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USC / Chemistry / CHEM 333 / How do you predict valency?

How do you predict valency?

How do you predict valency?

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: Chemistry
Course: Organic Chemistry I
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Final Study Guide Chem
Description: compilation of all notes from this course
Uploaded: 04/27/2017
111 Pages 103 Views 3 Unlocks
Reviews


ul.lst-kix_1w2st8h0frmj-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1w2st8h0frmj-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-2}ul.lst-kix_1w2st8h0frmj-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1w2st8h0frmj-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1w2st8h0frmj-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-3 0}.lst-kix_3clsrvjl3rvh-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-6}.lst-kix_3clsrvjl3rvh-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-6 0}.lst-kix_3clsrvjl3rvh-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_3clsrvjl3rvh-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_3clsrvjl3rvh-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-2}ol.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-1 0}.lst-kix_3clsrvjl3rvh-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-0 0}ol.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-3 0}.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-5}.lst-kix_3clsrvjl3rvh-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-2}.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-2}.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-6}.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-6 0}.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-2}ol.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-1 0}ol.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-4 0}.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_3clsrvjl3rvh-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-1}.lst-kix_3clsrvjl3rvh-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-3}.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-3,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-4 0}ol.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-4 0}ul.lst-kix_1w2st8h0frmj-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1w2st8h0frmj-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1w2st8h0frmj-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-6}.lst-kix_6qsgbgidadc0-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-3}ul.lst-kix_1w2st8h0frmj-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-0,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-8 0}.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-6}ol.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-5 0}.lst-kix_6qsgbgidadc0-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_6qsgbgidadc0-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_6qsgbgidadc0-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_5dvpd05hr0fy-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_6hgbfpu0fkte-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_6hgbfpu0fkte-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_6qsgbgidadc0-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_5dvpd05hr0fy-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-6 0}ol.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-5 0}.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_6hgbfpu0fkte-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_5dvpd05hr0fy-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-7 0}.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5dvpd05hr0fy-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-2 0}ol.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-6 0}ol.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_w5rsq01bfqhb-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_9n1k06gv9ku8-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_w5rsq01bfqhb-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_w5rsq01bfqhb-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-8}ol.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-4 0}.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-5}.lst-kix_9n1k06gv9ku8-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_w5rsq01bfqhb-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_9n1k06gv9ku8-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_w5rsq01bfqhb-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-8 0}.lst-kix_qimbacmclcpl-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-5}.lst-kix_6hgbfpu0fkte-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_qimbacmclcpl-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_qimbacmclcpl-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_6hgbfpu0fkte-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_9n1k06gv9ku8-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-1}ol.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-5 0}.lst-kix_qimbacmclcpl-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_51p3wz5x43lv-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-6 0}ol.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-7 0}.lst-kix_51p3wz5x43lv-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_h982dj7dl3rb-1 > li:before{content:"+ "}.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-0}.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-5}.lst-kix_51p3wz5x43lv-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_h982dj7dl3rb-0 > li:before{content:"+ "}ol.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-2 0}.lst-kix_51p3wz5x43lv-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_h982dj7dl3rb-5 > li:before{content:"+ "}.lst-kix_h982dj7dl3rb-4 > li:before{content:"+ "}ol.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-6 0}ol.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-3 0}.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-2}ol.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-2 0}ul.lst-kix_9n1k06gv9ku8-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-3 0}ul.lst-kix_9n1k06gv9ku8-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9n1k06gv9ku8-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9n1k06gv9ku8-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-2 0}ul.lst-kix_9n1k06gv9ku8-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9n1k06gv9ku8-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9n1k06gv9ku8-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_h982dj7dl3rb-8 > li:before{content:"+ "}ul.lst-kix_9n1k06gv9ku8-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-0}ol.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-4 0}ol.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-5}ol.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-8 0}.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-1}.lst-kix_51p3wz5x43lv-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-4}ol.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-7 0}ol.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-1}.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-6}.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-2,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-8 0}ul.lst-kix_9n1k06gv9ku8-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-3 0}ol.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-1 0}ol.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-7 0}ol.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-7 0}.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-8}ol.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-2 0}.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-7}.lst-kix_6qsgbgidadc0-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-1 0}.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-5}ol.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-0}ol.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-3 0}ol.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6qsgbgidadc0-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-0 0}ol.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-2}.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-2,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-5 0}.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-0,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-4 0}.lst-kix_6hgbfpu0fkte-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-1 0}.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-3}.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-7}.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-7}ol.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-8 0}.lst-kix_6hgbfpu0fkte-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-6 0}ol.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-3 0}.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-5}ol.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-0,upper-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-2}.lst-kix_5dvpd05hr0fy-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-3 0}ol.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-2 0}ol.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-0 0}.lst-kix_5dvpd05hr0fy-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-2,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9n1k06gv9ku8-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_w5rsq01bfqhb-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-1 0}.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-2,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-4 0}.lst-kix_qimbacmclcpl-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-2 0}.lst-kix_9n1k06gv9ku8-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-1}.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-7}.lst-kix_w5rsq01bfqhb-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-1 0}.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-7}.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-8}.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-6}ol.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_qimbacmclcpl-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_qimbacmclcpl-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-1 0}ol.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-6 0}ol.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-0 0}.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-4}.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_9n1k06gv9ku8-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-0,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-3 0}ol.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-0}.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-0}.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-7}.lst-kix_1w2st8h0frmj-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-4}.lst-kix_1w2st8h0frmj-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-1}.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-7}.lst-kix_1w2st8h0frmj-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-8}.lst-kix_1w2st8h0frmj-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1w2st8h0frmj-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_w5rsq01bfqhb-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w5rsq01bfqhb-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w5rsq01bfqhb-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w5rsq01bfqhb-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-5 0}ol.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-5 0}.lst-kix_1w2st8h0frmj-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_w5rsq01bfqhb-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1w2st8h0frmj-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-0 0}.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-4}ol.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-5 0}ul.lst-kix_w5rsq01bfqhb-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1w2st8h0frmj-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_w5rsq01bfqhb-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-7 0}ul.lst-kix_w5rsq01bfqhb-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1w2st8h0frmj-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_w5rsq01bfqhb-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-0}.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-0}ul.lst-kix_6qsgbgidadc0-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-8}ul.lst-kix_6qsgbgidadc0-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-7 0}ol.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-3 0}.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-7}ol.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-5 0}.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-4}.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-0}ol.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-0 0}ol.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-0 0}ul.lst-kix_6qsgbgidadc0-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6qsgbgidadc0-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-5 0}ul.lst-kix_6qsgbgidadc0-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6qsgbgidadc0-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6qsgbgidadc0-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6qsgbgidadc0-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6qsgbgidadc0-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-3}ol.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-2 0}ol.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-0 0}ol.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-4 0}ol.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-2 0}.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-1,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_h982dj7dl3rb-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_h982dj7dl3rb-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-4,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_h982dj7dl3rb-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_h982dj7dl3rb-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-3,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_h982dj7dl3rb-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_h982dj7dl3rb-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_h982dj7dl3rb-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_h982dj7dl3rb-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-2 0}.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-4}.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-2,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_h982dj7dl3rb-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-4 0}.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-4}.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-0}.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-4}.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-5}.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-5}.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-8}.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-1,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-5,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-3,decimal) ") "}ol.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-3}ol.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-7 0}ol.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-0 0}ol.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-3}ol.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-6 0}ol.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-4}ol.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-2}ol.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-4 0}.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-4}ol.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-8 0}ol.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-7 0}.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-3}ol.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-8 0}ol.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-0 0}.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-7}.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-5 0}ul.lst-kix_qimbacmclcpl-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qimbacmclcpl-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-1 0}ul.lst-kix_qimbacmclcpl-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qimbacmclcpl-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qimbacmclcpl-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_51p3wz5x43lv-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_qimbacmclcpl-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qimbacmclcpl-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_51p3wz5x43lv-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_qimbacmclcpl-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qimbacmclcpl-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-3}.lst-kix_51p3wz5x43lv-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-8}.lst-kix_51p3wz5x43lv-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_h982dj7dl3rb-2 > li:before{content:"+ "}.lst-kix_h982dj7dl3rb-6 > li:before{content:"+ "}.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-6}.lst-kix_h982dj7dl3rb-3 > li:before{content:"+ "}.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-1}ol.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_h982dj7dl3rb-7 > li:before{content:"+ "}ol.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-8}ol.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-2 0}.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-8 0}ol.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-0 0}.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-3}.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-5}.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-8}ol.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-1 0}.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-3}ol.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-8 0}.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-4}ol.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-1 0}ol.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-8 0}.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-0}ol.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-7 0}.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-1}ol.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-6}ol.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-6}.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-6}.lst-kix_6qsgbgidadc0-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-3 0}ol.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-8 0}.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-6}.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_5dvpd05hr0fy-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4eo485uncjq3-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4eo485uncjq3-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_6hgbfpu0fkte-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_6qsgbgidadc0-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-2,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-6 0}ul.lst-kix_3clsrvjl3rvh-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-1}.lst-kix_5dvpd05hr0fy-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_3clsrvjl3rvh-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3clsrvjl3rvh-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-5 0}.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-8}.lst-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q837wmhfpw6n-8}.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-0,decimal) ") "}ul.lst-kix_6hgbfpu0fkte-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6hgbfpu0fkte-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6hgbfpu0fkte-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_xe9b2ilx7qds-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-4,lower-latin) ") "}ul.lst-kix_6hgbfpu0fkte-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6hgbfpu0fkte-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5dvpd05hr0fy-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_6hgbfpu0fkte-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-8,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_6hgbfpu0fkte-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-2}.lst-kix_dvgzpomis72e-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dvgzpomis72e-5}.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-7}ul.lst-kix_6hgbfpu0fkte-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3clsrvjl3rvh-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3clsrvjl3rvh-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3clsrvjl3rvh-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3clsrvjl3rvh-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6hgbfpu0fkte-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3clsrvjl3rvh-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3clsrvjl3rvh-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_51p3wz5x43lv-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_51p3wz5x43lv-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_w5rsq01bfqhb-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_lm2kgpy7z4zs-7}ul.lst-kix_51p3wz5x43lv-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-6 0}ul.lst-kix_5dvpd05hr0fy-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5dvpd05hr0fy-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5dvpd05hr0fy-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5dvpd05hr0fy-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5dvpd05hr0fy-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-4,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_5dvpd05hr0fy-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5dvpd05hr0fy-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5dvpd05hr0fy-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-1}.lst-kix_9n1k06gv9ku8-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_w5rsq01bfqhb-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-3}ul.lst-kix_51p3wz5x43lv-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9n1k06gv9ku8-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_51p3wz5x43lv-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_51p3wz5x43lv-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-0,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_51p3wz5x43lv-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_51p3wz5x43lv-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_51p3wz5x43lv-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kw9bp7kp1gfk-7 0}.lst-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sfch1gq82oeg-2}.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-0}.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_6hgbfpu0fkte-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q3gsyge1pv82-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_qimbacmclcpl-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_9yz9jtw9fyhl-4 0}ul.lst-kix_5dvpd05hr0fy-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ous9grpc2qhh-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nd8b2hapt4qb-1}.lst-kix_qimbacmclcpl-6 > li:before{content:"● "}

        Periodic table from the Org. Chemistry POV If you want to learn more check out Why does a change in government spending have a larger effect on aggregate demand (ad) than a change in taxes?

        1         2                                        3        4        5        6        7        8

        HWe also discuss several other topics like Why would someone want to escape into substances and be at risk of an addiction?

        Li                                                B        C        N        O        FIf you want to learn more check out What is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the united states?

        Na        Mg                                        Al        Si        P        S        Cl

        K                                                                                BrDon't forget about the age old question of What is the process of understanding?

                                                                                        I

                                                        B & I - most organic chem here Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of a brown dwarf star?

  1. Predict valence electrons (outer shell electrons)
  • # of valence shell electrons for a neutral element - group #

Ex: Carbon (C) is a group 4 and has 4 valence electronsWe also discuss several other topics like What is the r group of the amino acid r?

  1. Predict electronegativity trends
  • EN = how much an atom wants electrons

 

Hydrogen is an exception.                                                        F is the most electronegative

        Fr is least electronegative

* hydrogen’s electronegativity is somewhere between carbon & Boron

Predict Bond Polarization

  1. Predict covalent & ionic bonds
  • Covalent - 2 atoms share 2 electrons (fairly similar electronegativities)
  • Ionic - 1 atom takes both electrons
  • 1 atom loses both electrons

        (1 atom has + charge)

        ( 1 atom has - charge)

        (very different electronegativities)

* If something from group 1 or 2 bonds with something from groups 3-7, it is ionic*

        Si -- O - ionic or covalent?

        Answer: Covalent!

        Na - Cl - ionic or covalent? A: Ionic!

        Exception: H - Cl - ionic or covalent?

  1. Covalent! (because hydrogen is an exception to EN trends)

Why do atoms form bonds?

  1. By forming bonds, atoms can complete their valence shells
  2. When you form a bond; electrons have more freedom.

How to draw molecules::

  1. Molecular formula

Ex: CH4 - Methane

  1. Lewis Structure

Ex:                                                 tell us how atoms are bonded

  1. 3D Models

* The typical bonding arrangements are for neutral atoms without formal charge*

        Formal charges: - atom has too many valence electrons

  • = atoms has too few valence electrons

        Formal charge = (“normal” # valence electrons) - (# of bonds) - (# unbonded electrons)

                                                

     Group #                                               2 (# LP)

  1. Molecular orbital models

        Lewis Structures

  • Based on counting electrons and filling valence shells
  1. Start with typical bonding arrangements for each atom

Using typical bonding arrangements to draw molecules

        * When we have dangling bonds, we try to make double or triple bonds or a ring! *

Problem: Assign formal charges to Lewis structure where all electrons are shown

  1. Look for atoms with typical bonding arrangements and ignorance
  2.  Only calculate formal charge for deviations from typical bonding arrangements

 Formal charge C = 4 - 3 - 2

=1

Formal charge N = 5 - 4 - 0 = +1

 Common Mistakes in Drawing Lewis Structures

  1. Exceeding octet rule for 2nd row elements
  • Counting electrons for octet rule is different than for formal charges
  1. Try to avoid +2, -2, +3, -3 formal charges on a single atom
  2. Try to fill valence shells even over putting formal charges on atoms (formal charges aren't bad, but not filling a valence shell is very bad)
  3. Try avoiding bonding electronegative atoms to each other

Keys to success:

  • Do the problems!
  • Practice!
  • Active studying!
  • Go to class!
  • Dont fall behind!

Ch 1 in text book: Do problems 2-23

Class goals:

  1. Learn organic chemistry
  • Predict structure, properties, reactivity of organic molecules
  1. Learn to study

 Most important thing to watch:

  • Electrons

Look at molecule:

  1. Which atoms have electrons
  2. Which atoms need electrons
  3. Which atoms can give or receive electrons

      3. Try to fill valence shells even over putting formal charges on atoms (formal charges aren’t bad, but not filling a valence shell is very bad)

  1. Try avoiding bonding electronegative atoms to each other

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