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SDSU / Business Administration / BA 350 / What field of study investigates impact that individual, group, and co

What field of study investigates impact that individual, group, and co

What field of study investigates impact that individual, group, and co


School: San Diego State University
Department: Business Administration
Course: Organizational Behavior
Professor: Beth chung
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: business, ob, and organizationabusiness
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1
Description: Study Guide for Exam 1
Uploaded: 04/28/2017
13 Pages 245 Views 0 Unlocks

♦ Coping with different cultures  how do organizations cope?

Femininity – what values do you actually care about?

♦ How does this change nature of work?

Review Sheet for Exam #1: Fall 2017 (covers week 1 –week 4) MGT350 – Prof. Chung  Add in questions at the end! Intro to Organizational Behavior (pp 1-26) ♦ What is OB? Field of study that investigates impact that individual, group, and  contextual factors have on behavior w/in organization for purpose of improWe also discuss several other topics like is hg2i2 soluble in water
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We also discuss several other topics like What is the standard form of a sphere?
ving  organizational effectiveness ♦ All about making work better ♦ Open systems framework  orgs affects by outside environment, also affect outside environment  ♦ Open Systems Model  ♦ Open Systems Principles: ♦ Orgs = living entities = have personalities ♦ All systems w/in and outside are interrelated and must be congruent  ♦ People & relationships are primary determinant for success (esp. for service  orgs) ♦ Informal vs. formal organization  OB is about the informal organization ♦ Formal: part that is on the surface – finances, building, descriptions ♦ Informal: part that’s beneath the surface: not always recognized – attitudes,  norms, motivations, etc.  ♦ Hawthorne studies  how to improve productivity ♦ First result: increase in productivity due to researchers attention – people caring  made a difference ♦ Second: employees have needs beyond $$ ♦ Third: informal groups can have influence on behavior (“rate buster” – too  much/too little) – when people work together, create informal groups and set  certain standards/norms  ♦ Higher norms = higher productivity ♦ Informal group has huge influence on how people work ♦ Definition of management  ♦ Planning: fore looking process of what to do – setting objectives ♦ 3 levels of goals: ♦ 1. Strategic: goals of whole organization ♦ 2. Functional: goals of the unit and how it operates (department based) ♦ 3. Operational: individual goals that are measured ♦ Organizing: structuring people to do the right tasks – who needs to do what ♦ Matching tasks with skills ♦ Directing: getting people to move towards what you want them to♦ About motivation and leadership ♦ Inspiring people to reach beginning goals ♦ Controlling: measuring results – are we going in right direction?  ♦ Assessing performance ♦ Levels of managers (pyramid) ♦ Top Level: (C-Level, Exec Level)  CEO, CFO, COO, CIO ♦ Make decisions, develop new product, set general direction for organization ♦ Middle Level: director, branch manager, etc. (wide range) ♦ Coordinate activities, pass things up, pass things down  ♦ Kind of ignored sometimes, (cut during recession) ♦ First Level: team leader, supervisor, department manager ♦ Deal with day-to-day function ♦ Managerial skills  ♦ Conceptual skills: ability to see bigger picture – see organization as a whole  (cognitive skills) ♦ Think strategically, step back from situations ♦ Need more at top levels ♦ Human Skills: ability to work effectively w/ others as leader and team player ♦ Create trust, relationships ♦ Need at all 3 levels ♦ Most important skill!! ♦ Technical Skills: having specific knowledge to make goods/services that org  provides ♦ Selling, programming, etc. ♦ Need less at higher levels ♦ Time spent by managers  ♦ Scheduled meetings 59% ♦ Desk work 22% ♦ Phone calls 6% ♦ Tours 3% Managerial Challenges & Cultural Differences (pp 27-40) ♦ Organizational challenges ♦ Rapid improvements in technology ♦ Global competition and globalization ♦ Workforce diversity ♦ Government regulations and legislation ♦ Integration of internal operations and functions ♦ Technological advances and advantages ♦ Advantages:♦ New work patterns – can work from home, video conferencing ♦ Eliminates time/space barrier – can talk to someone in another country ♦ Increased speed of execution  ♦ Ease of access ♦ New job opportunities ♦ How does this change nature of work? Expect more from you (faster),  automation, skills needed, market for products has changed ♦ Disadvantages: ♦ Loss of market share – lots of markets gone out ♦ Loss of human element ♦ Privacy issues ♦ Lack of structure for dealing w/ technology ♦ Overreliance on technology ♦ Globalization  world free from national boundaries (so one thing affects the other) ♦ Ex: NAFTA, global financial crisis ♦ Cultural differences (collectivism/individualism, power distance, uncertainty  avoidance, masculinity/femininity, time orientation, etc.)  ♦ Individualism vs. Collectivism ♦ Individualism: worried about self, family (US, Canada) ♦ Collectivism: care about group (China, Japan) ♦ Power Distance: degree to which you accept power differentials between  yourself and your supervisors  ♦ High power distance: hierarchical – readily accept power distance (India) ♦ Low power distance: not going to give someone power unless they deserve it  (US, Denmark, Australia) ♦ Uncertainty Avoidance: degree to which you avoid uncertainty – some cultures  are more comfortable w/ uncertainty ♦ Low uncertainty avoidance (high risk taker) – US, Australia ♦ High uncertainty avoidance (low risk taker) -like safety, certainty- Japan, Italy ♦ Masculinity vs. Femininity – what values do you actually care about? ♦ Masculine Country: highly delineated roles – gender roles enforced (Mexico) ♦ Feminine Country: males/females equally valued – gender roles blurred  (Denmark, Sweden, Norway) ♦ US is in the middle – used  ♦ Time Orientation: whether cultures values are geared towards long or short term ♦ Long term: China ♦ Short term: US, Russia ♦ Coping with different cultures  how do organizations cope? ♦ Study the country – show interest, learn customs, research ♦ Hire foreign nationals – if opening office in another country – hire people from  there♦ Sensitivity training – get acclimated ♦ Create cross culture task forces – work on projects across different types of people ♦ Keep open mind and suspend judgment  ♦ Seek to listen and observe first ♦ Managing workforce diversity (gender, race, age, disability, sexual orientation, etc.) ♦ Workforce 2020 ♦ Caucasian decreases (76% to 68%), African American stays same (11%),  Hispanic increases (9% to 14%), Asian increases (3% to 6%) ♦ Net new entrants largely not Caucasian – lots of immigrants going into work  force ♦ Big growth in certain regions (West and South) ♦ Gender ♦ Increase in women entering WF (decrease in men), 2020: expect equal #s men  and women (2017: 53% men, 47% women) ♦ Women: 41% PhD, 57% MA/MS, 56% BA/BS, only make 77% of male  counterpart ♦ Women at work: most – speech pathologist, least – HVAC and refrigeration  installation ♦ Age ♦ 2017: median age – 42.3 – average age is getting older ♦ Silent generation (born 1930 – 1945) ♦ Boomers (1946-1964) – larger age range ♦ Busters (1965-1976) ♦ Boomlet (1977-1999) – large age range ♦ More older Americans will work longer – social security (full SS is 67) ♦ (Dis)Ability ♦ 1 in 5 Americans are disabled – 1 in 10 severe ♦ Average 50% unemployed ♦ Americans w/ Disabilities Act (1992) – protects against past and current  illnesses – hearing problems, blindness, cancer, anxiety – companies have to  make reasonable accommodations ♦ Other ♦ Sexual orientation – 10% of workforce (average) ♦ Religion – causes issues between people ♦ Economic class, etc. ♦ Benefits to valuing diversity  ♦ Organization is more competitive (ex: marketing) ♦ Can hit market segment easier if you have people of that group in your  workforce ♦ People like to get service from people who look like them ♦ More perspective – increase quality of decisions by having more viewpoints♦ Increased ability to adapt – more diversity in your group = easier to adapt to  changing times ♦ Ability to attract and retain good workers ♦ General demographic changes  ♦ Average household: low of 2.55 people ♦ More urban – 80% live in or near cities ♦ Fewer children – more childless cities/neighborhoods ♦ More single people (median age of marriage – men: 28.6, women: 26.6) ♦ More centenarians – up to 5.8% 100 or older ♦ Video: A Class Divided (main takeaways discussed in class) ♦ In order for us to be able to judge on performance objectively, must think of  stereotypes/attitudes we carry and how they come into work and how we project it onto people ♦ People perform better when placed in “superior group” ♦ Self-fulfilling prophecy: someone has expectations about us, and then they  treat us a certain way and we live up to those expectations ♦ Ex: told you’re not very smart, believe it, and proves to be true ♦ Prejudice: belief or some kind of attitude – we are all prejudiced against  someone/something ♦ Can be a learned response ♦ Discrimination: acting on belief/attitude ♦ Reverse Discrimination: discriminate against the majority (don’t really need this word) ♦ Assimilation (in book) Personality, Perceptions, Attributions, and Attitudes (pp 41-58) ♦ Interactional psychology  B = f (P,E); behavior is a function of a continuous,  multidirectional interaction between person and situation (Person, Environment) ♦ Person is active in process – changed by situations and changes situations ♦ People vary in characteristics ♦ Two interpreations of situations: objective situation and person’s subjective view ♦ Ex: objective: there was a fire. Subjective: what people saw out of it. ♦ Determinants of personality ♦ Major Determinants of Personality – nature vs. nurture ♦ Culture: more likely to be reserved if grow up in Chinese culture? ♦ Family: how much family inhibited/nurtured certain things – Ex: don’t let you  paint ♦ Group membership: sex/gender – impact how people treat you ♦ Life experience: things you go through in life will affect you  ♦ Personality theories (4) ♦ Trait Theory: traits compose your personality (The Big 5)♦ Problem: if you believe personality is only built on traits and they are stable –  doesn’t account for modifications  ♦ Psychodynamic Theory: Freud and the unconscious ♦ Id: primitive component – uncensored impulses ♦ Superego: moral structure. Tells you what you should/shouldn’t do ♦ Ego: compromises between unconscious and superego ♦ Humanistic Theory: we all have this motivation to grow/develop as people – your  self concept will grow the more you achieve this self awareness ♦ Personality based on how much growth you’ve achieved ♦ Integrative Approach: personality is combination of many psychological processes  (not just traits) including attitudes, fantasies, emotions  all create dispositions ♦ Dictate consistent response to different situations ♦ Most current theory ♦ Personality characteristics (self-esteem, self-efficacy, positive/negative affect, Locus of control, self monitoring, Big 5 personality factors, etc.) ♦ Self-Esteem: general feelings of self-worth ♦ High: more satisfied in jobs and more successful. Low: very affected by people’ ♦ Self-Efficacy: individual’s expectancies and beliefs about accomplishing specific  tasks  ♦ High: can-do attitude, keep trying, and overcome obstacles. Low: give up on  things easily. ♦ Derive our self-efficacy from 4 things: ♦ 1. Prior experience – if we did it before and were successful, will have high ♦ 2. Behavioral models – see other people doing it successfully (role models) ♦ 3. Persuasion from others that you can do it – boss says you can ♦ 4. Own assessment  ♦ How can employee develop? Give help/resources, pair up with mentor ♦ Positive/Negative Affect (emotion): persistent mood disposition ♦ Positive people w/ positive affect – see positive in world – absent from work less ♦ Negative people w/ negative affect – see negative things about people – tend to be more stressed @ work and less cooperative in a group ♦ To raise mood at work: good working conditions, good company culture ♦ Locus of Control: general belief of whether you have control over what happens to  you ♦ Internal LOC: what happens to you is within your control  ♦ Higher job satisfaction, more likely to be in managerial positions  ♦ Higher salaries, more motivation, less anxiety ♦ External LOC: what happens to you is based on others, luck, or external  circumstances – less participation (countries like India) ♦ Self Monitoring: degree to which you base your behavior on cues from other  people and the environment ♦ High: behave appropriately in the situation – less consistent – blend in more ♦ Promoted more, change jobs more, respond to feedback more ♦ Low: not worried about situational cues and what other people think  ♦ More consistent across situations - don’t always read what is appropriate ♦ Big 5 Personality Traits:  ♦ Extroversion: better at certain jobs ♦ Agreeableness: degree to which you’re cooperative/warm/easy to get along  with ♦ Conscientiousness: hardworking, organized, dependable ♦ Emotional Stability: neuroticism scale – whether you’re calm, cool, and  confident. Keep it together ♦ Openness to Experience: creative, curious, want to try new things ♦ Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) – self report developed using “well people” – one  type not better! ♦ 8 dimensions: E/I, S/N, T/F, J/P – 16 types ♦ Preferences; describes vs. prescribes ♦ Uses: understanding yourself/others, conflict resolution, etc. ♦ Energy Orientation (E/I) ♦ Extraversion: get energized from others  outgoing, speaks then thinks,  publicly expressive ♦ Introversion: draws energy from within, internal world of emotions  quiet,  reserved, thinks then speaks, reflective ♦ Attention Orientation (S/N) – important for how people learn ♦ Sensing: preference for taking info through 5 regular senses.  ♦ Practical, specific, concrete ♦ Intuiting: have feeling about things, more future oriented ♦ General, abstract, head in the clouds, theoretical  ♦ Decision Making Orientation (T/F) – how you make decisions ♦ Thinking: preference for organizing/structuring info in a logical, descriptive way ♦ Analytical, clarity, head, rules, justice ♦ Feeling: making decisions in a personal, value-oriented way ♦ Heart, mercy, subjective, circumstances ♦ Lifestyle Orientation (J/P ♦ Judging: people who have preference for living a planned, organized life ♦ Structured, decisive, organized, makes lists/use them, time oriented ♦ Perceiving: flexible, open ended, exploring, makes lists/loses them,  spontaneous ♦ You will work best in environment that lets you do what you're naturally good at –  experience burnout when you're forced to do a different style ♦ Mood affects how you fill it out – also socially desirable answers ♦ Team research on MBTI ♦ More similar the types, sooner the team will understand each other.  ♦ Highly similar types make faster decisions, but also more likely to make errors-not  critically evaluating ♦ Come to appreciate different types – experience less conflict  “One-sided” teams  need to use different types outside of team as resources ♦ Key Info: ♦ 1. Form teams that complement each other ♦ 2. Want to talk about types at beginning to reduce conflict ♦ 3. Allow different types to be themselves  ♦ Social perception  how we interpret info about another person ♦ Factors that influence social perceptions (3 characteristics and active barriers) ♦ Characteristics of the Perceiver:  ♦ Familiarity w/ target – more accurate the more familiar you are  ♦ Attitudes: do you have attitudes that affect how you see someone? Ex: looking for lawyer, believe only male lawyers are good ♦ Mood: how you're feeling at the time – generally remember info that is  consistent w/ your mood ♦ Self-Concept: how you feel about yourself. Negative self-concept: you’ll notice  negative things about the person ♦ Cognitive Structure: pattern of thinking – if you have a simple pattern, focus  only on certain aspects. More complex = notice multiple features at same time ♦ Ex: dentist, maybe only notice someone’s teeth. ♦ Characteristics of the Target  ♦ Physical appearance: height, age, weight, etc. – tend to notice those different  from the norm ♦ Verbal communication: judge based on tone, voice, speed, accent, grammar,  etc. ♦ Nonverbal cues: Judge on eye contact, facial expressions, body language ♦ Intentions: try to derive intentions ♦ Characteristics of the Situation ♦ Context of the interaction: if you see teacher outside of school – it is strange ♦ Strength of situational cues: ex: a car salesman is nice to you only because  he’s trying to make a sale ♦ Discounting Principal: discounting what we’re really seeing b/c it is the  situation that is making them do this ♦ Active Barriers to Accurate Perceptions ♦ Selective Perception: have a tendency to choose info that comes in (pos. or  neg.) that supports our initial theory about someone♦ Ex: think someone is smart – look for info to confirm that  ♦ Stereotyping & Implicit Personality Theory: We all have ♦ Stereotypes: generalization about group of people – cognitive thing. Not a  bad thing. Can be useful – see someone with a gun, you know to hide. ♦ Tend to stereotype in more non-useful ways – have to test/challenge  ♦ First Impression Error: first impressions are lasting – judge someone within 5  minutes ♦ First things you say are remembered more (primacy effect) ♦ Last things you say are also remembered (recency effect) ♦ Projection: (false consensus effect) psychological phenomenon – tend to  misperceive the commonness of our own beliefs – overestimate # people that  share them ♦ Ex: Believe everyone wants children – project onto others ♦ Overlook important differences b/c we assume they are the same ♦ Self-Fulfilling Prophecies: (Pygmalion Effect) If you think you’re in the smart  group, you will perform better. ♦ Impression management: process by which people try to control the impressions  others have of them  ♦ Two Types… ♦ Self-Enhancing: name-dropping, manage appearance (dressing the part) ♦ Other-Enhancing: flattery, agreement w/ others’ opinion ♦ Sometimes trying to get less work, get attention, engage in negative impression management ♦ In general, impression management techniques work ♦ Rated higher in interviews, more likely to get hired  ♦ Attributions (internal/external) ♦ Attribution Theory: seeks to explain why people behave the way they do. Two types: ♦ Internal Attributions: attribute behavior/result to an internal source of  responsibility ♦ External Attributions: attribute behavior/result to something outside the situation – luck, ♦ Achievement-oriented people: successes to ability, failures to lack of effort (internal) ♦ Low self-esteem people: attribute successes to internal, failures to external ♦ Internal LOC people: successes to internal, failures to internal ♦ Kelley’s attribution theory: we observe/seek out info in the form of 3 informational  cues (important!!!) ♦ Consensus: extent to which peers in the same situation behave the same way ♦ Distinctiveness: degree to which person behaves same way in other situations♦ Has this happened in other situations? ♦ Highly distinctive: not happening in other situations ♦ Consistency: frequency of particular behavior over time ♦ Cues help to determine whether event is external/internal attribution ♦ Attribution biases  ♦ Fundamental Attribution Error ♦ Tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on others’  behavior ♦ Tend to make internal attributions about other’s behavior ♦ Self-Serving Bias ♦ Tendency to take credit (internal) when we succeed and blame others (external) when we fail ♦ Important Thing That Wasn’t Included!! ♦ Performance in the Workplace – research ♦ When we ask employers why they are failing – external. Ask why employees are – internal. ♦ Managers attribute success of white males to internal. Failures to external (bad  luck) ♦ Managers attribute successes of minorities to external. Failures to internal.  (miss out on promotions) ♦ Attitudes: general affective, cognitive, and behavioral intention responses toward  objects, others, themselves, or social issues ♦ ABC model: need to assess all 3 parts ♦ Affect: “feel”  emotion, preferences ♦ Behavioral: “do” or “would do”  Behavior and behavioral intention ♦ Cognition: “think”  What do you think about that object/issue? ♦ Attitude formation how do we learn these ♦ Direct experience: more powerful, better remembered, harder to change, more  accessible ♦ Get directly from interacting w/ that thing. Ex: learn you don’t like snakes b/c  one bit you ♦ Social learning: through family, peer groups, religious orgs, cultures ♦ Al effect you and what you think is good/not – get attitude from others ♦ Attitude -> Behavior link  ♦ Attitude Specificity: how specific is your attitude? ♦ The more specific, the more you're going to act on it. Ex: Pro-life specific – go to PP ♦ Attitude Relevance: has it happened to you? A family member? ♦ Ex: Family member had cancer – you have a more relevant reason to do a  cancer walk♦ Timing of Measurement: measurements of attitude have to be closer to when  behavior is going to happen ♦ Ex: answer to who you’re voting for 2 years in advance will be different when  two days before ♦ Personality Factors: things like low or high self-monitoring – certain characteristics  are more likely to be consistent between attitudes and behaviors ♦ Ex: low self-monitoring is more likely to be consistent – same in all situations ♦ Social Constraints: social context provides you w/ what is (un)acceptable ♦ Ex: drinking at a party with people drinking (your attitude of drinking is good) –  consistent ♦ With your parents (attitude is still good) but you're not drinking w/ them -  inconsistent ♦ Cognitive dissonance: tension produced when there is a conflict between attitudes  and behaviors  ♦ Usually within ourselves – ex: asked to use program at work, but don’t like it, but  forced to use it  creates cognitive dissonance  ♦ Ex: customer service – have to behave well even though you hate it ♦ Managerial implications: must assess all 3 levels when putting employees in  situations ♦ Work attitudes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment) ♦ Job Satisfaction: degree to which you have a positive assessment of one’s  job/job experience  ♦ 5 Dimensions: (summing all together doesn’t always add to overall feelings) ♦ Pay – not usually cause of dissatisfaction ♦ Work Itself – is the work meaningful? Boring? ♦ Promotion Opportunities – am I able to advance? ♦ Supervision – how do you like the management? ♦ Co-Workers  ♦ Satisfaction is declining… why? Mostly because companies are wanting more  from workers (heavy workload, faster results, etc.) ♦ Job satisfaction  performance = very small link ♦ Performance  job satisfaction = high performers tend to be happier ♦ Link between stronger if… ♦ Job involvement: attached, find meaning in it ♦ Valued rewards are equitable ♦ Intrinsic rewards received ♦ Challenging/accepted goals set ♦ Only a direct relationship if all 4 present!! ♦ More Job satisfaction… less absences, less turnover, less role/overall stress,  more customer satisfaction/loyalty (somewhat related to performance), more org citizenship behavior (OCB – stuff you do beyond call of duty: stay late), less  workplace deviance behavior (WDB – bad mouthing) ♦ Organizational Commitment: strength of individual’s identification with an  organization (3 types) ♦ Affective Commitment: intention to remain in org because of strong desire to  do so ♦ Based on loyalty, concern, belief in company ♦ Strongest – want to have more of this from employees ♦ Normative Commitment: remain in org because you feel obligated ♦ Feel like you should stay – everyone is good to you ♦ Continuance Commitment: remain in org because you can’t afford to leave –  how gov’t jobs get you ♦ Lots of benefits, investment/time ♦ Weakest ♦ More organizational commitment… less absences, higher quality of work, more  productivity, less turnover, higher job satisfaction  more true for affective >  normative > continuance ♦ Goal as manager: improve job satisfaction and commitment  ♦ Rewards, autonomy, building trust, etc. ♦ Persuasion and attitude change (source, target, and message characteristics) ♦ Persuasion: one individual (source) tries to change attitude of another (target) ♦ Source Characteristics: ♦ Expertise, Trustworthiness, Attractiveness ♦ Target Characteristics: certain characteristics make you able to be persuaded  more (ex: low self-esteem, young people, certain affect people (depends if  message is positive/negative), someone in a good mood ♦ Message Characteristics: message you're trying to communicate ♦ 3 things make message more persuadable ♦ 1. Does it go w/ current thinking? Ex: smoking is bad ♦ 2. Emotional appeal – the more emotional appeal, easier to persuade ♦ 3. Personalized message – talk about people in same age group ♦ Less threatening messages always more persuadable ♦ Key points from “Young Woman” exercise – attitudes influenced by past experiences  ♦ If you were a T (from MBTI) – would have said madman is responsible. F would  have said husband/wife QUESTIONS!When Sara hangs around w/ surfers, she acts like a surfer. Attends business club and fits  right in. She’s… ∙ High self monitor I’ll be more likely to participate in a company-sponsored event (ex: MS walk) if I have a  relative within MS. This is due to: Attitude relevance If john stays at EXY Org because he believes in the vision/mission, likely he has Affective commitment  Note: remember to read the organizational examples provided in the book so you  understand how these concepts apply.

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