Final Exam Study Guide
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Adams on Tuesday April 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NUTR 1000 at Ohio University taught by Angie Bohyer in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 238 views.
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Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 Chapter 1 Malnutrition de ciencies imbalances and excess of nutrients alone or in combination any of which can take a toll on health over time Four Goals of Healthy People 2020 Increase longevity Eliminate disparities and achieve health equities Promote good healthy through social and physical movement Span all life stages improve quality of life healthy development and health behaviors DWNH Classes of Nutrients all essential Water Carbohydrates organic and yields energy Fat organic and yields energy Protein organic yields energy and forms body tissue Vitamins organic and a regulator Minerals regulator PWPPPH Organic nutrients that contain carbon derived from living things Yields Energy the body can use the energy they contain calories Regulator participates in the processes necessary for life EX digesting food moving muscles Essential Nutrients without them you ll have de ciencies The caloric content of food is the amount of energy it provides Carbs 4 cals per gram Fats 9 cals per gram Proteins 4 cals per gram Phytochemicals compounds in plant derived from food and decrease risk for disease Food Types Whole Foods basics EX milk meats veggies Enrichedforti ed foods nutrients are added to the food Fast Foods restaurant foods that are available within minutes after ordered Functional Foods whole or modi ed foods that contain bioactive food components believed to provide health bene ts Medical Foods speci cally manufactured for disorders Natural Foods a term that has no legal de nition but is often used to imply wholesomeness 7 Natraceutical foods nutrients or dietary supplements believed to have medical effects DWNH 99 Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 8 Organic with carbon without pesticides 9 Processed subjected to any process 10 Staple foods used frequently or daily EX rice Five Characteristics to Nutrition 1 Adequacy provides all essential nutrients ber and energy in the right amount Balance foods of a number of types in portion to each other Calorie Control control of energy intake Moderation set limits not to excess Variety wide selection of foods U1IgtUJN Research Methods Case Study speci c examples observation Epidemiological Study study of whole populations Intervention Study intervene to alter diet Lab Study performed under tightly controlled conditions and that pinpoint cause and effect Chapter 2 DWNH The Dietary Reference Intakes DRI are a set of 4 values used to measure the nutrient intakes of people in the US and Canada This is for heathy people based on research speci c for age and gender 1 RDA Recommended Dietary Allowances nutrient intakes goals for individuals 2 Al Adequate Intakes used to plan or evaluate the nutrient intake of an individual 3 EAR Estimates Average Requirements the average nutrient requirement that may be used by researches or nutrition policy makers 4 UL Tolerable Upper Intake Levels intakes above UL lever are at risk for toxicity Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges 1 Carbs 4565 of calories 2 Fat 2035 of calories 3 Protein 1035 of calories Daily Values appear on food labels and applies to the quotaveragequot person who consumes 20002500 calories MyPlate Recommendations 1 Fruit 2 cups 2 Veggies 2 12 cups Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 Grains 6 02 Protein 5 12 02 Dairy 3 cups Oils 5 12 tsp Fats 258 calories HPP P Discretionary Calorie Allowance the balance of calories remaining in a person39s energy balance of calories remaining in a person39s energy allowance after accounting for the number of calories needed to meet recommended nutrient intakes through consumption of nutrient dense foods Nutrient Dense Foods Grains whole grains lowfat bread cereals quinoa brown rice wheat pasta Veggies dark green orange and yellow and legume Fruit fresh apples bananas grapefruit Dairy fatfree milk fatfree yogurt cheese Protein poultry sh shell sh legumes eggs lean meats tofu tempeh and peanut butter Chapter 3 The Body39s Cells 0 Cells work in cooperation with each other to support the whole body 0 Skin cells and red blood cells reproduce quickly 0 Liver cells reproduce quickly 0 Brain cells do not reproduce Hormones o Hormones communicate changing conditions that demand responses from the organs 0 The pancreas releases insulin when it detects a high concentration of blood sugar glucose 0 Along with the nervous system hormones regulate hunger and affect appetite The Nervous System 0 Sensations of hunger and appetite are perceived by the brain39s cortex the thinking outer layer 0 The hypothalamus monitors the body s conditions and sends signals to the brain39s thinking portion the cortex which decides on action 0 The pituitary gland is called the body39s master gland referring to its role in regulates the activities of other glands and organs in the body Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 The Digestive System Peristalsis the wavelike muscular squeezing of the esophagus stomach and small intestine that pushes their contents along Fiver is necessary for peristalsis in the colon Digestion begins in the mouth saliva starts breaking down start and another enzyme begins the digestion The stomach is next in digestion Cells released gastric juice a mixture of water enzymes and hydrochloric acid which breaks down protein Next mucus coats and protects the digestive tract lining In the small intestine that majority of digestion happens lt digests and absorbs the nutrients Hormones work with the small intestine to signal other organs to send in helpers The gallbladder sends in bile and the pancreas to release pancreatic juice Bacteria in the colon break down certain bers Storage Systems Glycogen a storage form of carbohydrates energy Body Fat also called adipose tissue Glycogen is stored in the liver and in your muscles Liver glycogen only lasts about 36 hours There is only a limited amount of space so our major storage is in body fat Chapter 4 Complex Carbohydrates Long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or ber Monosaccha rides o Fructose glucose and galactose o Fructose glucosesucrose Glucose Glucosemaltose Glucose Galactoselactose Chapter 5 Importance of Fats in the Body Stores energy Fuels muscles Emergency reserve of fuel Provides padding Provides insulation Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 0 Forms the major material of cell membrane 0 Converted into raw material such as hormones bile and vitamin D Importance of Fats in Foods Nutrient fats provide fatty acid Provides energy Transports vitamins Provides raw material Sensory appeal of taste and smell Fats stimulate the appetite Satiety fats create fullness Textures our food Three classes of fats Triglycerides phospholipids and sterols o Triglycerides contain most of the fat in our foods and bodies and are made up of fatty acids and glycerol 95 of fats are in triglycerides Cholesterol is found in sterols The primary role of phospholipids is playing a key role in cell membranes Saturated fats Triglycerides in which most of the fatty acids are saturated Trans fats fats that contain any number of unusual fatty acids formed during processing Monounsaturated fats Triglycerides in which most of the fatty acids have one point of unsaturation Polyunsaturated fats Triglycerides in which most of the fatty acids have two or more points of unsaturation The more unsaturated the fatty acids the more liquid the fat is at room temperature The more saturated the fatty acids the rmer the fat When polyunsaturated oils are hardened by hydrogen some of the unsaturated fatty acids change their shapes instead of becoming saturated Hydrogenation is a process that alters the fatty acids to make the product last longer Visible fats purchases and used as fats such as butter Invisible fats fats that are hidden and not immediately noticeable such as cheese or salad dressing The Process of Lipid Digestion and Absorption In the mouth and stomach little digestion takes place Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 In the small intestine digestive enzymes accomplish most digestion using bile Separates triglycerides into free fatty acids glycerol and monogycerides At the intestinal lining absorption through villi and the glycerol and fatty acids enter into the bloodstream The cells of the intestinal lining convert large lipid fragments back into triglycerides and combine them with protein forming lipoprotein and them they go into the bloodstream The large intestine ber from cholesterol is extracted and exits through feces DRI Recommendations for cholesterol saturated fat trans fat and total fat Cholesterol 300 milligrams per day Saturated fat less than 10 of your calorie intake Trans fat keep as low as possible Total fat 2035 of calorie intake Low Density Lipoproteins transport cholesterol and other lipids to the tissues transport lipids from the liver to other tissues such as muscles and fat containing a large portion of cholesterol Larger and riche in cholesterol than HDLs Can trigger in ammation that may contribute to a heart attack High Density Lipoproteins critical in carrying cholesterol away from body cells to the liver for disposal return cholesterol from the tissues to the liver for dismantling and disposal containing a large portion of protein Smaller denser and packaged with more protein than LDLs Opposes in ammatory processes and protects against heart attacks The two main dietary factors that are associated with an increase in blood cholesterol that contribute to heart disease are high saturated fat intake and trans fat intake The Two Essential Fatty Acids shown to lower blood pressure prevent blood clot formation and protect against irregular heartbeats Can prevent heart disease 1 Omega 6 2 Omega 3 Characteristic of Essential Fatty Acids Provide raw material Serve as structural and functional parts of cells membranes Contribute lipids to the brain and nerves Promote normal growth and vision Assist in gene regulation Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 0 Maintain outer structures of the skin preventing water loss 0 Regulates genetic activities affecting metabolism 0 Supports immune cell functions Chapter 6 Protein Synthesis 0 Proteins are composed of long strands of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds 0 Amino acids contain nitrogen The order of amino acids in protein is based on a person39s genetic code 0 There are twenty amino acids in the human body and each has a unique side chain that gives the complete protein its unique shape and function 0 There are 9 amino acids that are considered essential and the other 11 are called nonessential amino acids Protein digestion beings in the stomach The acid denatures the protein strands and an enzyme cleaves amino acids strands into polypeptides and a few amino acids The small intestine is responsible for secreting enzymes for protein digestion The acceptable intake range for protein is 1030 of calories or 08 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight Nitrogen Balance the amount of nitrogen consumed compared with the amount excreted in a given time period Protein Quality 0 Complete Proteins provide all the essential amino acids They are found in animal protein sources Incomplete Proteins are missing one or more essential amino acids They are found in the protein in grains veggies and all legumes except soy Protein quality is determined by the protein39s digestibility amino acid composition and digestibility Complementary Proteins two or more proteins whose amino acid assortment complement each other in such a way that essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other Chapter 7 Vitamin organic that are vital to life and indispensable to body functions but are needed only in minute amounts noncaloric essential nutrients Two Major Classes of Vitamins Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 1 Fat Soluble Vitamins A D E and K absorbed rst into the lymph and the blood must travel with protein carriers not readily excreted toxicities are likely from supplements needed in periodic doses a Characteristics dissolve in fats and oils of food require bile for absorption stored in tissues may be toxic in excess 2 Water Soluble Vitamins B and C absorbed directly into blood travel freely readily excreted toxicities unlikely needed in frequent doses a Characteristics dissolve in water easily absorbed and excreted are not stored extensively in tissues seldom reach toxic level Fat Soluble Vitamins Vitamin Precursor Function De ciency Food Sources A Betacarotene Vision Blindness Forti ed milk xerophthalimiaperm beef liver anent blindness carrots D a cholesterol Important for Osetomalcia bones Enriched compound in bone health become soft and cereal cod our skin brittle liver sardines milk E Acts as an Anemia Mayo antioxidant saf ower oil which canola oil prevents free sun ower radicals seeds K Necessary for long term antibiotic Dark leafy synthesis of use destroys bacteria veggies liver blood clotting that makes it proteins Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin Function De ciency Food Sources C Helps enzymes do Scurvy loose teeth Orange juice bell theirjob and acts as anemia wounds peppers broccoli an antioxidant that don39t heal strawberries Thiamin Bl Part of coenzyme Edema confusion Pork and ham appetite for energy metabolism important for nervous system and and loss of re exes whole grains and legumes Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 Ribo avin BZ Helps with good Aribo avinois skin Milk beef liver vision and healthy rash yogurt cottage skin part of cheese coenzyme for energy metabolism Niacin B3 part of coenzyme Pellagra dermatitis Protein foods milk for energy diarrhea dementia eggs meat poultry metabolism and death and sh Whole promotes health of grains nervous system digestion system Folate Part of coenzyme Anemia Beef liver lentils for new cell pinto beans spinach synthesis 36 Part of coenzyme Anemia Beef liver baked used in protein and potato banana fatty acid chicken breast metabolism helps make red blood cells 312 Part of coenzyme Anemia Chicken liver for new cell sardines sirloin synthesis helps steak tuna cottage make red blood cells cheese Chapter 9 The Three Indicators of Health Risk and Obesity 1 BMI 2 Waist Circumference 3 Disease Risk Pro le Visceral fat fat stored within the abdominal cavity in association with the internal abdominal organs Subcutaneous fat fat stored directly under the skin Basal Metabolic Rate the rate at which the body uses energy to support its basal metabolism Factors that affect BMR Age Height Growth Fever Stress NPPPPPH Body composition Environmental temperature Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 8 Fastingstarvation 9 Malnutrition 10 Thyroxine Hunger the physiological need to eat experienced as drive for obtaining food Happens around four to six hours after eating when the hormone ghrein is produced by the stomach Satiation the perception of fullness that builds throughout a mean eventually reaching the degree of fullness and satisfaction that halts eating The hormone eptin is produced by adipose tissue and regulates appetite by traveling via bloodstream to the brain It is signaled when the body has a gain in fatness and then stops the feelings of hunger and the need to eat Keytone Bodies are produced when the body is de cient of glucose They are produced to help feed the brain and do the job that carbs normally do This is not safe long term Chapter 10 Aerobic Activity activity in which the body39s large muscles move in a rhythmic manner for a sustained period of time EX brisk walking running swimming and biking Aerobic activity requires oxygen o It improves cardiorespiratory tness Anerobic Activity may require strength but does not work the heart or lungs very hard for a sustained period 0 Does not require oxygen Draws on glycogen supply to fuel work out but that supply is limited 0 High intensity work outs produce so much lactate that the liver cannot process it which in turn creates muscle Chapter 11 Leading Causes of Death Related to Diet Heart Disease Cancer Stroke Diabetes DWNH Adequate nutrition is key to maintain the best immune support Dietary Factors to Reduce Risk of Cardiovascular Disease CVD Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 Choose lean meats veggies and lowfat products Eat a lot of soluble bers potassium and sodium Minimize added sugars Get plenty of omega3 fatty acids Consume foods with phytoserols Limit alcohol intake Limit saturated fat to 7 of total calories Limit trans fat to less than 1 Metabolic Syndrome a combination of characteristic factorshigh fasting blood glucose or insulin resistance central obesity hypertension low blood HDL cholesterol and elevated triglyceridesthat greatly increase a person39s risk of developing CVD It increases in ammation and elevates the risk for thrombosis which is a process that starts heart attacks and strokes Recommended Values 0 Cholesterol lt200 0 LDL lt100 o HDL greater than or equal to 60 o Triglycerides lt150 Hypertension higher than normal blood pressure Ideal resting blood pressure lower than 120 over 80 Minerals that regulate blood pressure calcium potassium magnesium and vitamin C Lifestyle modi cations that help reduce blood pressure Weight reduction DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension eating plan Sodium restriction Physical activity Moderate alcohol consumption Diet and Physical Activity Factors that Affect Cancer Risk Energy intake can increase or decrease risk Obesity increases Physical activity level can increase or decrease Alcohol increase Fat and fatty acids increase Red meats increase Fiberrich foods decrease Folate and antioxidant vitamins decrease Calcium and vitamin D decrease lron increase Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 0 Foods and phytochemicals decrease Recommendations for Reducing Cancer Reduce body fatness Physical activitiy Foods and drinks that promote weight gain limit consumption Eat plant foods Limit intake of animal foods especially red meat Limit alcohol drinks Preservation processing and preparation Limit salts and moldy grains Dietary supplements aim to meet nutritional needs Chapter 8 Water enters the body through foods liquids and water created by metabolism which is called metabolic water Water is lost through the kidneys skin feces and the lungs This include evaporation of sweat the moisture of exhaled breath in the urine and in the feces Factors that In uence Fluid Needs Alcohol consumption Cold weather Dietary ber Diseases that disturb water balance such as diabetes and kidney diseases Forcedair environments such as airplanes and sealed buildings Heated environments High altitude Hot weather high humidity Increases protein salt or sugar intakes Ketosis Medications diuretics Physical activity Pregnancy and breastfeeding Prolonged diarrhea vomiting or fever Surgery blood loss or burns Very young or old age Consuming water is the best option to stay hydrated because it has no calories There are two types of water hard and soft Hard Water high concentration of calcium and magnesium Soft Water high amounts of sodium and dissolves cadmium and lead from popes which can be absorbed into the body causing harm High levels of sodium in a diet can cause hypertension a very negative health effect Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 You can hydrate through coffee tea nonfat lowfat and soy milk arti cially sweetened beverages and fruit and vegetable juice All these drinks come with added calories and often added sugars Plain water is usually the best choice to hydrate Fluid and Electrolyte Balance maintenance of the proper amounts and kinds of uids and minerals in each compartment of the body Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance failure to maintain the proper amounts and kinds of uids and minerals in every body compartment a medical emergency Mineral salts form electrolytes that kelp keep uids in their proper compartments and buffer these uids permitting all life processes to take place Without proper balance the loss can disrupt the heartbeat and threatens life Minerals Mineral Functions De ciencies Food Sources Calcium Mineralization of Stunted growth Sardines cheddar bones and teeth and weak bones in cheese mik muscle contraction children bone loss turnip greens tofu and relaxation in adults nerve functioning osteoporosis and blood clotting Phosphorus Mineralization of Muscular weakness Cottage cheese bones and teeth part of phospholipids important in genetic material energy metabolism and buffering systems and bone pain salmon milk and sirloin Magnesium Bone mineralization protein synthesis enzyme action muscle contraction nerve function tooth maintenance and immune function Weakness confusion In extreme oss convulsions hallucinations and dif culty swallowing In children growth failure Spinach bran cereal black beans oysters soy milk and yogurt Sodium Maintains body uid and electrolyte balances and helps maintain acidbase Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 balances Potassium Maintains normal Muscle weakness Salmon orange uid and paralysis juice bakes potato electrolyte confusion banana honeydew balance facilitates chemical reactions supports ce integrity assists in nerve function and muscle contractions melon ima beans avocado Identify the trace minerals important in human nutrition and their physiological roles in the body the consequences of de ciencies and their most important food SOUFCES Trace Minerals Trace Minerals Functions De ciencies Food Sources Iodine Part of the hormone Thyroxine which is made by the thyroid gland Regulates the body s metabolic rate temperature reproduction growth heart Goiter enlarged thyroids that causes people to be sluggish and gain weight Cretinism de ciency in pregnant women that cause mental Iodized salt seafood and bread functions and physical retardation in the infant Iron Carries oxygen as Anemia weakness Clams enriched part of hemoglobin fatigue impaired cereals beef steak in blood or mental and spinach navy myoglobin in physical work beans swiss chard muscles required impaired and black beans for cellular energy immunity metabolism Zinc Activates many Growth retardation Oysters shrimp enzymes delayed sexual beef steak associated with maturation enriched cereals hormones impaired immune yogurt and pork synthesis of genetic material and proteins function hair loss eye and skin lesions and loss of chops Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 transport of appetite vitamin A taste perception wound healing and reproduction Selenium Assists a group of Predisposition to a Seafood organ enzymes that form of heart meat other meats defend against disease whole grains and oxidation characterized by brazil nuts brous cardiac Ussue Fluoride Helps form bones Susceptibility to Drinking water with and teeth confers tooth decay uoride tea and decay resistance seafood on teeth Chromium Associated with Abnormal glucose Meat unre ned insulin needed for metabolism grains and energy release vegetables oils from glucose Copper Helps with Anemia and bone Organ meats hemoglobin part abnormalities seafood nuts of several enzymes seeds whole grains and drinking water It has been proven there is a correlation between diet and developing osteoporosis Some of those factors include low calcium diet low milk diet in children low protein diet and low vitamin D status Calcium and vitamin D are very important for bone health Getting the right amounts can help reduce the risk for osteoporosis Also getting the right amount of protein will help Chapter 13 Importance of Adequate Nutrition Before Pregnancy adequate nutrition before pregnancy establishes physical readiness and nutrient stores to support fetal growth Both underweight and overweight women should strive for appropriate body weights before pregnancy Newborn who weigh less than 5 12 pounds face greater health risk than normalweight babies The healthy development of the placenta depends on adequate nutrition before pregnancy Importance of Adequate Nutrition During Pregnancy Pregnancy demands an increase in intake of energy and nutrients A balanced diet that includes more Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 nutrientdense foods from the ve food groups can help to meet these needs Diet directly affects the health and growth of the baby Folate helps form the neural tube and without it the baby can develop Sinpa Bifida Vitamin BlZ assists folate with manufacture of new cells Vitamin D helps protect the baby from developing Rickets Calcium need to double calcium intake to help the baby form strong bones Iron need iron to increase blood volume to provide for placental and fetal needs Zinc vital for protein synthesis and cell development during pregnancy Special Dietary Needs for Pregnant Teens because the teen is still growing she will have a hard enough time getting enough nutrients for herself let along a fetus De ciencies of vitamin 312 and D folate and iron are common and need to be monitored A teen with a normal BMI is encouraged to gain around 35 pounds to support the needs of both the mother and baby No level of alcohol beverage intake is safe or advisable during pregnancy 0 Halts the delivery of oxygen through the umbilical cord which affects the brain and nervous system This slows down cell division 0 The fetal brain is growing at a rate of 100000 new brain cells a minute so even a few minutes of alcohol consumption can cause detrimental effects 0 It interferes with pacenta transport of nutrients to the fetus and can cause malnutrition in the mother The impacts of Gestational Diabetes on the Health of a Pregnant Woman and the Fetus Mothers who develop it typically develop other forms of diabetes within a few years 0 Risk of fetal or infant illness or mortality Often leads to surgical birth and high infant birthweight The Impacts of Preeclampsia on the Health of a Pregnant Woman Affects almost all of the mother39s organscirculatory system liver kidneys and the brain 0 If progressed can cause seizures 0 Rare occurrences of maternal death Breast Milk An Ideal Food Source for Infants 0 Provides the appropriate composition and balance of nutrients with high bioavailability Provides hormones that promote physiological development Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 Improves cognitive development Protects against a variety of infections 0 May protect against some chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension later in life Protects against food allergies Is an excellent source of vitamin D Easily digested The Introduction of Solid Foods into the Diet 0 Introduce cereal mixed with breast milk and pureed foods when the baby is able to sit erect beings chewing action indicates desire for food by opening mouth and leaning forward indicates satiety brings hands to mouth and grasps objects with palm of the hand typically around 46 months 0 Introduce baby food mashed veggies and fruits and juices when the baby is able to feed self with ngers can quotpinchquot with nger and thumb and is able to drink from a cup typically around 68 months 0 Introduce breads yogurt pieces of soft cooked veggies and fruit and nely cut meats cheese eggs and legumes when the baby can hold his or her own bottle reaches for and grabs spoon and can sit unsupported typically around 810 months 0 Introduce variety and increase portion size when the baby beings to master the spoon typically around 1012 months Feeding Guidelines encouraging normal eating behaviors and autonomy in the child The rst year is the time to lay the foundation for future health Encourage healthy eating habits Avoid concentrated sweets Encourage physical activity Childhood Obesity and Chronic Diseases 0 Correlation with development of type 2 diabetes Atherosclerosis begins in childhood 0 Correlation with development of heart disease due to high blood cholesterol and high blood pressure Chapter 14 Children have different nutritional requirements than adults Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 Energy for 23 years 10001400 cals for females 48 years 12001800 and 913 years 14002200 for males 48 years 14002000 and 913 years 18002600 Protein younger children need less protein Carbs the brain uses glucose and children39s brains are relative large compared to their bodies which means they need a decent amount of carbsA Fiber 13 years19 grams 48 years25 grams 913 females26 grams and males31 grams 1418 years females26 grams and males 38 grams Fat and Fatty Acid should make up 3040 of energy for children 13 years and 2535 of energy for children 418 years Vitamins and Minerals as a children grows so does their need for vitamins and minerals 0 Vitamin D should provide 10 micrograms a day 0 Iron should provide 710 micrograms a day how a food allergy can impact diet Teens and Vitamin D Essential for bone growth and development but half of teens are de cient Recommended amounts 10 micrograms per day Many teens fall short on making their vitamin D requirements Vitamin D forti ed milk is a great option to get your requirement but many teens are choosing soda over milk Life Expectancy the average number of years lived by people in a given society 70 depends on an individual39s health related behaviors and genes determine the remaining 2030 Life Span the maximum number of years of life attainable by a member of a species 130 years Lifestyle Factors Associated with Successful Aging Nonsmoker Abstain or drink alcohol only moderately Physical Activity spend more than 150 minutes per week in physical activity Staying wellnourished consume sufficient fruits and veggies Main a healthy body weight Nutrition Concerns in Aging Energy need decreases after the age of 50 energy intake recommendations decrease by 5 per decade Final Exam Study Guide NUTR 1000 Fiber low intakes make constipation likely Protein needs stay the same Vitamin A absorption increases so more is needed Vitamin 812 malabsorption of some forms for supplements are often bene cial Vitamin D increased likelihood of inadequate intake and skin synthesis declines Moderately sunlight exposure is bene cial Water lack of thirst and increases urine output makes dehydration likely Iron In women status improves after menopause De ciencies though are linked to chronic blood losses and low stomach acid output Zinc often inadequate and absorption is sometimes poor Needs increase Calcium intakes are often low and osteoporosis becomes common DrugNutrient Interactions Oral contraceptives often affect a woman39s folate vitamin 312 and vitamin B6 Caffeine affects water loss Tobacco affects absorption of ber vitamins and minerals Illicit drugs can lessen the desire for nutritious foods causes malnutrition Information came from Sizer F amp Whitney E 2011 Nutrition Concepts and controversies 12th ed pp 2572 Belmont Calif Wadsworth Cengage Learning
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