STUDY GUIDE: Final Exam
STUDY GUIDE: Final Exam IAFF2090
Popular in Latin America: Problem and Promise
Popular in International Studies
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria De Almeida Tellechea-Rotta on Wednesday April 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to IAFF2090 at a university taught by Michael Danielson in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 251 views.
Reviews for STUDY GUIDE: Final Exam
-Erica Soobin Shim
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/29/15
1of 26 Latin America Problem and Promise Final Study Guide Part 2 of course ONLY 1 Mexico The Taming of a Revolution LECTURE NOTES Question of the Mexican Revolution its promise and reality SKIDMORE CHAPTER Historically in the middle of the nation s history Important centerpiece to understanding Mexican politics today and understanding the periods that led up to it Viceroyalty of New Spain what became Mexico Timeline of Maior Events 0 O O O O 0 Independence movements 18 10 1921 US Mexico War War of Northern Invasion 1846 1848 The Reform the Empire of Maximiliano european empire who brie y took over and was head of state and the return of Benito Juarez technically a president but was exiled in Juarez El Por riato Rise of Por rio Diaz period of 35 years where there was one brief break where he was not president That period is the period that immediately precedes the Mexican Revolution and many aspects are perceivable of the revolution through it The Mexican Revolution tumultuous period revolutions are always somewhat realized as revolutions after the fact A civil war The fact that it is a revolution means it happens outside of political institutions exta constitutional means of taking power Power outside institutional means gt chaos The consolidation of the Revolution and the PRI state the perfect dictatorship one party state if you don t look closely seem democratic Not personalistic power Has ways of connecting with various constituencies in the population and necessary bene ts to them so that there is legitimacy Martin NIebler PRI s loss the inevitable nally happens Since the 60s people said PRI was going to fall The democratic transition of 1997 2000 Two PAN governments 2000 2012 center right party sex nios The return of the PRI 2012 2 USMexico War War of Northern Invasion 0 Coincides with Viceroyalty of New Spain some parts were seated to US in treaty of Guadalupe Hidal go which ended the war and the start of the war a striped area was disputed Key moments to remember in process Northern part of Mexico was sparsely populated Anglo settlers in Texas 1835 said that they don t want central control from Mexico rejection of central control is a fundamental characteristic of Texas and a declaration of independence Outcome president of Mexico Alamo war A few years later Texas is annexed by US This spurs US Mexican war Result Mexico loses almost half of is territory permanent scar in Mexican psyche 20f 26 MW 0 After the loss of the territory there is a political blame game Something terrible happens the two principal factions liberals and conservatives in government need to nd who to blame 0 Liberals win this battle and key political gure is Benito Juarez actually of Zapotec origin and there s a new constitution in 1857 and very anti clerical against the church reform movement Expropriation of church lands and removal of special privileges for the Church and military Wems O The War of Reform 1858 1961 sparked by constitution Juarez wins 0 The Empire of Maximiliano 18621867 2 0 Serious scal problems war is bad for economies Mexico said they were not paying their debts Napoleon III is therefore prompted to invade Well this goes against Roosevelt Corollary Clear violation But the US was occupied with the Civil War 0 Cinco de Mayo Mexican forces defeat the French Maximilian of the Hapsburg lineage is put in place Just wants to have an empire 0 Within the context of liberals vs conservatives this empire ts in with the conservative idea Also ts interest that it ousts Juarez But he is a modernizing European nationalist constitutionalist anti clerical movement Juarez and supporters are in guerrilla war in the territory Once Maximilian is weakened in his reinforcements in Europe Juarez and liberals gain support 0 Maximiliano is executed 0 El Por riato 1876 1910 O Porfi rio Diaz 0 Known for favoring European technology and investors over his countrymen was insensitive and dictatorial Not really conservative or liberal In many ways a modernizer but he did a lot of bad things Extensive poverty inequality was stark What is the source of the revolution and say they have enough of this 0 THE REVOLUTION I The Moderate Phase and Madero s Call Effective Suffrafe and N0 ReElection Francisco Madero Oligarch and elite Had no quasi socialist demands wanted what is in the title Basically wanted an Oligarchic democracy Some elite competition Declares himself against Diaz s seventh re election gets arrested goes to San Antonio and penned the Plan de San Luis Potosi calling for open rebellion Northern generals appreciated his position and named him president when he took over Ciudad de Juarez I The Radical Phase Polarization Between Huerta and the Rebels Huerta has support of Henry Lane Wilson ambassador who went under the dictates of President Wilson ultimately didn t have US support 30f 26 Against social reforms A Brief Moment for the Left Zapata and Villa had upper hand for brief period of time before shift back to moderate side took place Some of the calls for reform particularly from Zapata Constitution of 1917 of Caranza even though he ghts both Villa and Zapata adopts some of his policies Art 27 land and subsoil may be expropriated land reform Art 123 strong labour rights collective bargaining wage protections etc Key Points I Effects of Mexican Revolution intended by the rebels The Mexican revolution was the rst social revolution of the 20th century Achieved effective suffrage and no re electionquot One of the most progressive constitutions in the world Launched a signi cant government land reform Generated a set of important symbols and myths which have de ned Mexican national identity probably more than any other episode in history 0 Longest Regning OneParty State in the World Party based authoritarian regime controlled opposition and sustained growth until 1980s and 1990s Civilian control Not military State no longer possessed resources to buy and hold interest group allegiances after 3 pillars for PRI success representation of the public even if not in a purely democratic way but represents some issues of the population 1 CNC sector peasant sectorquot 2 CNOP popular sector 3 CTM worker sectorquot Our revolution is about everyone Regime wants to represent this interest but don t want radical autonomous peasants and workers and form a coalition that would destabilize Represent interests within the institution of the state corporatism inspired by facsim in Italy Repress radical independent movement but protect their rights within certain boundaries as long as you play within rules Within CNC was the land reform President Cardenas instituionalizes the revolution Massive redistribution of land Element that makes it a social revolution landless peasants would get collective titles to lands Ejidos Cardenismo FDR of Mexican history Revolution consolidated 1938 nationalized oil Cuauhtemoc Cardenas PRD dissenters from PRI PRI lost it ties to what the rev was about Challenges the PRI in elections in 1988 40f 26 1985 Quake in MeXico City shows government cannot handle it People organized at their community level and rescued people trapped was an awakening of Mexican civil society Government was not powerful People were 0 g000 Democratic transition Vicente FOX Quesada of the National Action Party elected rst alternation of presidential power in seven decades 0 Contested Election of Feline Calderon PAN in 2006 Extremely close less than half of a percent Lopez Obrador hasn t accepted the loss 0 Return of the PRI Enrique Pe a Nieto Governor of MeXico state Historic reforms historic unpopularity Pact for MeXico unites co opts Congressional leaders of the PAN and PRD to pass reforms Opening up of PEMEX to international and private investment Political reform Fiscaltax reform Telecom reform Persistent violence resurgent impunity and corruption RELEVANT READINGS SSG Chapter 3 0 Study in contrast poverty and prosperity Political liberalism in the 19th century but then came dictatorship 0 Mexico has the most intense relationship with US 0 Waged war joined against threats economic ties Culturally intertwined 0 From Colony to Nationhood 0 War of independence left them in really bad shape No capital mines were in disrepair Scars of battle visible throughout the country 0 Lacked a system of transportation and communication Few jobs a lot of unemployment Wars also left social structure affected all Spaniards were eliminated by decree and a leading segment of the nation s upper class is transformed Creole landowners are now the bi gshots 0 Economic transformations from Bourbon Era and recovery in mid 1830s made new groups able to acquire riches MeXico Citu ostentatious Two parts of creole upper class old traditional families and others from commerce and professions THESE WERE THE ONES WHO ENGAGED IN POLITICS 50f 26 Poverty persisted Two institutional bases of power after independence church and military Church controlled 12 of nations land Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 0 Mexico s most famous caudillos didn t really govern wanted riches 0 North American Invasion Mexicans regarded the annexation of Texas as an act of war so President Polk sends in troops to the disputed border area 1847 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidal go 0 Brings war to ends pays Mexico a settlement of 15 million and takes all of Mexico and California 0 Reform Monarchy and Restored Republic Mexico develops two major parties Conservatives strong central government in close alliance w Catholic Church and Liberals limited government and end of clerical privilege Accused each other of defeat in USwm Santa Anna sells Mesilla Valley prompt revolt and oust him in 1855 Starts la reforma Civilian led Liberal governments acted reforms to build new social order 0 Abolish military and eclesiastical fueros special dispensations of military and clerics in civil courts Prohibts church from owning property not used in direct day to day operations the land wasn t distributed though Third initiative transferred powers of the registry to the state birth marriages and adoptions Conservatives are basically like what the fuck War of Reform Benito Juarez liberal wins Elected president in 1861 Not really peaceful Owed Napoleon ve year war of occupation Von Hapsburg installed as president Juarez is like fuck no Von Hapsburg is like okay and leaves in 87 Restored Rerpublic 0 Diaz Era 35 years 1876 1911 Political master broad coallition Builds up federal power military and police Neutral on Church aspect Terrenos baldios could be used for private exploitation Capital from abroad US and British invesments Economically developed Railroads Foreign built Economic diversity Strong entrepreneurial class A lot of poverty Mexico s agricultural production barely kept up with population This leads to revolt The Mexican Revolution Madero enters presidential campaign in 1910 Diaz acts like a dictator Madero gets mad reelection Democracy seemed to be on its way The rest of the chapter is very repetitive regarding history 60f 26 Economics 70s In ation in Mexico wanted to please everyone and was running on debt Echeverr1 a expatriates land Portillo seen as solution Find a shit ton of oil 1982 in ation shot back up and world oil prices plummet projected foreign exchange earnings in decrease Had to borrow money and increased debt Reforms by Portillo 0 Register easy political parties ie Communist 0 Opposition granted more seats 0 All to appease opposition La Madrid takes of ce 0 Financial crisis Mexico runs out of dollars IMF rescue package all in 1982 0 IMF makes Mexico adopt austerity plan Phase out government subsidies on food and public utilities Recession ensues Living standards decline 0 Shift to neoliberalism in 86 0 Reduce and recast economic role of the state public spending cuts privatization of state owned companies Open up economy GATT reduces tarrifs Tension after Simpson Rondino act Mexican employees 0 PRI chooses an economist again oppositions win Gortari PAN Continues neoliberal strategy GDP rises NAFTA Salinas Repudiation of ISI and get US investment 1992 Three nation partnership US and Canada Free ow of goods among members by eliminating trade barriers and tariffs over 65 years Opened Mexico to US investments branch of ces in Mexico and invest in banking Characteristics 0 Implicit commitment to regional economic integration 0 Explicit provision for environmental protection 0 Political rationale stability in southern border Came under assault in 1994 0 Guerilla movement in Chiapas denounced antics Contemporary scene Election in 2000 Drugs FOX of the PAN wins Pe a Nieto PRI in 2012 0 Labor laws Mexico s Problematic Reform Starr Pe a Nieto rst year impressive but disappointed Compromised scal and electoral reforms absence of anti corruption legislation sharp economic downturn and lack of security Reforms in education telecommunications banking taxation electoral rules 397of26 Pacto par Me xico agreement reached between new administration and 3 main political parties PRI PAN and PRD 95 legislative initiatives Worked with telecom giants and etc Legislative strategy desinged to avoid missteps and political fortune 0 PAN as loyal opposition to PRI 0 Energy reform Tried by Calderon didn t work Pe a Nieto operates within context of the pacto trip artisan agreements to generate successes He cut funding for places against him 0 PRD Pe a Nieto appeases them to eliminate value added taX on food and medicine larger increase in top income taX rate and slashing business taX deduction 16 added taX to private school tuition rent and mortgages PAN boycott on nal vote PRD leaders celebrated victory Incomplete as per now 2Cuba LECTURE NOTES History 0 Columbus discovers island on rst voyage Spanish dominance from 1511 1898 colonial period Unlike rest achieved independence later Independence struggles 0 Period starting in late 1800s Jose Marti eXiled in New York mobilized group of independence rebels 1986 fought against Spainish rule Spain sent their general ghting to hold on US had economic ties with Cuba solidi ed over the years Independence in Name Only 0 O O O 0 US dominance Military occupation from 1898 1902 paternalism benign helping to protect from invasion Roosevelt Corollary Cuban Costitution Platt Amendment Right to intervene Leases Guantanamo US protectorate had heavy hand was a fear of Jose Marti Second US military occupation 1906 1909 Third US military occupation 1917 1922 Failed Revolution of 1933 O Forces US backed dictator Gerlado Machado out of of ce 0 Installs left leaning Ramon Grau as president 0 US fear of leftist revolution leads FDR to station Navy ships off the Cuban coast 0 General Fulgencio Batista takes control Platt Amendment abolished in 1934 Guantanamo base remains in US power Batista Period 0 1934 1959 80f 26 Dominates from behind the scenes until 1952 President and dictator in 1952 Castro storms barracks in 1953 captured and many others killed The Cuban Revolution 0 Castro brothers eXile in Mexico meet Che 0 July 26th big celebratory date 0 Fight a guerrilla war in the Sierra Maestra O Batista ees and revolutionaries take over on Jan 1st 1959 Confrontation with US 0 Castro meets with Nixon doesn t think Castro is a communist lol 0 Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961 CIA trains and equips eXiles tries to do what Castro and Che did essentially start a rebellion against the Castro government Eisenhower didn t do it but Kennedy wanted to go through with plans Didn t send in air support because he wanted to keep it covert 0 Cuban Missile Crisis The Special Periodquot 0 Loss of Aid Economy shrunk 30 oil imports fell 86 food imports fell 42 Opened up to tourism and foreign investment US formalized embargo with Helms Burton act Guest Speaker 0 Whv an embargo Economic isolation get people to be in unrest Leftover policy from the Cold War Underpinning this weekend before JFK smoked cigars sent out a senior White House aid to buy every one of the cigars before he signed the embargo Started as a national security threatissues Now its an interest in the wellbeing of the Cuban people human rights democracy Republicans not really concentrated in terms of if the embargo should end or not J ustifying the embargo emphasize not giving into Castro regime Ability to de ect blame from the embargo 0 What are the objectives Three ingredients for embargo Short term objective Universal application Goal that is achievable 0 Domestic Policies 0 Policy changesWhat to eXpect Don t do long term arrests in Cuba anymore level and intensity of abuse 90f 26 RELEVANT READINGS SSG Chapter 5 history39 0 Cuba s geographic location in the Caribbean Basin allowed for it to beat odds in Economic and political importance crucial point of arrivals and rst line of defense Cuba has lots of African migration Mercantilist policies under the Spanish Crown until the Bourbon reforms Coffee boom cultivation of tobacco Sugar 1880s Cuba s trade and investment almost exclusive with US Rebellion by Marti US comes down to support 0 US military occupied disband the rebel army Tomas Estrada Palma favored annexation of Cuba And this brought revolt Implosion of an interim president fraud again Revolt and intervene again Depression and WWII fall in production of sugar main base of economy Concentration of ownership medium cultivators sold to big companies and large concentration led to sugar boom Workers na entrezafra not season no where to go 3 solutions 0 Purchase share of cane from independent growers who would share labor 1ssue 0 Let workers go into debt so they would be obliged to their ownership 0 Encourage the formation of modest urban settlements This is where the rural proletariat appears Strongly connected to urban which allows for the uni ed classwide social movement US still kept heavy hand of control Reliance on sugar blessing and a curse O Brought prosperity to the island but also created volatile social structure 1920s l930s most corrupt governments Economic distress provokes political con ict to Geraldo Machado 0 US pretty passive New government proclaims socialist revolution Fulgencio Batista put in place by US ran government through puppet presidents Fidel Castro son of successful Spanish immigrant Fidel becomes familiarized with socialism 0 First assault on Batista s state attack on 1953 against provincial army barracks in southeastern Santiago He is convicted and tried gives History Will Absolve Me speech Flees to Mexico to organize new revolutionary force Raul and Che on board Calls NYT Diminishes Batistas public opinion Guerrilla war Support for Batista begins to evaporate Flees to the DR 1959 Fidel is a hero But there is drama Political crisis over what to do with captured of cials Executions pardon 10of26 O Agrarian Reform Law of 1959 expropriating farmlands to be paid in Cuban currency bonds NO FOREIGNERS Political polarization persists 1960 four basic trends nationalization of the economy swing to soviet bloc establishment of an authoritarian regime launch egalitarian socioeconomic policy 0 US hates this entire ordeal No more Cubas CIA wants to assassinate Castro Then want to embrace Fidel s opponents Thats why there are so many in Miami Enabled Castro to eXport his opposition lol this is pretty funny 0 Need to stop eXporting sugar Four year plan Agricultural diversi cation and industrialization This is pretty ambitious 0 They didn t have the eXpertise or raw materials to do so Had to embrace sugar again 0 Che s idealism fails Cuba becomes more pragmatic in 1970 CCP is strengthened Central controls tightened Extreme economic dependence on USSR Fails in the agriculture sector 0 Collapse of USSR economy fragile O Engage in assertion go the Cuban Revolution and commit to socialist ideal Modest political reforms local and provincial representatives selected 0 allowed reopening of Cuba s diplomatic relations with the Americas US still had embargo 0 From Hard Power to Soft Power LeoGrande O Reestablishing relations with US end of war in a sense Reason failure of the old policy of hostility Washington is unable to depose the government or bend it to the US s favor Also changing attitudes in the Cuban American community lowered the domestic political cost of engagement as well as international opposition to the old policy particularly in LA 0 The Cuban American factor CANF dominated Cuban policy Changes in their opinions towards embargos O Diplomatic pressure from LA 0 Soft Landing in Cuba Middle ClassEntrepreneurs Feinberg O Rebirth of private businesses in 2008 in order to absorb bloated public sector and employ youth 0 Trabajadores de cuenta propria TCPs allowed to work 201 types of jobs under government licenses 0 Middle class 40 adjusted to low income rate not consumers due to lack of stuff 0 Government should hybrid market socialism help private entrepreneurs and middle classes macroeconomic sector reforms fortify against negative external shocks and reduce oil subsidies by Venezuela Remove taX and other 11 of26 disincentives Revise restrictions governing business advertisments review regulations regarding the lease and sale of government owned retail space 0 The US should adopt soft landing scenario While internal dyamics within Cuba are opaque uneven pace of reform suggest strugglee between Commies and reformers Authorize US rms and individuals to engage in commerce in goods and services with independent entrepreneurs in Cuba Expansion 0 US rms must require internationally recognized labor standards SOE STATE OWNED ENTERPRISE 3 The Andes VENEZUELA Lecture Notes 0 Maduro and Chavismo O Maduro Year 1 Political Crisis Governability Challenges Opposition refuses to recognize electoral outcome Never anticipated Chavismo that it would be this close Undermined the legitimacy of the outcome Why did they think they were going to coast the victory Maduro is Hugo Chaves successor Clumsy mistakes on Maduro s behalf hard to follow in the steps of Chaves who was really popular Dif culty of charismatic leadership succession Maduro stuck in a dif cult position 2 circumstancial developments made him more popular Municipal elections of 2013 pro government candidates won 10 more of the votes than opposition Capriles shook hands with Maduro implies legitimacy La Salida protesting against injustice and undermining popular legitimacy of government Eventually zzles out 40 of people who passed away in protest public workers 0 Maduro Year 11 Economic Crisis Recession In ation Diminished international reserves Maduro s approval declines O This is going to be Maduro s third year in of ce Of ce is scheduled to host parliamentary elections 0 Maduro Year 1 Political Crisis and Governability Challenges Lost 5 of the votes to the opposition Why did Maduro and Chavismo thought they were going to do better Chavez legacy gt Most popular Venezuelan leader in the past 30 years 120f26 Maduro announced devaluations before the April 2013 elections Some people thought that Maduro was going to win by at least 10 Capriles ran a pretty effective campaign however the mistakes made by Maduro eXplain with Chavismo lost 5 Narrow window of opportunity gt Venezuelan exchange rate Ater Capriles and the opposition failed to recognize the elections Back red Capriles was put in a very delicate situation Carpriles actually shook hands with Maudro after this Tachira Merida National Youth Day lead student Voluntad Popular La Salida Double meaning to suggest movement against Maduro Eventually zzled out Signi cant amount of the protests and negotiations were Guarimbas Barricades style protests Highly disruptive Didn t take place in symbolic government places gt Normally in opposition strongholds Heavy dose of repression from the state 43 people died At least 40 were public workers UNASUR Failed according to people because they didn t leverage the eld for the opposition O Maduro emerges as the survivor he didn t have any political capital Negative political capital 0 2015 Looming Social Crisis Poverty 25 32 Extreme poverty 7 10 2014 48 poverty No social gains 26 daily average demonstrations January protests 2014 445 protests 2015 518 protests There is a daily social crisis in Venezuela 13 of26 Citizen security is terrible Popular protests from pro Chavismo sectors of society 0 The Opposition Unity Under Construction 27 29 parties gt Mesa de la Unidad Democratica MUD Reading Notes 0 SSG Chapter 8 Wars of Independence led to little alteration of the colonial order 0 20th cenutry Venezuela freewheeling petroleum bonanza Before upheld political democracy Now altering to a more populist authoritarian regime 0 Geography diverse topography no great fortunes to be made 0 But had livestock and agriculture particularly cacao 0 Venezuela became more and more important centralized and Caracas was heaquarters of many thing 0 Caracas elite took lead for independence 0 Bolivar Coffe and Caudillos 0 Independence political rule by caudillos Paez dominates politics from 1830 to 1848 Principal achievement was promoting the transition from a cacao oriented economy to a coffee producing international economy 0 Paez got lots of loans and therefore adopted a free trade model of development with two vital conditions 0 Security of property and sanctity of contracts 0 Drop in coffee prices in 1840s 0 Underlying tensions into open moneylenders demanded payments on their loans and planters could not pay 0 Disagreements between Conservatives and Liberal instrumental over ideological 0 Economic interest shaped political alliances Conservatives moneylenders and foreign agents Paez Liberals debt ridden planters Guzman 0 Civil strife in 1858 Paez returns to establish dictatorship from 1861 1863 0 Federalists gt new conservatives Guzman Blanco Challenges monopoly of the church and made education free and compulsory 0 Venezuela was a prime example for the Monroe Doctrine and Roosevelt Corollary 0 1926 Venezuela has a lot of petroleum This remakes the nation 0 Creation of the petro state political system that became utterly dependent upon and shaped by the empties on oil 0 Gomez could prolong his power and achieve personal riches Petroleum Law of 1922 0 Shifted power from private property to state 14 of26 0 Only the government could negotiate with foreign companies 0 Strengthened the role of the president 0 Encouraged rulers to maximize income however they wished OIL CONCESSIONS Downsides of oil bonanzas Decline of agriculture and prominent landlord class Could no longer feed its people and would start importing foodstuffs from abroad 0 Caracas gew 0 Class structure working class industrial was not empowered 0 1943 radical change in petroleum policy shifting its revenue base from leases on concessions to income taxes on earnings 0 The Generation of 1928 political student protests against Gomez dictatorship Punto Fijo Democracy 1958 0 Post Pe rez Jimenez 0 All major interest groups must bene t from petroleum based prosperity Appeasement 0 One speci c military Armed forces would receive substantial improvement in salaries and equipment in order to commit to political neutrality Pact of Punto Fijo 0 Respect of electoral process share power according to voting results 0 PCV is excluded 0 Minimum program of government obliged economic moderation Romulo Bettancourt series of gradual reforms Pe rez Alonzo minister of mines established a state run corporation to deal with foreign policies 0 Passed an agrarian reform law in 1960 calling for expropriation with compensation Fragile Peace Ties to Castro government in 1963 crack down on revolutionaries AD becomes anticommunist 0 Like every LA country someone tries to take control neoliberal policies aren t pleasing people then in 1992 Hugo Chavez tries to take power In ation is high citizens were turning away from traditional parties social conditions were worsening 0 Contemporary Scene 0 Collapse of two party system AD and COPEI 0 Hugo Chavez steps into breach Movimiento Quinta Republica MVR 0 Got lots of votes due to 0 Incompetence and irrelevance of the opposition Frustration of the majority 0 First Phase 0 Elections for constituent assembly to write new constitution Dismantled Supreme Court 150f26 disbanded elected legislature Destroy any checks and balances on Chavez Faced economic dif culties Oil prices were low Chavez gains control of petroleum industry 0 2002 Violence from opposition USA relations 0 Chavez was wait and see Chavez hated the US Launched Banco del Sur and MERCOSUR got stronger They depended on each others petroleum however Rise in oil prices after 2006 Disagreements in whether money was distributed wisely Chavez did base a lot of his leadership on personal charisma Chavismo wasn t institutionalized It was a gathering of unlikely allies which was both good and bad 0 The End of Chavismo David Smilde Maduro s rating is low Problem unique to Venezuela Fundamental issues 0 Poor economy 0 Inability to enact reform Petrostate in peril Chavismo s cornerstone is petroleum funded state spending 0 Chavez reinforces ties w china in 2011 securing 20 billion in loans which would be paid back in oil Loan allowed de cit spending and dollars and maintain growth 0 Maduro had to carry out currency devaluation of almost 50 Failure to reform Shortage of the excess hard currency 0 Printing too much money not backed by foreign hard currency 0 Renounced any changes Treading water 0 Chavez catapulted himself to presidency and had a good strategy 0 Maduro no personal charisma in a government designed by and requiring a charismatic gure 0 Maduro only way the legacy of Chavez could be undermined would be slowly driving an unsustainable model into the ground Dysfunctional opposition CENTRAL ANDES Lecture Notes The Incan Empire 0 Centered in the Cuzco valley high in the Andes 0 Unlike Aztecs defeated peoples were integrated into the empire 0 Power organized and distributed through bureaucracy 16of26 0 Infrastructure development extensive network of roads irrigation system granaries to plan for famines Peru Economy 0 1841 1890s Guano boom 0 1890 1930s 0 Rubber in the Amazon 0 Sugar and cotton the coastal lowlands O Wool from the Andean highlands 0 Mining shift from gold to copper O Petroleum 30 of eXports by 193 0 Post WWII through 1970s 0 Booms in sugar expansion cotton copper gold Peru Politics 0 Haya de la Torre and APRAismo 1960 Military Revolution of General Juan Velasco Alvarado O Inspired by dependence theory 0 Neither capitalist nor communist Alianza Popular Wins 1980 elections Belande O Emergence of the Shining Path Maoist guerrilla movement and MRTA Marxist Lenninnist movement 0 APRA Wins in 1985 Alan Garcia s heterodoxy Debt default and hyperin ation Fujimori and neoliberal populism 0 Toledo the return of Garcia and Humala Bolivia Economy Silver 0 Tin O Other industrial materials mining 0 Natural gas Contemporary Politics 0 MNR Revolution of 1952 0 Military rule 0 Varieties of neoliberalism 0 Indigenous movements the rise of Evo Morales and the MAS RELEVANT READINGS SSG Chapter 6 Terrain has a vivisive effect 0 Bolivia Peru and Ecuador Native speaking indians make up signi cant part of population Highest in Bolivia 17of26 0 From colony to nationhood Viceroyalty of Peru income for imperial Spain Potos1 now in Bolivia 0 18th century economic crisis 0 Napoleonic invasion of Spain in 1801 sent shock wavs through the empire 0 Bolivar and Gran Colombia Venezuela Ecuador and Colombia 0 this reading is exactly the same as the lecture 4 Central America When Mexico got its independence Central America went along United Provinces of Central America 1821 1838 0 Included Chiappas Guatemala El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Colombia The Colombian government didn t want to allow a treaty for a canal to be cut through interest behind the involvement of the US in Panama case Original canal plan is right across Nicaragua wider but has this enormous lake makes it also a natural place where u can cut canal Didn t happen but its happening now whole lot of questions Central Am Economies in the 19th and 20th Centuries 0 00000 Characterized by plantation societies except Costa Rica latifundios and haciendas Export of cash crops Mobilization of rural labor for planting and harvesting Land ownership concentrated in very few hands Low levels of subsistence and minifundio farming Economic and social enclaves where rich vocals and foreigners lived in isolation from the poverty of the masses Cycles of Political Change in Central America 0 Mostly authoritarian very littleno democracy until l950ish Big picture authoritarianism and its varieties for most of the time there was a wave of electoral democratization happening after the 80s 0 Northern Triangle Migrant Children article most of the focus of US foreign policy El Salvador Guatemala and Honduras Big boosts in military expenditures in SOs 90s civil wars Con ict and revolution Nicaragua 0 Honduras to the North Costa Rica to the South 0 Early resistance to Oligarchy in US Dominance in Nicaragua Sandino Freedom is not won with owersquot Central America liberal vs conservatives O The Somoza Dynasty 1933 1979 El Salvador 0 Often compared w Nicaragua did not have a successful revolution had a leftist insurgency 18of26 Carlos Humberto Romero Fradulent elections in 1977 little moments of democracysemi democracy not same level of Samoza Liberation Theology Political assassinations of Church Figures 0 Guatemala Ten Years of Spring 1944 1954 Overthrow of General Ubico by Army captain Jacobo Guzman Partido de la Rev Guatemalteca non Commie Partido Guatemaleca Del Trabajo Commie Jacobo Arbenz elected reformer United Fruit Co Lobbying John Moors Cabot Strategy hold a lot of land that u are not using 80 of their land was unused Compensation by Arbez didn t work CIA Coup 0 Contemporary Scene VP Biden with CA president RELEVANT READINGS SSG Chapter 4 Shared reality of living in proximity to the US Trade investment invasion and diplomacy Exert lots of in uences Access and monitoring maritime lanes of strategic and commercial signi cande Crucial connection point between atlantic and paci c oceans Colony 0 Decentralization Modest economic activity 0 Controlled by a two part elite audiencia Spanish born Landholders Landinos wage laborers or small farmers Independence movements 0 Bourbon monarchy attempted to reassert royal control of central america in the late 18th century 0 Central America s movements largely conditional to Mexico s movements 0 Division of Liberals and Conservatives 0 1820s Liberals appear to have upper hand under Carrera Carrera dies starts resurgence of the movements 0 Liberal domination Economy 0 Except for Costa Rica all were forged plantation societies 0 Extensive production of export cash crops on large scale latifundios Mobilization of rural labor for harvesting and related tasks 0 Inadequate emphasis on subsistence farming 19 of26 0 Formation of economic and social enclaves where local elites and foreign owners could live and work in relative isolation from the host society at large These societies were unequal 0 Coffee and Bananas Costa Rica Coffee Guatemala Coffee El Salvador NicaraguA and Honduras in 1870s Coffee has important social consequences 0 Did not require large scale usurpation of land from lowland peasants 0 In general except Nicaragua coffee production remained in hands of Central America United Fruit Co Lorenzo Baker Monopoly on the production and distribution of bananas 0 Banana trade creates plantation society and enclave economies par excellence UFCO supervisors came from US Black workers came from Jamaica and west indies Alters population 0 Reliance on US as trade partner 0 Unaccompanied Migrant Children from Central America Stinchcomb and Hershberg 0 Trends Steady increase in past 4 years Undocumented Mexican migration has continuously risen Internal displacement numbers and documents show that the Northern Triangle migrants are seeking safety wherever they can suggesting that the new US migration policies are not factors 0 Factors fueling migration Geographic variations on reasons why Lack of access to jobs and basic state services Household violences Drug traf cking Impunity 0 Immigration system legal outcomes and policy responses Unaccompanied children are being placed w family sponsors in states with long established Central American communities Access to legal counsel is crucial to children s chances of remaining in US Asylum law doesn t apply to non state actors Proposed policy chances and procedural modi cations can affect children 0 CONCLUSIONS The government must ensure access to legal counsel Courts must intervene to compel states and localities to do so Expansion of Temporary Protected Status to encompass recent arrivals from those three countries is an appropriate rst step Reforms to the asylum granting process are urgent 20 of 26 5 Human Rights in Honduras Guest Lecturer Hondruas hosts most dangerous city highest murder rate Jesuit radio station uncover what is going on live with dignity in a country controlled by Narcos and corrupt politicianstransnational corporations Multinational corporations take advantage of chaos and lack of accountability of state entities 0 Mining sector right after coup Business Inside and industry journals said that the new government is much more friendly towards business Canadian Embassy amp US Embassy only diplomatic core that didn t denounce as a coup 2010 Obama said it was a coup but that was after November 2009 election election in which deposed president not allowed to participate Young man in Honduras 1300 chance of dying a violent death 2008 2012 rate of murder of women and girls increased by 333 High levels of impunity 97 for all crimes Trying to prevent people from migrating drugs form arriving create an environment that would be good for US investment 3 lenses US looks at honduras RELEVANT READINGS 0 Honduras A Government Failing to Protect its People Haugaard and Kinosian 0 Huge migration to MeXico Pe a Nieto is closing borders 0 Response to crisis with publicity and not with programs 0 Gun toting soldiers in the streets 0 Militarization is a threat to democracy 0 Human Rights abuses occur 0 Violence and Migration in Central America Hiskey Malone Orce s Victimization and fear of crime are signi cantly linked to intentions to migrate 0 Personal experience with corruption ut overall perceptions of corruption levels in the country yielded no impact 0 Crime wave currently affecting Central America seems also to be contributing to a larger pool of people willing to eXit the country 0 El Salvador Guatemala Nicaragua support central nding that insecurity lead to emigration 0 Honduras high level of crime victimization low levels of migration intentions 0 Sin Nombre Film 0 Themes gang activity immigration rape murder 6 Extractive Industries and the Environment RELEVANT READINGS 0 Mining and Social Movements Struggles Over Livelihood and Rural Territorial Development in the Andes 0 Social movements vehicles through which concerns of poormarginalized are given visibility Hold state accountable 21 of 26 0 Little studies on HOW social movements can affect trajectories of development and rural livelihoods 0 Base cases Peru and Ecuador 0 Argument Presence and nature of social movements has effects on mining and livelihood 0 Rural development is coproduced by movements mining company and the state 0 1990s Shift in global investment of mining Latin America has a lot of investment Equally remarkable surge in social mobilization and con ict 0 Rural Territorial Development RTD requires both productive and institutional modernization and conscious efforts to articulate these with urban and rural economies 0 Social Movements Rural Livelihoods and Co production of territory 0 Social mobilization is a response to the threats that particular forms of economic development presentpercieve to the security and integrity of a population s ability to control what it views as its own resources 0 This effect depends greatly on the relative power of movements determined by state and relative weaknesses strengths of social movements and economic actors mining companies 0 Resistance as a defense of livelihood 0 Vehicles of contesting both the colonization of lifeworlds and material threats to livelihood Accumulation by dispossession Movements protest against loss of territory 0 Loss in both quantity and quality of assets 0 Accumulation by exploitation Generates labor movements political orgs unions 0 Sources of Strength and Fragility in SM 0 Propensity to failure 0 Not geographically constrained breadth both weakness and strength 0 Good or Bad 0 Cajamarca Peru eXperience of dispossession Prospects of more mines Cotachi Ecuador threat of dispossession 0 With or without a mine dramatic changes can occur anytime 0 Important and emblematic redynamize and dynamize sector of mining 0 More dependent on hydrocarbons than minerals 0 Manage differences amongst social mobilization orgs Territories need to be understood on their importance scale institutional transformation is welcome but we must avoid using it as a way of eliding attention to politics and 22 of 26 relationships of power Not speak as development in singular A viable RTD is one that can accommodate a lot of distinct visions Conceptualizing Spacial Diversity in LA Development Berdegue 0 Are there rural territories that have experienced growth poverty reduction and improved distribution of income 0 What factors determine these territorial dynamics 0 What can be done to stimulate and promote this kind of territorial dynamics 0 Only 12 in about 10 thousand subnational units in 11 countries eXperience decade long development growth dynamics that yielded the rst question above 0 Spatially uneven effects of deeply rooted social structures institutional agreements that constrain socially inclusive economic growth 0 Territorial dynamics as a result of interaction of actors and institutions in a plethora of domains 0 Critical factors in success cases 0 Level of equity in agrarian structure 0 Sectoral and organizational diversity of economic structure and their interaction 0 Strength of linkages w dynamic markets external to territory 0 Presence of smallmedium city close to rural territory 0 Ways in which territories deal w large public investments 0 Need to have diverse social actors eXistence of common objectives sustained action and power derived from many spectrums political economic social and cultural Agent structure institution takes place 0 Agrarian structuresGovernance of natural resources 0 The relationship of territories with dynamic markets 0 The productive structure of the territory 0 The relationship of territory with nearby urban centers 0 Governance of public investments 7 Introduction to the Caribbean GUEST LECTURE Greater Antilles 0 Cuba 0 Jamaica 0 Hispaniola Issues 0 Drug traf cking O Producer gt middle area gt consumer 0 It started in the 1970s when cocaine started becoming popular in the United States 23 of 26 0 Once you get your product into Puerto Rico you ve reached the US 0 Illegal migration 0 These islands are particularly close to the Dominican republic 0 National security concern for the US Geography 0 Volcanoes are very common 0 Volcanic islands 0 Dormant volcanoes 0 People are not agnostic about climate change 0 Sun sea sand 0 Landowner can either own the beach or not 0 Dominica gt only island were the indigenous population survived Language 0 Tratado de Tordesillas 0 Caribbean was included in the Spanish side 0 French had ceded the Caribbean to others after 1400 0 Except Cuba DR and Puerto Rico 0 Places where land is a commodity who is forced to marginal and who gets best land RELEVANT READINGS SSG Chapter 4 Central America 0 THIS READING HAS ALREADY BEEN NOTED ON IN THE CENTRAL AMERICA SECTION 0 Haiti Through Clear Eyes Maguire 0 1970s Jimmy Carter emphasizes human rights Change in USFP arises Haitian Spring 0 1980s Reagan elected told several false things about Haiti Duvailler cracks on dissidents of his regime 0 Fear that Haiti is looked at through clouded lens although it is good to accentuate the positive some are just facades 0 Money to paint a village but no security 0 Supreme court directed by cronies but applauded Slogan programs that are unsustainable and are government handouts 0 Still suffers from the various problems it did before corrupt government foreign debt growth of Port au Prince aid and investment not reaching those who need it most limited opportunities 0 English Speaking Caribbean Maguire 0 USE THE SELF STUFY QUESTIONS IN READING TO SUMMARIZE 0 Jamaica and Cayman islands Greater Antilles rest in Lesser Antilles Outmigration is a huge issue 0 Culture Amerindian African European and Asian 0 Civil society environmental 24 of 26 When the US sneezes the English Speaking Caribbean catches a cold gt dependency Religions African like Vodu of Haiti Revivalist Divination Redemptionist rastafari Western Prevalence of HIV AIDS Women center posts of society women head of house particularly in poor households Labor force Little political power Economy is scared of global warming tourism CARICOM Carribean Community and Common Market 0 Eliminate trade barriers amongst them Failed to develop common external tariff OECS Organization of the Eastern Caribbean States Central Bank which coordinates management of its members economies and oversees their common currency Besides tourism soft drinks beer and cement are industries Sugarcane important but has a lot of competitors mm LECTURE NOTES 0 Tension between the capital and the interior 0 Buenos Aires 0 Full representation 0 Also has its local government gt Mayor 0 Pampas O Grasslands O Fertile plains O 0000 O O Storm Weathering Constitution Independence 1810 Consolidation of nation state Rosas 1829 1952 Enactment of constitution 1853 constitution in effect revised in 1994 Transition to civilian rule 1982 1983 Election of President Cristina Kirchner 2007 Most recent presidential term interruption 2001 President de la Rua Resigned after 24 months last of several Argentina Crisis of 2001 Policy of xed exchange rates through a currency board mechanism Called convertible plan 1991 Basic goal is to provide sound money Parity between peso and dollar Central bank had dollars to match money supply in the local currency de ate economy to keep parity 25 of 26 READING NOTES DID NOT INCLUDE SHORT STORIES SSG Chapter 9 20th century richest country in Latin America 1970 Peron reshaped politics Unlike MeXico or Peru no native settled population Land was greatest resource Colonial economy lacked dynamic energy Was included in Viceroyalty of Peru Smuggling industry Independence unitarians province and city strip port city of its autonomy nationalize and reduce provincial barriers to trade open the economy Federalists province of Buenos Aires opposed nationalization Another group of Federalists interior wanted to nationalize but wanted to maintain provincial authorities and protect local industries Con ict lasted until 1830s Estanciero Argentina s caudillo Juan Manuel de Rosas 1829 Wanted to favor estancieiros ardent Buenos Aires FederalistArised powerfull oppoaition 1852 eXiled 1859 war to capture control of the confederation liberals lead Economic pampas sustained growth for grain and meat Dependent on foodstuff eXports and also on international economy Inequality when interior stagnated Country didn t really develop a peasantry no longtime rural dwellers to claim land Wage laborers were organized Liberal politicians generation of the 1880s Hipolito Yrigoyen Radicals Concern for working class Crisis during great depression Socialism and Communism arise Sae nz Pe a Reforms Electorate enlarged and competitive elections 0 More suffrage more political parties 0 Conservatives far from power Radicals dominated politics 1930 s suffers with drought real wages on decline Coup to set up provisional regime Two different factions that wanted a semi racist state Uriburu and one oligarchical system J usto J usto wins Neutral in WWII Military vs Labor Enter Juan Peron US doesn t like Peron they kind of suffer with it Argentina Five Year Economic Plan State monopoly over key agricultural crops Union workers most important political ally Evita Peron political machine 1949 foreign trade de cit Jump in in ation Peron installs orthodox stabilization program Evita military veto Dies of cancer 1952 austerity plan begins to bring results Peron begins to reverse some of his nationalist strategies begins to tear his popular coalition Vatican angry at legalization of divorce 1955 leaves to Uruguay Frondizi Peron deal to legalize party again Acute balance of payment crisis huge devaluation cuts in public spending gt people suffer Military removes him Onganl a President of 1966 military coup two year freeze in nances lots of tortue Peron reelected in 1973 26 of 26 Military Coup again 1976 A lot of killings torture capturing Plaza de Mayo protestors General Galtieri Attacks falklands Boost appearance of military in Argentina President Afons1 n Radicals high in ation angry population killings during military Peronists see weakness seize opportunity with Menem in 1989 0 Nationalist loyalty while also maintaining Washington Consensus Privatize state owned companies 0 1991 market reforms in ation fell a lot 0 Problems overvaluation of the peso trade de cit Impoverishment of the middle class Typical fruits of hard money policy Caused disruption within labor movement 0 Menem wins again in 1995 MERCOSUR develops Liberalization dollarization GDP growth Higher cost of living unemployment Corruption De la Rua faces divided Peronist camp Wins Prosperity is fading 11 on dollar massive run on dollar reserves Argentina faces default on loans Economy literally plummets 10 year honeymoon US relations with Argentina Neoliberal regime of Menem took active part in Golf War Ends with De la Rua Kirchner Era Ne stor Negotiate reentry into international nancial community Export earnings sharply rise Kirchner can pay off loans to IMF and privatize some companies 0 2007 Cristina wins Nationalist all the way Private pension funds be redirected to government system raise eXport taX on agricultural commodities Support kind of drops and Nestor dies 0 Bring back Peronist nationalism
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'