Review Sheet for Exam #1: Fall 2017 (covers week 1 –week 4) MGT350 – Prof. Chung Add in questions at the end! Intro to Organizational Behavior (pp 1-26) ♦ What is OB? Field of study that investigates impact that individual, group, and contextual factors have on behavior w/in organization for purpose of improWe also discuss several other topics like is hg2i2 soluble in water
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ving organizational effectiveness ♦ All about making work better ♦ Open systems framework orgs affects by outside environment, also affect outside environment ♦ Open Systems Model ♦ Open Systems Principles: ♦ Orgs = living entities = have personalities ♦ All systems w/in and outside are interrelated and must be congruent ♦ People & relationships are primary determinant for success (esp. for service orgs) ♦ Informal vs. formal organization OB is about the informal organization ♦ Formal: part that is on the surface – finances, building, descriptions ♦ Informal: part that’s beneath the surface: not always recognized – attitudes, norms, motivations, etc. ♦ Hawthorne studies how to improve productivity ♦ First result: increase in productivity due to researchers attention – people caring made a difference ♦ Second: employees have needs beyond $$ ♦ Third: informal groups can have influence on behavior (“rate buster” – too much/too little) – when people work together, create informal groups and set certain standards/norms ♦ Higher norms = higher productivity ♦ Informal group has huge influence on how people work ♦ Definition of management ♦ Planning: fore looking process of what to do – setting objectives ♦ 3 levels of goals: ♦ 1. Strategic: goals of whole organization ♦ 2. Functional: goals of the unit and how it operates (department based) ♦ 3. Operational: individual goals that are measured ♦ Organizing: structuring people to do the right tasks – who needs to do what ♦ Matching tasks with skills ♦ Directing: getting people to move towards what you want them to♦ About motivation and leadership ♦ Inspiring people to reach beginning goals ♦ Controlling: measuring results – are we going in right direction? ♦ Assessing performance ♦ Levels of managers (pyramid) ♦ Top Level: (C-Level, Exec Level) CEO, CFO, COO, CIO ♦ Make decisions, develop new product, set general direction for organization ♦ Middle Level: director, branch manager, etc. (wide range) ♦ Coordinate activities, pass things up, pass things down ♦ Kind of ignored sometimes, (cut during recession) ♦ First Level: team leader, supervisor, department manager ♦ Deal with day-to-day function ♦ Managerial skills ♦ Conceptual skills: ability to see bigger picture – see organization as a whole (cognitive skills) ♦ Think strategically, step back from situations ♦ Need more at top levels ♦ Human Skills: ability to work effectively w/ others as leader and team player ♦ Create trust, relationships ♦ Need at all 3 levels ♦ Most important skill!! ♦ Technical Skills: having specific knowledge to make goods/services that org provides ♦ Selling, programming, etc. ♦ Need less at higher levels ♦ Time spent by managers ♦ Scheduled meetings 59% ♦ Desk work 22% ♦ Phone calls 6% ♦ Tours 3% Managerial Challenges & Cultural Differences (pp 27-40) ♦ Organizational challenges ♦ Rapid improvements in technology ♦ Global competition and globalization ♦ Workforce diversity ♦ Government regulations and legislation ♦ Integration of internal operations and functions ♦ Technological advances and advantages ♦ Advantages:♦ New work patterns – can work from home, video conferencing ♦ Eliminates time/space barrier – can talk to someone in another country ♦ Increased speed of execution ♦ Ease of access ♦ New job opportunities ♦ How does this change nature of work? Expect more from you (faster), automation, skills needed, market for products has changed ♦ Disadvantages: ♦ Loss of market share – lots of markets gone out ♦ Loss of human element ♦ Privacy issues ♦ Lack of structure for dealing w/ technology ♦ Overreliance on technology ♦ Globalization world free from national boundaries (so one thing affects the other) ♦ Ex: NAFTA, global financial crisis ♦ Cultural differences (collectivism/individualism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity, time orientation, etc.) ♦ Individualism vs. Collectivism ♦ Individualism: worried about self, family (US, Canada) ♦ Collectivism: care about group (China, Japan) ♦ Power Distance: degree to which you accept power differentials between yourself and your supervisors ♦ High power distance: hierarchical – readily accept power distance (India) ♦ Low power distance: not going to give someone power unless they deserve it (US, Denmark, Australia) ♦ Uncertainty Avoidance: degree to which you avoid uncertainty – some cultures are more comfortable w/ uncertainty ♦ Low uncertainty avoidance (high risk taker) – US, Australia ♦ High uncertainty avoidance (low risk taker) -like safety, certainty- Japan, Italy ♦ Masculinity vs. Femininity – what values do you actually care about? ♦ Masculine Country: highly delineated roles – gender roles enforced (Mexico) ♦ Feminine Country: males/females equally valued – gender roles blurred (Denmark, Sweden, Norway) ♦ US is in the middle – used ♦ Time Orientation: whether cultures values are geared towards long or short term ♦ Long term: China ♦ Short term: US, Russia ♦ Coping with different cultures how do organizations cope? ♦ Study the country – show interest, learn customs, research ♦ Hire foreign nationals – if opening office in another country – hire people from there♦ Sensitivity training – get acclimated ♦ Create cross culture task forces – work on projects across different types of people ♦ Keep open mind and suspend judgment ♦ Seek to listen and observe first ♦ Managing workforce diversity (gender, race, age, disability, sexual orientation, etc.) ♦ Workforce 2020 ♦ Caucasian decreases (76% to 68%), African American stays same (11%), Hispanic increases (9% to 14%), Asian increases (3% to 6%) ♦ Net new entrants largely not Caucasian – lots of immigrants going into work force ♦ Big growth in certain regions (West and South) ♦ Gender ♦ Increase in women entering WF (decrease in men), 2020: expect equal #s men and women (2017: 53% men, 47% women) ♦ Women: 41% PhD, 57% MA/MS, 56% BA/BS, only make 77% of male counterpart ♦ Women at work: most – speech pathologist, least – HVAC and refrigeration installation ♦ Age ♦ 2017: median age – 42.3 – average age is getting older ♦ Silent generation (born 1930 – 1945) ♦ Boomers (1946-1964) – larger age range ♦ Busters (1965-1976) ♦ Boomlet (1977-1999) – large age range ♦ More older Americans will work longer – social security (full SS is 67) ♦ (Dis)Ability ♦ 1 in 5 Americans are disabled – 1 in 10 severe ♦ Average 50% unemployed ♦ Americans w/ Disabilities Act (1992) – protects against past and current illnesses – hearing problems, blindness, cancer, anxiety – companies have to make reasonable accommodations ♦ Other ♦ Sexual orientation – 10% of workforce (average) ♦ Religion – causes issues between people ♦ Economic class, etc. ♦ Benefits to valuing diversity ♦ Organization is more competitive (ex: marketing) ♦ Can hit market segment easier if you have people of that group in your workforce ♦ People like to get service from people who look like them ♦ More perspective – increase quality of decisions by having more viewpoints♦ Increased ability to adapt – more diversity in your group = easier to adapt to changing times ♦ Ability to attract and retain good workers ♦ General demographic changes ♦ Average household: low of 2.55 people ♦ More urban – 80% live in or near cities ♦ Fewer children – more childless cities/neighborhoods ♦ More single people (median age of marriage – men: 28.6, women: 26.6) ♦ More centenarians – up to 5.8% 100 or older ♦ Video: A Class Divided (main takeaways discussed in class) ♦ In order for us to be able to judge on performance objectively, must think of stereotypes/attitudes we carry and how they come into work and how we project it onto people ♦ People perform better when placed in “superior group” ♦ Self-fulfilling prophecy: someone has expectations about us, and then they treat us a certain way and we live up to those expectations ♦ Ex: told you’re not very smart, believe it, and proves to be true ♦ Prejudice: belief or some kind of attitude – we are all prejudiced against someone/something ♦ Can be a learned response ♦ Discrimination: acting on belief/attitude ♦ Reverse Discrimination: discriminate against the majority (don’t really need this word) ♦ Assimilation (in book) Personality, Perceptions, Attributions, and Attitudes (pp 41-58) ♦ Interactional psychology B = f (P,E); behavior is a function of a continuous, multidirectional interaction between person and situation (Person, Environment) ♦ Person is active in process – changed by situations and changes situations ♦ People vary in characteristics ♦ Two interpreations of situations: objective situation and person’s subjective view ♦ Ex: objective: there was a fire. Subjective: what people saw out of it. ♦ Determinants of personality ♦ Major Determinants of Personality – nature vs. nurture ♦ Culture: more likely to be reserved if grow up in Chinese culture? ♦ Family: how much family inhibited/nurtured certain things – Ex: don’t let you paint ♦ Group membership: sex/gender – impact how people treat you ♦ Life experience: things you go through in life will affect you ♦ Personality theories (4) ♦ Trait Theory: traits compose your personality (The Big 5)♦ Problem: if you believe personality is only built on traits and they are stable – doesn’t account for modifications ♦ Psychodynamic Theory: Freud and the unconscious ♦ Id: primitive component – uncensored impulses ♦ Superego: moral structure. Tells you what you should/shouldn’t do ♦ Ego: compromises between unconscious and superego ♦ Humanistic Theory: we all have this motivation to grow/develop as people – your self concept will grow the more you achieve this self awareness ♦ Personality based on how much growth you’ve achieved ♦ Integrative Approach: personality is combination of many psychological processes (not just traits) including attitudes, fantasies, emotions all create dispositions ♦ Dictate consistent response to different situations ♦ Most current theory ♦ Personality characteristics (self-esteem, self-efficacy, positive/negative affect, Locus of control, self monitoring, Big 5 personality factors, etc.) ♦ Self-Esteem: general feelings of self-worth ♦ High: more satisfied in jobs and more successful. Low: very affected by people’ ♦ Self-Efficacy: individual’s expectancies and beliefs about accomplishing specific tasks ♦ High: can-do attitude, keep trying, and overcome obstacles. Low: give up on things easily. ♦ Derive our self-efficacy from 4 things: ♦ 1. Prior experience – if we did it before and were successful, will have high ♦ 2. Behavioral models – see other people doing it successfully (role models) ♦ 3. Persuasion from others that you can do it – boss says you can ♦ 4. Own assessment ♦ How can employee develop? Give help/resources, pair up with mentor ♦ Positive/Negative Affect (emotion): persistent mood disposition ♦ Positive people w/ positive affect – see positive in world – absent from work less ♦ Negative people w/ negative affect – see negative things about people – tend to be more stressed @ work and less cooperative in a group ♦ To raise mood at work: good working conditions, good company culture ♦ Locus of Control: general belief of whether you have control over what happens to you ♦ Internal LOC: what happens to you is within your control ♦ Higher job satisfaction, more likely to be in managerial positions ♦ Higher salaries, more motivation, less anxiety ♦ External LOC: what happens to you is based on others, luck, or external circumstances – less participation (countries like India) ♦ Self Monitoring: degree to which you base your behavior on cues from other people and the environment ♦ High: behave appropriately in the situation – less consistent – blend in more ♦ Promoted more, change jobs more, respond to feedback more ♦ Low: not worried about situational cues and what other people think ♦ More consistent across situations - don’t always read what is appropriate ♦ Big 5 Personality Traits: ♦ Extroversion: better at certain jobs ♦ Agreeableness: degree to which you’re cooperative/warm/easy to get along with ♦ Conscientiousness: hardworking, organized, dependable ♦ Emotional Stability: neuroticism scale – whether you’re calm, cool, and confident. Keep it together ♦ Openness to Experience: creative, curious, want to try new things ♦ Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) – self report developed using “well people” – one type not better! ♦ 8 dimensions: E/I, S/N, T/F, J/P – 16 types ♦ Preferences; describes vs. prescribes ♦ Uses: understanding yourself/others, conflict resolution, etc. ♦ Energy Orientation (E/I) ♦ Extraversion: get energized from others outgoing, speaks then thinks, publicly expressive ♦ Introversion: draws energy from within, internal world of emotions quiet, reserved, thinks then speaks, reflective ♦ Attention Orientation (S/N) – important for how people learn ♦ Sensing: preference for taking info through 5 regular senses. ♦ Practical, specific, concrete ♦ Intuiting: have feeling about things, more future oriented ♦ General, abstract, head in the clouds, theoretical ♦ Decision Making Orientation (T/F) – how you make decisions ♦ Thinking: preference for organizing/structuring info in a logical, descriptive way ♦ Analytical, clarity, head, rules, justice ♦ Feeling: making decisions in a personal, value-oriented way ♦ Heart, mercy, subjective, circumstances ♦ Lifestyle Orientation (J/P ♦ Judging: people who have preference for living a planned, organized life ♦ Structured, decisive, organized, makes lists/use them, time oriented ♦ Perceiving: flexible, open ended, exploring, makes lists/loses them, spontaneous ♦ You will work best in environment that lets you do what you're naturally good at – experience burnout when you're forced to do a different style ♦ Mood affects how you fill it out – also socially desirable answers ♦ Team research on MBTI ♦ More similar the types, sooner the team will understand each other. ♦ Highly similar types make faster decisions, but also more likely to make errors-not critically evaluating ♦ Come to appreciate different types – experience less conflict “One-sided” teams need to use different types outside of team as resources ♦ Key Info: ♦ 1. Form teams that complement each other ♦ 2. Want to talk about types at beginning to reduce conflict ♦ 3. Allow different types to be themselves ♦ Social perception how we interpret info about another person ♦ Factors that influence social perceptions (3 characteristics and active barriers) ♦ Characteristics of the Perceiver: ♦ Familiarity w/ target – more accurate the more familiar you are ♦ Attitudes: do you have attitudes that affect how you see someone? Ex: looking for lawyer, believe only male lawyers are good ♦ Mood: how you're feeling at the time – generally remember info that is consistent w/ your mood ♦ Self-Concept: how you feel about yourself. Negative self-concept: you’ll notice negative things about the person ♦ Cognitive Structure: pattern of thinking – if you have a simple pattern, focus only on certain aspects. More complex = notice multiple features at same time ♦ Ex: dentist, maybe only notice someone’s teeth. ♦ Characteristics of the Target ♦ Physical appearance: height, age, weight, etc. – tend to notice those different from the norm ♦ Verbal communication: judge based on tone, voice, speed, accent, grammar, etc. ♦ Nonverbal cues: Judge on eye contact, facial expressions, body language ♦ Intentions: try to derive intentions ♦ Characteristics of the Situation ♦ Context of the interaction: if you see teacher outside of school – it is strange ♦ Strength of situational cues: ex: a car salesman is nice to you only because he’s trying to make a sale ♦ Discounting Principal: discounting what we’re really seeing b/c it is the situation that is making them do this ♦ Active Barriers to Accurate Perceptions ♦ Selective Perception: have a tendency to choose info that comes in (pos. or neg.) that supports our initial theory about someone♦ Ex: think someone is smart – look for info to confirm that ♦ Stereotyping & Implicit Personality Theory: We all have ♦ Stereotypes: generalization about group of people – cognitive thing. Not a bad thing. Can be useful – see someone with a gun, you know to hide. ♦ Tend to stereotype in more non-useful ways – have to test/challenge ♦ First Impression Error: first impressions are lasting – judge someone within 5 minutes ♦ First things you say are remembered more (primacy effect) ♦ Last things you say are also remembered (recency effect) ♦ Projection: (false consensus effect) psychological phenomenon – tend to misperceive the commonness of our own beliefs – overestimate # people that share them ♦ Ex: Believe everyone wants children – project onto others ♦ Overlook important differences b/c we assume they are the same ♦ Self-Fulfilling Prophecies: (Pygmalion Effect) If you think you’re in the smart group, you will perform better. ♦ Impression management: process by which people try to control the impressions others have of them ♦ Two Types… ♦ Self-Enhancing: name-dropping, manage appearance (dressing the part) ♦ Other-Enhancing: flattery, agreement w/ others’ opinion ♦ Sometimes trying to get less work, get attention, engage in negative impression management ♦ In general, impression management techniques work ♦ Rated higher in interviews, more likely to get hired ♦ Attributions (internal/external) ♦ Attribution Theory: seeks to explain why people behave the way they do. Two types: ♦ Internal Attributions: attribute behavior/result to an internal source of responsibility ♦ External Attributions: attribute behavior/result to something outside the situation – luck, ♦ Achievement-oriented people: successes to ability, failures to lack of effort (internal) ♦ Low self-esteem people: attribute successes to internal, failures to external ♦ Internal LOC people: successes to internal, failures to internal ♦ Kelley’s attribution theory: we observe/seek out info in the form of 3 informational cues (important!!!) ♦ Consensus: extent to which peers in the same situation behave the same way ♦ Distinctiveness: degree to which person behaves same way in other situations♦ Has this happened in other situations? ♦ Highly distinctive: not happening in other situations ♦ Consistency: frequency of particular behavior over time ♦ Cues help to determine whether event is external/internal attribution ♦ Attribution biases ♦ Fundamental Attribution Error ♦ Tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on others’ behavior ♦ Tend to make internal attributions about other’s behavior ♦ Self-Serving Bias ♦ Tendency to take credit (internal) when we succeed and blame others (external) when we fail ♦ Important Thing That Wasn’t Included!! ♦ Performance in the Workplace – research ♦ When we ask employers why they are failing – external. Ask why employees are – internal. ♦ Managers attribute success of white males to internal. Failures to external (bad luck) ♦ Managers attribute successes of minorities to external. Failures to internal. (miss out on promotions) ♦ Attitudes: general affective, cognitive, and behavioral intention responses toward objects, others, themselves, or social issues ♦ ABC model: need to assess all 3 parts ♦ Affect: “feel” emotion, preferences ♦ Behavioral: “do” or “would do” Behavior and behavioral intention ♦ Cognition: “think” What do you think about that object/issue? ♦ Attitude formation how do we learn these ♦ Direct experience: more powerful, better remembered, harder to change, more accessible ♦ Get directly from interacting w/ that thing. Ex: learn you don’t like snakes b/c one bit you ♦ Social learning: through family, peer groups, religious orgs, cultures ♦ Al effect you and what you think is good/not – get attitude from others ♦ Attitude -> Behavior link ♦ Attitude Specificity: how specific is your attitude? ♦ The more specific, the more you're going to act on it. Ex: Pro-life specific – go to PP ♦ Attitude Relevance: has it happened to you? A family member? ♦ Ex: Family member had cancer – you have a more relevant reason to do a cancer walk♦ Timing of Measurement: measurements of attitude have to be closer to when behavior is going to happen ♦ Ex: answer to who you’re voting for 2 years in advance will be different when two days before ♦ Personality Factors: things like low or high self-monitoring – certain characteristics are more likely to be consistent between attitudes and behaviors ♦ Ex: low self-monitoring is more likely to be consistent – same in all situations ♦ Social Constraints: social context provides you w/ what is (un)acceptable ♦ Ex: drinking at a party with people drinking (your attitude of drinking is good) – consistent ♦ With your parents (attitude is still good) but you're not drinking w/ them - inconsistent ♦ Cognitive dissonance: tension produced when there is a conflict between attitudes and behaviors ♦ Usually within ourselves – ex: asked to use program at work, but don’t like it, but forced to use it creates cognitive dissonance ♦ Ex: customer service – have to behave well even though you hate it ♦ Managerial implications: must assess all 3 levels when putting employees in situations ♦ Work attitudes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment) ♦ Job Satisfaction: degree to which you have a positive assessment of one’s job/job experience ♦ 5 Dimensions: (summing all together doesn’t always add to overall feelings) ♦ Pay – not usually cause of dissatisfaction ♦ Work Itself – is the work meaningful? Boring? ♦ Promotion Opportunities – am I able to advance? ♦ Supervision – how do you like the management? ♦ Co-Workers ♦ Satisfaction is declining… why? Mostly because companies are wanting more from workers (heavy workload, faster results, etc.) ♦ Job satisfaction performance = very small link ♦ Performance job satisfaction = high performers tend to be happier ♦ Link between stronger if… ♦ Job involvement: attached, find meaning in it ♦ Valued rewards are equitable ♦ Intrinsic rewards received ♦ Challenging/accepted goals set ♦ Only a direct relationship if all 4 present!! ♦ More Job satisfaction… less absences, less turnover, less role/overall stress, more customer satisfaction/loyalty (somewhat related to performance), more org citizenship behavior (OCB – stuff you do beyond call of duty: stay late), less workplace deviance behavior (WDB – bad mouthing) ♦ Organizational Commitment: strength of individual’s identification with an organization (3 types) ♦ Affective Commitment: intention to remain in org because of strong desire to do so ♦ Based on loyalty, concern, belief in company ♦ Strongest – want to have more of this from employees ♦ Normative Commitment: remain in org because you feel obligated ♦ Feel like you should stay – everyone is good to you ♦ Continuance Commitment: remain in org because you can’t afford to leave – how gov’t jobs get you ♦ Lots of benefits, investment/time ♦ Weakest ♦ More organizational commitment… less absences, higher quality of work, more productivity, less turnover, higher job satisfaction more true for affective > normative > continuance ♦ Goal as manager: improve job satisfaction and commitment ♦ Rewards, autonomy, building trust, etc. ♦ Persuasion and attitude change (source, target, and message characteristics) ♦ Persuasion: one individual (source) tries to change attitude of another (target) ♦ Source Characteristics: ♦ Expertise, Trustworthiness, Attractiveness ♦ Target Characteristics: certain characteristics make you able to be persuaded more (ex: low self-esteem, young people, certain affect people (depends if message is positive/negative), someone in a good mood ♦ Message Characteristics: message you're trying to communicate ♦ 3 things make message more persuadable ♦ 1. Does it go w/ current thinking? Ex: smoking is bad ♦ 2. Emotional appeal – the more emotional appeal, easier to persuade ♦ 3. Personalized message – talk about people in same age group ♦ Less threatening messages always more persuadable ♦ Key points from “Young Woman” exercise – attitudes influenced by past experiences ♦ If you were a T (from MBTI) – would have said madman is responsible. F would have said husband/wife QUESTIONS!When Sara hangs around w/ surfers, she acts like a surfer. Attends business club and fits right in. She’s… ∙ High self monitor I’ll be more likely to participate in a company-sponsored event (ex: MS walk) if I have a relative within MS. This is due to: Attitude relevance If john stays at EXY Org because he believes in the vision/mission, likely he has Affective commitment Note: remember to read the organizational examples provided in the book so you understand how these concepts apply.