war as a local issue of liberation
The Vietnam War began originally with Vietnam trying to gain independence from France. The Vietnamese felt oppressed from France before and after WWII. The U.S. government at this time viewed its involvement in the war as a way to prevent Communist takeover of South Vietnam. This was part of a wider containment policy, which was aimed at stopping the spread of communism. The North Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong were fighting in order to reunify Vietnam under communist rule. How do Americans' understanding of the conflict differ from that of the Vietnamese? Americans were angered about the US involvement in Vietnam. They held protests, the first being in October of 1965. There were however many that supported Vietnam, but their voice was cut out by the media. What many Americans do not know is that Ho Chi Minh gained a lot of respect d the war against the French from 19461954. There was a good chance he would have been elected leader of both North and South Vietnam if an election had been held in 1954. However, he squandered much of the good will of the South Vietnamese people with his campaign to “collectivize” North Vietnam after the Communist takeover in 1954. It was bad enough the Communists seized all property and businesses, but they consolidated their power by murdering anyone who stood in their way. In essence what I am trying to say is at the time many Vietnamese were against the Americas. They thought the US was another power trying to gain control over them. This is why many of them supported Ho Chi, because they thought the US involvement was another example of France trying to take over them. It also depends North or South Vietnamese.
5. How does Barbara Ehrenreich illuminate the struggles of lowwage workers? How are these workers similar to or different from lowwage workers prior to the Second World War?
Thesis: In Barbara's book Nickel and Dimed she shows how difficult it is to live as a low wage worker. Although conditions have improved since prior to the Second World war, such as a safer work environment and unions, the hours are still long and the low wages leads to a constant life of struggle.
lives as low wage workers
as she goes, finds hidden cost that attack these low wage workers
one of them being a decent place to live
paycheck to paycheck, can’t pay security deposit
need to work more than one job
illuminates these things through her personal experiences
Conditions for workers prior to WW2 seen in Sinclair's "THE JUNGLE"
shows living conditions very unsafe and life was a struggle and work conditions unsanitary although conditions have improved since that time, such as safer work environment and unions, hours are still long and low ages lead to a life of constant struggle
At any rate, Ehrenreich must be given credit for at least entering the world of minimumwage work, rather than sitting in her comfortable study or pontificating from a lofty perch at a think tank. The woman did get her hands dirty, quite literally. At times, a little less dirt and a little more scholarship might have been useful. Ehrenreich conducted a live experiment in which she worked at minimumwage jobs, living, as best she could, in whatever circumstances those wages would afford. She worked in Florida as a waitress at a greasy spoon, sometimes for $2.43 an hour, plus tips. Soon, she augmented her job with other work, such as housekeeping. Having satisfied herself with that part of her experiment, she moved on to Maine, where she toiled as a maid, and finally completed her research with a stint in Minnesota at WalMart. She concluded that if she could have maintained her twojob regimen, and if she had no dire or sudden illnesses, she could have just barely gotten by. Despite her occasional genuinely funny quips—her exposition on feces, as a maid, is something to behold—her overall message is incredibly depressing and drenched in hopelessness. If her assessment is accurate, it is impossible to get by in America in lowlevel jobs. That’s if. Fortunately for many Americans—and for virtually all people who find themselves in these jobs—Ehrenreich’s analysis has fatal flaws. Since it is certain this book will become the basis for many other “can’tgetby” studies that pass for policy analysis, it is worth analyzing her weaknesses in some detail. First and foremost, Ehrenreich pretended to be a minimumwage worker. She acted in a role for a few months. Critics might see this as supporting her position, but I think it blows up the entire foundation. The purpose of work is not to get by, but to get ahead. This is a critical distinction: how Ehrenreich looks at her work and life, and the reality of the situation. Most people, no matter what the job of the moment, see it as a way to get ahead later. Yet Ehrenreich did not even try to move up. She lied about her education and credentials at the outset so as to not prejudice the employers, either favorably (by giving her higherpaying positions) or negatively (“What’s wrong with you that you can’t find a gig with all your education?”). She apparently doesn’t see this as a slap in the face for all those “proletarians” with whom she identifies who struggle to get that GED, or to get a college education at night. Not only did she not try to advance, but she never sought out others who had. We learn about the private, sometimes tragic, lives of many of her coworkers, but never find anyone who made it into management, who left for greener pastures, or who even made it to the top of the lowlevel wage ladder. Quite the contrary, none of her managers are appealing: they are all greedy, petty, stupid, egotistical, and uncaring. Since Ehrenreich’s story involves personal experience as fact, my own background must be equally valid, if dated. When I turned 15, I got a minimumwage job at Der Weinerschnitzel—the hotdog version of McDonald’s. Almost instantly the manager (who was, as best I could tell, neither stupid or uncaring) was willing to make me an assistant manager. It had something to do with being able to remember to turn the sign off before I went home. Soon, I left the “dog house” for a better job, as a carryout boy at a local (and locally owned) grocery store. At the time I saw that as my big break: I started at $3.35 an hour, plus overtime, plus double time on holidays. Several women worked as cashiers there and had been there for years. Word got out that they earned more than $10 an hour! Again, while
the managers did not baby us—they expected hard work and good habits, as well as a smile—we were well treated, and, for the day, well paid. It was an interracial staff, both among the carryout boys and the management. But no one there, unless someone was aiming at a managerial position, planned to stay at the grocery store his entire life. It was, as most minimumwage jobs are, an entrylevel position designed to train people in basic skills (working a cash register, counting change, stocking, taking inventory, ordering, and above all, being polite and energetic).
6. How does American foreign policy change in the postCold War period?
PostCold War Foreign Policy:
With the breakup of the Soviet Union into separate nations, and the reemergence of the nation of Russia, the world of proU.S. and proSoviet alliances broke down. Different challenges presented themselves, such as climate change and the threat of nuclear terrorism. Regional powerbrokers in Iraq and Saddam Hussein challenged the peace with a surprise attack on the small nation of Kuwait in 1991. President George H.W. Bush organized a coalition of allied and Middle Eastern powers that successfully pushed back the invading forces, but stopped short of invading Iraq and capturing Hussein. As a result, the dictator was free to cause mischief for another twelve years. After the Gulf War, many scholars like Zbigniew Brzezinski claimed that the lack of a new strategic vision for U.S. foreign policy resulted in many missed opportunities for its foreign policy. The United States mostly scaled back its foreign policy budget as well as its cold war defense budget during the 1990s, which amounted to 6.5% of GDP while focusing on domestic economic prosperity under President Clinton, who succeeded in achieving a budget surplus for 1999 and 2000. The aftermath of the Cold War continues to influence world affairs. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the post–Cold War world was widely considered as unipolar, with the United States the sole remaining superpower. The Cold War defined the political role of the United States in the post–World War II world: by 1989 the U.S. held military alliances with 50 countries, and had 526,000 troops posted abroad in dozens of countries, with 326,000 in Europe (twothirds of which in west Germany) and about 130,000 in Asia (mainly Japan and South Korea). The Cold War also marked the apex of peacetime militaryindustrial complexes, especially in the United States, and largescale military funding of science. These complexes, though their origins may be found as early as the 19th century, have grown considerably during the Cold War. The militaryindustrial complexes have great impact on their countries and help shape their society, policy and foreign relations.
New World Order:
A concept that defined the world power after the ColdWar was known as the new world order. The most widely discussed application of the phrase of recent times came at the end of the Cold War. Presidents Mikhail Gorbachev and George H.W. Bush used the term to try to define the nature of the post Cold War era, and the spirit of a great power cooperation they hoped might materialize . Historians will look back and say this was no ordinary time but a defining moment: an unprecedented period of global change, and a time when one chapter ended and another began. A concept that defined the world power after the ColdWar was known as the new world order. The most widely discussed application of the phrase of recent times came at the end of the Cold War. Presidents Mikhail Gorbachev and George H.W. Bush used the term to try to define
the nature of the post Cold War era, and the spirit of a great power cooperation they hoped might materialize. Historians will look back and say this was no ordinary time but a defining moment: an unprecedented period of global change, and a time when one chapter ended and another began. Furthermore, when no weapons of mass destruction were found after a military conquest of Iraq, there was worldwide skepticism that the war had been fought to prevent terrorism, and the continuing war in Iraq has had serious negative public relations consequences for the image of the United States.
The big change during these years was a transition from a bipolar world to a multipolar world. While the United States remains a strong power economically and militarily, rising nations such as China, India, Brazil, and Russia as well as a united Europe have challenged its dominance. Foreign policy analysts such as Nina Harchigian suggest that the six emerging big powers share common concerns: free trade, economic growth, prevention of terrorism, and efforts to stymie nuclear proliferation. And if they can avoid war, the coming decades can be peaceful and productive provided there are no misunderstandings or dangerous rivalries.
III. Essay – Three of the following questions will be on the final exam. You must choose and answer one. (45 points)
1. The public memories of World War I, World War II, and the Vietnam War were used to shape foreign policy in their immediate aftermath. What “lessons” were drawn from each conflict (and by whom) and how were they used to argue for or against specific foreign policies?
Thesis: Wars are one of the biggest influences on not only the US, but also on how the country deals with other nations. WWI, WWII, and Vietnam and how they were publicly viewed transformed American foreign policy from the idea of staying neutral in wartime to the current attitude of hitting them before they can think about hitting the US.
Wilson proposes "LEAGUE OF NATIONS", resolve peace and suture conflicts, U.S. doesn't join cause it takes away senates power to wage war
"LEAGUE OF NATIONS MUST BE REVISED"
WW1 deemed worthless, and violent
shows how serious U.S. is about containment
Marshall Plan gave military support to fight communism and economic support to rebuild. WW2,
big idea of containment
"TRUMAN DOCTRINE", goes in depth about how we need to help Turkey and Greece, as part of new policy to prevent communism,
MARSHALL PLAM, gives support economically and military to fight communism and economics in Europe
cold war follows after WW2
In Vietnam, lessons were learned
Nixon's "VIETNAMIZATION SPEECH", the plan of his did not work, it was necessary to keep
American troops in Vietnam long enough so South Korea doesn't completely collapse when U.S. troops leave
unpopular war with Americans, many saw it as pointless
couldn't back out
Americans sour over Truman Doctrine because of how bad the war got in Vietnam and how far we got involved
WW1 & FOREIGN POLICIES:
One hundred years ago today a shot fired across the bow of the SS Pfalz from the Point Nepean fort in Victoria, Australia, became the first Allied shot of World War I. It was a warning shot— news of the state of war between the British Empire and Germany had just made its way down to Australia, and the SS Pfalz wasn’t going to get away. The Pfalz was a cargo steamer operated by a private German shipping company. Nevertheless, it was seized by the Australian navy, renamed the HMT Boorara, and refitted as a troop ship. After World War I, the Australians eventually sold the German ship to a Greek shipping line. It sank before World War II started. It’s an informative war story. The Pfalz was captained that day, 100 years ago, by a local captain. She was carrying no warspecific cargo, and was in fact allowed to leave the Port of Melbourne earlier because no one knew that half a world away a war had started. The fate of the Pfalz, used by the Australians throughout the war and then sold for a profit, illustrates what happens in war —things get seized, even when they’re only tangentially related to the war. Life becomes subordinated to war and the war effort. The conflict between Germany, Britain, and their assortment of allies—secret or otherwise—eventually came to be known as World War I. It caused profound geopolitical changes in Europe, the Middle East, East Asia, and Africa, inspired renewed attempts at international cooperation, and eventually led to World War II. As we enter the centennial of the "war to end all wars," here are five lessons from that Great War that remain relevant today.
1. There’s No Such Thing as “Tangential Risk”: Speaking about the U.S.’s tendency to intervene in foreign affairs in vain attempts to “do something,” President Obama defended that kind of pattern of intervention, declaring that that was what American exceptionalism was all about, being willing to “plunge in.” The risks to the U.S., he suggested, are only tangential. History, however, is littered with the husks of once great powers toppled by what they considered mere tangential risks. World War I is full of such cautionary tales. Europe’s military spending had been accelerating in the years preceding World War I, so the war itself shouldn’t have come as much of a surprise to anyone paying attention. European history was defined by war, long before World War I. Its political class was used to it, and didn’t see much beyond “tangential risks” in going to war yet again. None of the players when World War I started in 1914 got through the conflict without being fundamentally changed. Multiple empires—the Austrio Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian—ceased to exist after the war, with Russia turning to nearly 75 years of brutal communist rule. Germany lost all of its overseas colonial possessions, and as a result, in part, of World War I, Britain and France would eventually lose theirs. Some of these things might have happened absent World War I—it’s hard to imagine, for example, how the already structurally weakened Ottoman or Russian Empires would have survived longterm—but World War I helped bring the events on faster, catching those involved, like the Russian political class, by surprise.
2. Ethnic, Religious, and Other IdentityBased Hatreds Are a Powerful Motivator: When the Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip shot and killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, the event barely registered in the capitals of Europe; in fact, it hardly even made the news in Vienna, the capital of Ferdinand’s AustrioHungarian empire. Princip was a Yugoslav nationalist, seeking to free the Balkans from Austrian rule, and a member of the Black Hand, a group whose aim was Serbian unification. By the end of World War I, Woodrow Wilson, who brought the U.S. into the conflict in 1917, made “self determination” one of the “Fourteen Points” upon which a postwar Europe could be based. It was close to articulating Princip’s goal when he shot and killed Ferdinand as any party to the conflict ever could but it wasn’t completely accurate. Ethnic and identity based hatred was as important a motivator to the forces that tore the AustrioHungarian (and Ottoman) empires asunder as “selfdetermination,” a concept alien on a continent whose populations for centuries were ruled by royal houses. The assassination of the Archduke may not have been news in much of Europe, but it was used by the Austrio Hungarian government to encourage antiSerb violence in Sarajevo.
3. People Don’t Want War, Governments Want War: Imperial War Museums. While governments, to one degree or another, certainly need the support of their populations to wage war, they can often manufacture this support by appealing to nationalist fervor and a desire for security. In the run up to World War I, the German government very much wanted Russia to complete its mobilization along the border first, so that it could point to that as the act of aggression that made avoiding war impossible. The armies of World War I were a mix of volunteers and conscripts, but when they got to the trenches few were interested in hostilities. In Evolution of Cooperation, Robert Axelrod’s study of the “titfortat” rule in action, the author explains how trenches in World War I became rather peaceful places as the soldiers on either side learned that if they didn’t shoot the other side wouldn’t shoot back. Toward the end of the war, military leaders had to constantly shuffle soldiers around so that none would be around in any one place long enough to learn not to shoot, doing this even as a final peace was becoming imminent.
4. Entangling Alliances Make Costly Foreign Policy Commitments: Although many European governments spent the July after the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand maneuvering diplomatically, the AustrioHungarian Empire’s spat with the Kingdom of Serbia only became an international affair because of the entangling alliances involved. Russia, who paid as steep a price as any country for intervening in the conflict, only became involved because of its alliance with the Serbs. France became a target of Germany, an ally of AustriaHungary, only because it was an ally of Russia. The British entered to stop the invasion of Belgium. Because most of these countries were not directly affected by instability in the Balkans, they had little incentive to ensure that such instability didn’t cause a conflict, even as they (and more accurately, their populations) stood to become very active participants in any conflict that did ignite.
5. One Side’s Perspective on the Other’s Motivation Is Usually Wrong: Part of the reason Europe plunged into World War I was that few in the political class thought such a war was possible over a dispute such as the one between Austria and Serbia. In the days leading to the various declarations of war that kicked off August 1914, the different sides pleaded with each other to avoid a conflict even as most were mobilizing troops at their borders. The interpretation of these mobilizations—particularly Russia’s by Germany— helped set the pace of the escalating conflict. Although members of Europe’s political class spent July talking to each other in an effort to avoid war, it was defined by a more than healthy amount of distrust. Each side based its view of what was happening on what it believed the other side believed, which rarely matched what the other side actually said. Although the sort of “secret diplomacy” that contributed to the misunderstandings that erupted in World War I is far less common today than 100 years ago, our political leaders continue to insist that they know the motivations of other actors better than the actors themselves. While it would be naïve to assume that everyone always tells the truth about all their motivations, it would be just as naïve to assume the opposite, especially in cases where the articulated motivation matches actions taken to date.
WW2 & FOREIGN POLICIES:
1. We learned to stop a problem before it became a national crisis. One mistake made before World War II was that Hitler was not forced to abide by the rules set against Germany after Worl War I. If a country had stepped up and stopped him from building his army (which was in direct violation of the treaty of versailles) then we wouldn't have had the huge Nazi army to deal with.
2. We learned that by working together we could conquer any foe.
3. We learned that sometimes drastic measures and decisions must be made in order to protect the world as a whole. The numbers killed by the atomic bombs were devastating; however, when you compare them to the MILLIONS the Japanese murdered (and no I'm not talking about soldiers. I'm talking about civilians especially the chinese) then they don't really compare.
4.We learned new techniques in war to better prepare us for next time. (and as long as man is alive there will always be a next time.
5. Finally, we were reminded that freedom isn't free.
VIETNAM WAR & FOREIGN POLICIES:
1. Military options are not very effective with political issues.
2. There are limits to US military power and that long wars hurt our competitive economy. (My view is Vietnam accelerated the loss of US manufacturing competitiveness compared to Japan & Germany.) Although free trade is somewhat heresy for TAC, long term free trade between nations is solution for a poor struggling
nation and builds a better long term peace. Although I think the 13 nation TPP is too big to succeed, the best way for the US to build better relations with Vietnam is increase free trade which could be done with a separate deal.
3. When generals such as Ridgway and MacArthur agree a place is militarily untenable, listen to them;
4. If you feel you need to keep the war lowkey because the people won’t buy your argument it’s necessary, it probably isn’t necessary;
5. If you’re still fighting the war even though its original Cold War/domino theory/Chinese revolutions rationales have evaporated, get out–don’t worry about “honor,” because prolonging a senseless war will not be remembered fondly.
2. How and why does America’s role in the world change during the period covered by this course? Why has this evolution often been seen as controversial?
APPLY THE INFORMATION IN THE PREVIOUS QUESTION
Thesis: Between 1865 and present day, the United States has transformed from a new country with serious internal conflicts to a dominant world power that aims to make the world a more peaceful and civilized place, which can be seen as controversial by those who think the US shouldn't be in other countries affairs.
America gained idea logy of being world power after WW2, U.S. becomes the worlds police evolution of this seems to be unnecessary to some because they believe U.S. has no right to intervene with other countries
we have our own problems
before we were world power, imperialists wanted to get involved on world stage, through colonization, military, etc...
starts Spanish American war
antiimperialists want to stay domestic "PLATFORM OF ANTIIMPERIALIST LEAGUE" focused on the useless slaughter of Filipinos and that imperialism was unnecessary "LEAGUE OF NATIONS MUST BE REVISED", shows that were still against a coalition w/ other continues and intervening with their affairs
although, U.S. was forced to involved after Pearl Harbor
"TRUMAN DOCTRINE" stated this, that we need to help cause it’s our duty as world power we tried to not intervene at first
after WW2, war in Korea and Vietnam was fought over idea of containment, which was limited to the spread of communist influences. U.S. attempted Vietnamese, tried to train south Vietnamese soldiers then pull out
BUSH DOCTRINE, states U.S. needs to fight back, not only to defend U.S. but to protect Afghanistan and Iraq. these wars were also not popular with the public, foreign and domestic
3. American identity has been defined and redefined throughout the period covered by this course. Using three groups, explain how they articulated and claimed inclusion in American identity.
Thesis: The American identity of freedom is a coveted idea that groups such as African Americans, Chinese, and women have had a difficult time to achieve, all of them having it defined for them by the government at some point.
groups made many attempts to define role arguing that the govt. is trying to do it for them but govt. overrides their efforts
say they have less rights than African Americans
working woman idea is not present
Rosie Riveter, big icon for women
war starts, positions open for women, work male jobs
tried hard for the vote, women's suffrage meant they would be represented argued that women were not tough enough for politcs
"STRENUOUS LIFE", says women should stay at home,l cook, clean, raise children, and care for husband when he returns from war
this defines them as domestic and "in the house"
most oppressed of 3 groups
dealt with slavery, segregation, and discrimination
had to put up with Jim Crowe laws and black codes
"BLACK CODES OF MISSISSIPPI", strong example of how their identity was laid out for them
the laws had an intent and effect of restricting AM freedom and compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages
WW1 and WW2 came around, they were allowed to fight
gave them sense of purpose
still treated bad after war though
CR Movement helped them push for their own identity though, and set precedent for better things to come
Many of same problems as AM
discriminated against a lot, especially for taking American Jobs
1182, "CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT" was signed prohibited all immigration of Chinese laborers
Court case of "EN RE AH YUP", Chinese citizens excluded from becoming U.S. citizens this is what really defines them as a people for the time
start to become liked at begging of WW2, but then back to not liked when they turned to the
influence of communist soviets
back on good terms after Nixon visited China and started back trading and the fight against the Soviet Union
4. Compare the 1920s and 1960s – in what ways did these decades witness both periods of social and cultural liberalism as well as the rise of new conservatism?
The 1920s witnessed social and cultural liberalism through the Progressive era. This was a time when work related reforms were being passed to help women and children have better working conditions. This counts as a social liberalism. This time period led to increased social freedom for women. They were allowed them to experiment with more flagrant and promiscuous behavior. This was an example of women wanting to change the status quo in society. This would count as cultural liberalism. Then the women's suffrage movement was successful in winning women the right to vote. It wasn't entirely liberal. Some of it was conservative. The reason is that women won women's support for suffrage in the South by paying up to racial issues. The 1960s witnesses both social and cultural liberalism through Civil Rights movement and entertainment. I will explain this in a little while. There were several Civil Rights movements going on. There was African Americans and whites righting for black's rights to vote. Then there was also the fight for the right to get into interracial marriage. There was also the women's movement at the time. They were fighting for the right to use birth control. They were also fighting for the right to work and get paid equally to men. This would count as social liberalism. Then the cultural liberalism is the ratings system being set in place. For a while, Hollywood had operated according to the Production Code. This code limited the types of movies that could be shown on a religious basis. The ratings system meant that the content in movies could be more mature in terms of language and nudity. The conservatism in the 1960s was when Richard Nixon got elected as president. This marked a point when the Republican party started becoming more conservative. But it also happened before Nixon had gotten elected. The Republican party had been shifting towards conservatism for a while. It initially started when John F. Kennedy got elected in 1960. The Democratic party, at the time, as mostly conservative. The conservatives started shifting towards being Republicans when the Civil Rights movement started affecting the policies passed by Kennedy.
6. Explain the evolution of African Americans’ fight for freedom over the period covered by this course. What events served to galvanize the movement and why? What factors led to the radicalization of the movement by the late 1960s? How did the long civil rights movement influence other social protest movements?
The AfricanAmerican Civil Rights Movement (1865–1896) refers to the postCivil War reform movements in the United States aimed at eliminating racial discrimination against African Americans, improving educational and employment opportunities, and establishing electoral power. This period between 1865 and 1895 saw tremendous change in the fortunes of the black
community following the elimination of slavery in the South. The year 1865 held two important events in the history of African Americans: the Thirteenth Amendment, which eliminated slavery, was ratified; and Union troops arrived in June in Texas to enforce the Emancipation Proclamation, giving birth to the modern Juneteenth celebrations. Freedmen looked to start new lives as the country recovered from the devastation of the Civil War. Immediately following the Civil War, the federal government began a program known as Reconstruction aimed at rebuilding the states of the former Confederacy. The federal programs also provided aid to the former slaves and attempted to integrate them as citizens into society. During and after this period, blacks made substantial gains in their political power and many were able to move from abject poverty to land ownership. At the same time resentment by many whites toward these gains resulted in unprecedented violence led by the local chapters of the Ku Klux Klan, and later in the 1870s by such paramilitary groups as the Red Shirts and White League. In 1896 the Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson, a landmark upholding "separate but equal" racial segregation as constitutional. It was a devastating setback for civil rights, as the legal, social, and political status of the black population reached a nadir. From 1890 to 1908, beginning with Mississippi, southern states passed new constitutions and laws disenfranchising most blacks and excluding them from the political system, a status that was maintained in many cases into the 1960s. Much of the early reform movement during this era was spearheaded by the Radical Republicans, a faction of the Republican Party. By the end of the 19th century, with disenfranchisement in progress to exclude blacks from the political system altogether, the so called lilywhite movement also worked to substantially weaken the power of remaining blacks in the party. The most important civil rights leaders of this period were Frederick Douglass (1818–1895) and Booker T. Washington (1856–1915). Well before the outbreak of sectional fighting in 1861, Americans clashed over the meanings of liberty and slavery. In the closing decades of the eighteenth century, nearly every northern state in the new American Union passed, or at least debated, a gradual abolition law, putting slavery on the path to extinction above the MasonDixon line. But American masters secured the first federal fugitive slave law in 1793 and, soon after that, the right to bring slave property into the new states of Kentucky and Tennessee. During the first half of the nineteenth century, as slavery expanded both demographically and geographically in the South and Southwest and a newly aggressive brand of abolitionism emerged above the MasonDixon line, debates over liberty and slavery became enmeshed in almost every part of American social and political life. By the 1850s, when a new and more intense round of sectional debate emerged, many Americans wondered if they could see past diverging understandings of liberty and slavery, or if sectional discord would finally lead to disunion and war. "While this nation is guilty of the enslavement of three millions of innocent men and women," the great black abolitionist Frederick Douglass told a Rochester audience in December of 1850, "it is as idle to think of having a sound and lasting peace, as it is to think there is no God to take cognizance of the affairs of men." That same year, a band of radical proslavery delegates in Nashville urged Southerners to protect bondage at all costs, even if that meant secession. A decade later, angry words turned to bloody battles. Unsurprisingly, liberty and slavery remained a key part of Civil War America. Although slavery's territorial expansion proved to be one of the most divisive sectional issues during the 1850s, the recovery of fugitive slaves in the North also sparked intense debate and even violence between pro and antislavery forces. In the wake of Lincoln's election, several seceding states cited the problem of
recovering fugitive slaves as a justification for leaving the Union. After decades of trouble in the North, Southern masters pushed for a stronger fugitive slave law. The Compromise of 1850, which also admitted California as a free state, delivered just that, threatening Northern citizens with stronger fines and even jail time if they did not help recover runaways. While many fugitives were recovered, enslaved people continued to seek freedom. Drawing on a tradition of flight dating to the eighteenth century, enslaved African Americans fled to New York, Ohio, Michigan, and Massachusetts. Thousands of runaway slaves also settled in British Canada (presentday Ontario), which banned bondage. Few understood enslaved peoples' struggle for liberty better than William Still, a free black activist in Philadelphia who aided roughly nine hundred fugitive slaves before the Civil War. He began keeping a journal of heroic escape tales in the 1850s and eventually published these gripping stories in The Underground Railroad (1872). Slaveholders fumed at even nominal Northern support for fugitive slaves. As South Carolina's secession convention put it in December of 1860, Northerners had long "encouraged and assisted thousands of our slaves to leave their homes," thoroughly justifying Southern disunion. By then, some Southerners also believed that their Northern neighbors promoted slave rebellion. Though fueled by years of concern about slave revolt, John Brown's failed raid on Harpers Ferry (a federal arsenal in Western Virginia) in October 1859 ignited a new round of vigilance. For proslavery men throughout the South, Brown represented an aggressive form of abolitionism that threatened to infiltrate the federal government. Believing that the Founder's Union enshrined property rights in man, slaveholders argued that American definitions of liberty inherently sanctioned slaveholding. As South Carolinian Thomas Drayton wrote his Pennsylvania brother Percy in April 1861, Southerners were horrified that abolitionists had "made merit of John Brown's murderous invasion"; they were equally disturbed that Northerners had "the avowed object of abolishing slavery throughout the southern states." Although many Northerners repudiated him—as well as Southern emancipation—Brown's martyrdom galvanized abolitionists. In New England, Thoreau and Emerson hailed Brown as a hero. The Philadelphia Female Antislavery Society issued a resolution supporting Brown's antislavery ideals, while black poet Frances Ellen Watkins Harper celebrated Brown in print. As the "Declaration of Liberty" (transcribed by his son Owen) indicated, Brown believed that slave uprising was justified by the Declaration of Independence. He also heralded "equality" as a natural right, regardless of race. For these reasons and more, Brown was honored by generations of black activists as freedom fighter. Brown's raid did not lead to the Civil War, but it did help to fuel sectional discord. In the election of 1860, for instance, slaveholders and their Northern allies stigmatized Abraham Lincoln as the leader of the "Black Republican Party," an insurgent band of abolitionists maniacally focused on black emancipation and equality. While Republicans vowed only to end slavery's western expansion, the name stuck below the MasonDixon line; Lincoln was not even on the ballot in most Southern states. By April 17, 1861, when Thomas Drayton told his brother that Northerners and Southerners could no longer coexist, eleven states voted to leave the Union. From Louisiana to South Carolina, seceding Southern states highlighted slavery's protection as a rationale for disunion. Ironically, slaveholders' bid for liberty led to the most pressing attack on slavery since the passage of northern abolition laws in the post revolutionary era. Of course, Lincoln's rallying cry at the start of the war was preservation of the Union, not abolitionism. Nevertheless, the specter of black liberty hovered over both military and political events. Black and white abolitionists advocated wartime abolitionism before 1863,
while thousands of enslaved blacks fled to Union lines. In 1861, the black press cheered mini– emancipation proclamations by Benjamin Butler at Fortress Monroe in Virginia and John Fremont in Missouri (the latter act was rescinded by Lincoln). Though Lincoln and his cabinet— knowing that many white Northerners initially opposed war for abolition—remained wary of mass emancipation edicts, they began to entertain abolitionism as a war aim. Even before Lincoln unveiled the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation in September 1862, both Congress and the Union army had sanctioned confiscation of Confederate slave property as a legitimate military tactic. With the Union's fortunes flagging (particularly in the East), Lincoln came to see emancipation as a transformative wartime policy. Although it did not impact loyal slave states (Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, and Kentucky) or certain conquered sections of the South, the final Emancipation Proclamation liberated enslaved people throughout the Confederacy. It also promised to incorporate blacks into the Union army. By 1865, nearly 200,000 blacks, the majority of whom were former slaves, had joined Union forces. Camp William Penn, located outside of Philadelphia, welcomed over ten thousand African American soldiers. Organized under the banner of the United States Colored Troops (USCT), black soldiers at Camp William Penn served in eleven regiments and fought battles in Virginia, Florida, and many other Confederate locales. As white officer N. H. Edgerton's 1864 testimonial illustrates, black soldiers fought bravely. Indeed, though seeking his own promotion, Edgerton touted black military "worth"—no small matter when antiwar Democrats sought to return to the "Union as it Was" (that is, a Union that protected slavery) in the election of 1864. As Edgerton knew, the meaning of black liberty was still being negotiated. Though they faced a variety of military hazards (especially threats of enslavement by Confederate troops), black soldiers did not initially receive equal pay. Only after blacks protested did the federal government require equal pay in June 1864. Beyond the military sphere, Union cities from Washington to New York debated the nature of black civic equality. In Philadelphia, distinguished white citizens like Horace Binney and David Brown joined African American leaders to oppose segregated streetcars. But public discrimination on transportation facilities would not end there until 1867, when William Still galvanized support for a new city ordinance banning streetcar segregation. Even after the Civil War ended, battles over black liberty continued in the victorious North no less than the conquered Confederate South. Despite the passage of constitutional amendments ending slavery nationally (the Thirteenth), instituting racial equality (the Fourteenth), and granting black male voting rights (the Fifteenth), black freedom was routinely contested. In parts of the Reconstruction South, African Americans secured voting rights and political power—only to face new rounds of intimidation, violence, and political disfranchisement during the 1870s and 1880s. In the North, African Americans pushed for civic and educational equality—only to face virulent, and eventually violent, opposition. The saga of Octavius Catto, a longtime black activist in Philadelphia who was gunned down during a local election in October 1871, reminded racial reformers that a new birth of freedom left much to be desired. Born in South Carolina and raised in Pennsylvania, Catto lived to see liberty triumph over slavery during the Civil War. But he could not conquer the vestiges of bondage still circulating in American society.
6. How have economic changes influenced American society and politics? How have economic developments been related to American foreign relations?
The American Revolution instigated much change within the newly independent nation, particularly political and social, and to a lesser extent, economically. After breaking away from what appeared to be a corrupt government in England, American leaders formed the concepts of their ideal society. Although to them it seemed that these ideas would help them break away from the British style of government, in reality they reverted to one that was much more centralized, much like that of England's. The uneducated population of America did not experience as much change, though the ideas behind the revolution itself pushed many to seek economic prosperity for themselves. Women, and slaves experienced change in society as women gained more freedoms and many slaves were set free. Overall, our nation experienced the majority of its change in politics, and social issues, but change was still seen to a lesser extent economically. Politically, when America first separated itself from Britain, the founders attempted to form it to have the least amount of similarities with Britain's as possible. To achieve this they ratified the Articles of the Confederation. The ideas that made up the Articles of the Confederation ended up turning the founders' dream of a functioning government into somewhat of a nightmare. The state and federal governments had no authority to tax citizens, not to mention that there was no concept of an executive branch. These flaws caused many issues which are highlighted in a letter written by Abigail Adams to Thomas Jefferson in 1787 [Document G]. The letter stated that there was serious civil unrest within many areas of the United States, and that the government may not have been strong enough to suppress rebellions, and guarantee stability. This indicated to the founders that they would be in need of a stronger, more centralized government and for that reason, they began the drafting of the Constitution. Many ideas were proposed during the drafting of the constitution but perhaps none as important as that of checks and balances. This idea is exemplified in James Madison's The Federalist, number 51 [Document I]. He illustrates the concepts behind checks and balances bu showing that checks on both the government and the people were necessary for a functional society. He also does this by showing that the government must have necessary measures to control itself. Both of the ideas he supports in his paper indicate that he was a great supporter of the ratification of the constitution. Also, this spurred the first American party system, being the Federalists and the AntiFederalists, along with the concepts of lose and strict constructionism. These ideas are still fought over today where republicans take the side of strict constructionists, believing that the Constitution should be followed wordforword, and democrats take the side of loose constructionists, believing that there must be room for interpretation. Overall, the American Revolution incited these great political revelations, and gave the founders concepts included in the Constitution that they would not have become aware of otherwise. Economically, Americans did not experience great amounts of change. The Philadelphia society for the promotion of agriculture, handed out a medal which said, “Venerate the Plough” [Document F]. This is a large example of how the rich were still “rewarding” the commonpeople who weren't necessarily better off after the revolution. This medal acted as a form of encouragement in the sense that it promoted the idea that the United States was filled with abundance, fertility, and freedom. Also, it supports Jeffersonian ideal of agrarian republicanism based on virtuous yeoman farmers where the commonpeople and the planters would have priority, and would experience equality, and political opportunity. Similarly, to this, Shay's rebellion farmers, lead by the exmilitary officer who “...[stopped] the courts of justice in several counties...crying out for a paper currency, [or]
for an equal distribution of power” [Document G]. Shay's Rebellion was a representation of the economic troubles faced by the majority of people in the United States. With respect to social changes, while the lives of white men remained virtually the same, women and slaves both experienced varying amounts of change after the revolution ended.. The change for women was rather minimal because they would not win the fight over suffrage for another 140 years, but this was the beginning of the recognition of gender equality. One example of this beginning is a woodcut of a woman holding a rifle and a gunpowder horn [Document A]. This portrays the life that was lived by women during that era of war, showing that they fought alongside the men. After the war had ended, it was not the same for women, because they did not necessarily want to go back to their old life of household chores after playing a part in the fight for independence. Another example of the beginnings of the fight for gender equality is a valedictory address by Molly Wallace at the Young Ladies' Academy of Pennsylvania [Document J]. She infers that discussion of educational opportunities for women was on the rise as women began to challenge the concept of “separate spheres.” Another example of women's participation in society was Debora Sampson. Sampson disguised herself as a man during the American Revolutionary War so that she would be able to fight in the Continental Army. She is one of a small number of women with a documented record of military combat during the revolution. Although for the women they felt that after the war they would return and things would be different for them, they weren't. The American Revolution had in fact, not greatly altered society's perception of the role of women. It is clear that this is true when the comparison of the wishes of the women of that time, and what actually materialized. The women wanted to become equal with the men, but in reality, this concept would not be accepted for another 140 years. On the other hand, slaves, depending on the region, experienced great amounts of change during this time. For example, in a Pennsylvania Packet Editorial [Document B], the ideas of America being a land of free men began to emerge. Although this is not directly related to slavery, it shows that the ideas behind universal freedom were beginning to show themselves. The largest example from the time period of this emergence is an Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States Northwest of the Ohio River [Document H]. This ordinance, when put in place, banned slavery in all U.S. territory north of the Ohio River. This is evidence of fundamental social change during the time period. Also, this directly relates to the 3/5 Compromise because the 3/5 Compromise was the first time that slaves were actually being counted as people, not just objects that were owned. Overall, politically, Americans experienced larger amounts of change when they forged a new government even with the revisions made. Economically, the commonpeople still lived in a society where they were lesser people than the elites. However changes did occur involving women and slaves. In these ways, American society experienced change in respect to political and social life, but not economically.
1920”s and on…..
A tide of economic and social change swept across the country in the 1920s. Nicknames for the decade, such as “the Jazz Age” or “the Roaring Twenties,” convey something of the excitement and the changes in social conventions that were taking place at the time. As the economy boomed, wages rose for most Americans and prices fell, resulting in a higher standard of living and a dramatic increase in consumer consumption. Although most women's lives were not radically transformed by “labor‐saving” home appliances or gaining the right to vote, young American women were changing the way they dressed, thought, and acted in a manner that
shocked their more traditional parents. These changes were encouraged by the new mass media that included radio and motion pictures. Booming economy and consumerism. The American economy's phenomenal growth rate during the '20s was led by the automobile industry. The number of cars on the road almost tripled between 1920 and 1929, stimulating the production of steel, rubber, plate glass, and other materials that went into making an automobile. Henry Ford pioneered the two key developments that made this industry growth possible — standardization and mass production. Standardization meant making every car basically the same, which led to jokes that a customer could get a car in any color as long as it was black. Mass production used standardized parts and division of labor on an assembly line (introduced by Ford before the war) to produce cars more quickly and efficiently. Both innovations had a dramatic impact on price: the Model T that sold for $850 in 1908 sold for $290 in 1924. Ford also created new management techniques that became known as welfare capitalism. To build worker loyalty and blunt the development of unions, Ford paid the highest wages in the industry and established the 5‐day, 40‐hour workweek. Other companies followed suit, improving working conditions, setting up company unions, offering health insurance and profit‐sharing plans, and developing recreational programs. These tactics, along with yellow dog contracts, through which employees agreed not to join a union, worked; union membership dropped by almost two million between 1920 and 1929. American industry produced thousands of consumer goods in the 1920s, everything from automobiles to washing machines to electric razors. Mass consumption was encouraged through a combination of advertising, which created a demand for a particular product, and installment buying, which enabled people to actually purchase the product. The power of advertising to shape public attitudes had been demonstrated through the Committee on Public Information's use of media to marshal public support during World War I. When peace came, ad agencies used newspapers, mass circulation magazines, and radio to effect consumption patterns. They were able to blur the distinction between “want” and “need” by creating a fantasy world in which love, youth, or elegance was available to anyone who bought a brand of toothpaste, a model car, or a new perfume. The power of advertising even influenced religion. Bruce Barton's 1925 bestseller, The Man Nobody Knows, portrayed Jesus Christ as a master salesman and the spread of Christianity as a successful advertising campaign. Providing the opportunity to buy on credit was also a powerful marketing tool. Businesses exhorted consumers to put a small amount down and pay off the balance in monthly installments, instead of saving money for an item and purchasing it with cash. As a result, Americans' savings rate dropped sharply in the '20s, and their personal debt rose. The new woman and minorities. One of the most enduring images of the 1920s is that of the flapper, a young woman with short hair, wearing a knee‐length dress, rolled‐up stockings, and unbuttoned rain boots that flapped (hence the name) when she walked. With a new look came new viewpoints and values, including a more open attitude toward premarital sex. Margaret Sanger, who had first promoted birth control before World War I as a means of sparing poor women from unwanted pregnancies, argued that the diaphragm gave women more sexual freedom. The new woman's mystique was exemplified by the heroines of F. Scott Fitzgerald's novels This Side of Paradise (1920) and The Great Gatsby (1925) and film stars such as Gloria Swanson. But the flapper represented only a small percentage of American women; for the overwhelming majority, life did not change that much. The sharp increase in the number of women in the labor force during World War I ended abruptly with the armistice. Female employment grew slowly in the 1920s, mostly in
occupations traditionally identified with women — office and social work, teaching, nursing, and apparel manufacturing — and women who worked were usually single, divorced, or widowed. Even with more women in the workplace, no progress was made on issues such as job discrimination or equal pay. At home, despite claims of creating increased leisure time, the myriad of electrical appliances on the market actually did little to alleviate the amount of housework women had to do. After the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment, women's political progress also slowed. When given the vote, for example, women cast their ballot much the same way that men did, basing their decisions on class, regional, and ethnic loyalties rather than gender. Furthermore, although the Equal Rights Amendment was first introduced in Congress in 1923, and Nellie Ross became the first woman elected the governor of a state (Wyoming) in the following year, there were still parts of the country were women could not hold public office. During the '20s, the Great Migration of African‐Americans from the rural South to the urban North continued. The black population of Chicago grew from less than 50,000 in 1910 to almost a 250,000 by 1930. The 1920s were also the time for new political and cultural developments within the African‐American community. Marcus Garvey, who advocated black pride and supported a “back to Africa” movement among American blacks, founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), which espoused black economic cooperation and established black‐owned grocery stores, restaurants, and even a steamship company known as the Black Star Line. Although Garvey was arrested and convicted of fraud, the UNIA had more than 80,000 members at its height and was the country's first mass African‐American organization. At the same time, New York's preeminent black neighborhood, Harlem, became a magnet for African‐ American artists, writers, scholars, and musicians. The creative exploration of the black experience by men and women such as Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, Countee Cullen, and Nella Larsen became known as the Harlem Renaissance. Blacks were not the only minority on the move in the 1920s. Neither the Quota Act nor the National Origins Act limited immigration from countries in the Western Hemisphere, and nearly 500,000 Mexicans entered the United States between 1921 and 1930. Although most of the Spanish‐speaking population lived in the Southwest and California and worked as farm laborers, a small percentage found factory jobs in the Midwest and were sometimes recruited by American companies. Popular culture. Commercial radio began in 1920 when Pittsburgh station KDKA broadcast the results of the presidential election. As the number of homes with radios rapidly increased (from 60,000 in 1922 to more than 10 million in 1929), the airwaves became the medium over which Americans got their news and entertainment. The business of radio was simple and supported the growing consumer culture: local radio stations affiliated themselves with national networks, such as NBC (1926) or CBS (1927), which provided programming underwritten by companies who bought air time for their commercials. Motion pictures also became a major entertainment industry during the '20s, and the leading stars of the time — Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, Charlie Chaplin, Greta Garbo, and Rudolph Valentino — became popular icons. Studios built theaters that resembled palaces, featuring mirrors, lush carpeting, and grand names such as the Rialto and the Ritz. “Going to the movies” became a social occasion and one of the main activities for young people and turned into an even greater phenomenon with the release of The Jazz Singer in 1927, the first “talking” motion picture. As the plots and themes of movies grew more suggestive and after Hollywood experienced a series of scandals, government censorship seemed likely if the industry did not “clean up its act.” In 1922, the studios established the Motion Picture Producers