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CHAPTER 23 REVIEW QUESTION 1 "Containment" in the context of post–World War II international diplomacy on the part of the United States referred to a. the policy by which the United States committed itself to isolationism. b. the policy by which the United States committed itself to preventing any furexpansion of Soviet power. c. the policy by which the United States committed itself to containing the flowimmigrants from Latin America. d. the policy by which the United States committed itself to containing its powto domestic issues; in this context, "containment" is another word for isolati0 points QUESTION 2 1 "Dixiecrats" nominated Hubert Humphrey for president in 1948. True False 0 points QUESTION 3 1 Alger Hiss, an editor at Time magazine, accused Whittaker Chambers, a high-ranking State Department official, of giving him secret government documents to pass along to the Soviet Union. True False 0 points QUESTION 4 1 Although the United States was instrumental in the rebuilding of German industry, it did not significantly contribute to similar efforts in Japan. True False 0 points QUESTION 5 1 American officials used anticommunist sentiment to investigate political dissenters and to otherwise widen their powers. True False 0 points QUESTION 6 1 As part of the Soviet Union's one-party rule, Stalin consolidated a brutal dictatorship that jailed or murdered millions of Soviet citizens after World War II. True False 0 points QUESTION 71 As part of the cultural Cold War, the CIA secretly funded an array of overseas publications, conferences, publishing houses, concerts, art exhibits, and jazz performances. True False 0 points QUESTION 8 1 At the nationally televised Army-McCarthy hearings in 1954, it was revealed that a. McCarthy was not fit to stand trial; instead he sent his assistant to read the which could not be entered into evidence without McCarthy's physical appethe hearings. b. neither side was able to prove their point; Congress dropped the charges asinsufficient evidence. c. McCarthy was a bully who browbeat witnesses and made sweeping accusatibasis in fact. d. McCarthy gloated that he was right and the army had been willing to look thto save their reputation. 0 points QUESTION 9 1 By 1949, the world's largest country measured by land area (the Soviet Union), and the world's largest country by population (China) were both communist. True False 0 points QUESTION 10 1 By the early 1950s, state and local laws banning discrimination in employment and housing remained largely unenforced. True False 0 points QUESTION 11 1 Despite their initial efforts, the United Nations was never fully interested in worldwide civil rights and political liberties. True False 0 points QUESTION 12 1 During much of the Cold War, this agency funded the Museum of Modern Art in New York. a. Federal Bureau of Investigation b. Library of Congressc. Department of Education d. Central Intelligence Agency 0 points QUESTION 13 1 In 1947 an exhibition of historical documents traveled across the country on what was called the Freedom Train. While the exhibit showcased in many cities, two exceptions were Memphis, Tennessee, and Birmingham, Alabama, as both cities insisted on separate viewings of the exhibit by race, a demand of which the organizers of the Freedom Train would not agree. True False 0 points QUESTION 14 1 In 1947, the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) launched hearings into communist influence in Hollywood, and, in consequence, actors, directors, and screenwriters were blacklisted or jailed. True False 0 points QUESTION 15 1 In 1949, the containment policy suffered a major setback in the form of a. the overthrow of the government of Greece. b. the "loss" of China to communism. c. the invasion of South Korea. d. the publication of NSC-68. 0 points QUESTION 16 1 In 1951, a jury convicted this couple of conspiracy to pass secrets concerning the atomic bomb to Soviet agents during World War II. a. Robert and Dayna Baer b. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg c. Alex and Anna Chapman d. Bernard Boursicot and Shi Pei Pu 0 points QUESTION 171 In Dennis v. United States, the Supreme Court ruled that the imprisonment of Communist leaders violated the right of free expression. True False 0 points QUESTION 18 1 In July 1948, President Harry S. Truman issued an executive order desegregating the armed forces. True False 0 points QUESTION 19 1 In June 1948, when the United States, Britain, and France introduced a separate currency in their zones of control in the city of Berlin, the Soviet Union responded with a. the building of the Berlin Wall. b. the development of the Warsaw Pact. c. NATO. d. the Berlin blockade. 0 points QUESTION 20 1 In many ways, the Cold War both reshaped immigration and promoted the rapid expansion of higher education. True False 0 points QUESTION 21 1 In the atmosphere of the Cold War, the United States tended to define "human rights" in terms of political liberty, while the Soviet Union emphasized social and economic entitlements. True False 0 points QUESTION 22 1 In the context of postwar civil rights, what baseball player joined the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947, challenging the longstanding exclusion of black players from Major League Baseball? a. James Farmer b. Jim Thorpe c. Jackie Robinson d. Paul Robeson 0 points QUESTION 23 1 In the context of the Cold War, no matter how repressive a nation was, so long as it supported the United States it was counted as a member of the Free World. True False 0 points QUESTION 24 1 Jackson Pollock's paintings were viewed as communistic by the CIA and defunded. True False 0 points QUESTION 25 1 President Harry S. Truman's program that focused on improving the social safety net and raising the standard of living of ordinary Americans —calling on Congress to increase the middle wage, enact a program of national health insurance, and expand public housing, Social Security, and aid to education—was a. the Fair Deal. b. the New Frontier. c. the Square Deal. d. the Great Society. 0 points QUESTION 26 1 President Harry Truman was defeated by Thomas Dewey in the election of 1948. True False 0 points QUESTION 27 1 Republicans swept the congressional elections of 1946 to control both houses of Congress for the first time since the 1920s. True False 0 points QUESTION 281 The "Dixiecrat" presidential ticket of 1948 was led by a. Richard Nixon. b. Joseph McCarthy. c. Strom Thurmond. d. Hubert Humphrey. 0 points QUESTION 29 1 The 1946 congressional elections marked a resounding triumph for Truman's Fair Deal program. True False 0 points QUESTION 30 1 The 1948 United Nations–approved document that called for a range of rights to be enjoyed by people everywhere, including freedom of speech and religion, as well as social and economic entitlements, including the right to an adequate standard of living, access to adequate housing, education, and medical care was called a. the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. b. the Fair Deal. c. the Freedom House Manifesto. d. the Economic Bill Of Rights. 0 points QUESTION 31 1 The Cold War suddenly turned hot in June 1950 in these regions. a. North Vietnam and South Vietnam b. the Balkans c. North Korea and South Korea d. East Berlin and West Berlin 0 points QUESTION 32 1 The Democratic Party platform of 1948 was the most progressive in the party's history.True False 0 points QUESTION 33 1 The House Un-American Activities Committee charged these people with contempt of Congress, serving jail terms of six months to a year. a. union workers and protesters outside the New York Harbor b. braceros laboring in the United States yet not American citizens c. the Hollywood Ten d. the State Department Circle 0 points QUESTION 34 1 The June 1947 United States foreign policy initiative that envisioned a New Deal for Europe, and pledged billions of dollars to finance European economic recovery was a. the Fair Deal. b. the Marshall Plan. c. the Truman Doctrine. d. the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). 0 points QUESTION 35 1 The Marshall Plan proved to be one of the most successful foreign aid programs in history. True False 0 points QUESTION 36 1 The Marshall Plan, proposed by Secretary of State George C. Marshall, suggested a. the United States should contribute billions of dollars to finance the economiof Europe. b. that the countries which owed the United States money not be granted a seUnited Nations. c. the United States cut ties with European countries that owed the United Stauntil more credit had been established. d. countries that could not pay back their U.S. loans be removed from the mostrade nation status. 0 points QUESTION 37 1 The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 a. called for replacing the quotas based on national origins with a more flexibletaking into account family reunion, labor needs, and political asylum. b. withdrew bargaining rights and legal protection form unions whose leaders fswear that they were not communists. c. launched a series of hearings about communist influence in Hollywood. d. guaranteed workers the right to form unions. 0 points QUESTION 38 1 The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 a. aided in persuading both Republicans and Democrats in Congress to supporpolicies, beginning a long period of bipartisan support for the containment ocommunism. b. asserted that the United States, as the leader of the "free world," must take responsibility for supporting "freedom-loving peoples" wherever communisthreatened them. c. established the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). d. immediately challenged the Soviet blockade of West Berlin with around-the-flights into West Berlin. 0 points QUESTION 39 1 The Truman administration responded to the Soviet blockade of West Berlin by a. leading efforts to break the blockade by airlifting supplies to the city. b. putting political pressure on the United Nations. c. leading a United Nations expeditionary force to relieve the city. d. making threats to use atomic weapons against the Soviet Union. 0 points QUESTION 40 1 The U.S. government conducted an anti-gay campaign at the very time that gay men enjoyed a powerful presence in realms of culture and commercial life being promoted as expressions of American freedoms.True False 0 points QUESTION 41 1 The United Nations committee that drafted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was led by a. Norman Rockwell. b. Eleanor Roosevelt. c. Alger Hiss. d. George C. Marshall. 0 points QUESTION 42 1 The United States emerged from World War II as the world's greatest power; it had the world's most powerful navy and air force and accounted for half the world's manufacturing capacity. True False 0 points QUESTION 43 1 The first confrontation of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union occurred in the Middle East, in Iran. True False 0 points QUESTION 44 1 The formal peace treaty ending the Korean War was the Peace of Paris of 1953. True False 0 points QUESTION 45 1 The term "iron curtain" was coined by President Harry Truman. True False 0 points QUESTION 46 1 The term "totalitarianism" originated in Europe between World War I and World War II to describe aggressive, ideologically driven states that sought to subdue all civil society, including churches, unions, and other voluntary associations. True False0 points QUESTION 47 1 The young California congressman who first gained national prominence through his membership on the House Un-American Activities Committee was a. Henry Wallace. b. Richard Nixon. c. Ronald Reagan. d. Jerry Brown, Sr. 0 points QUESTION 48 1 This legislation authorized the deportation of immigrants identified as communists, even if they had become citizens. a. Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 b. McCarran-Walter Act of 1952 c. Marshall Plan d. Operation Wetback of 1954 0 points QUESTION 49 1 This person assumed the presidency after Roosevelt's death in April 1945. a. J. Strom Thurmond b. Dwight D. Eisenhower c. Harry S. Truman d. Thomas E. Dewey 0 points QUESTION 50 1 Two outspoken critics of the domestic anticommunist crusade were a. Thomas Dewey and Henry Luce.b. Paul Robeson and W. E. B. Du Bois. c. Branch Rickey and Jackson Pollock. d. Strom Thurmond and Richard Nixon. 0 points QUESTION 51 1 Under the Truman Doctrine, only those governments that respected the democratic rights of citizens and the sovereignty of other peoples could expect friendship and support from the United States. True False 0 points QUESTION 52 1 What was the 1947 law that sought to reverse gains made by organized labor in the preceding decade, and authorized the president to suspend strikes by ordering an eighty-day cooling-off period, banned sympathy strikes and secondary boycotts, outlawed the closed shop, and authorized states to pass "right to work" laws? a. the White Act b. the Taft-Hartley Act c. the Fair Labor Standards Act d. the Wagner Act 0 points QUESTION 53 1 What was the name of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) campaign to bring unionization to the South, by which more than 200 labor organizations entered the region in an effort to organize workers? a. Operation Dixie b. Operation Mongoose c. Campaign to Victory d. Operation Organization 0 points QUESTION 541 Which is not true of the Korean War (1950–1953)? a. Over 33,000 Americans died in Korea; an estimated 1 million Korean soldiermillion civilians died, along with hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops. b. In 1953, an armistice was agreed to that restored the prewar status quo. c. General Douglas MacArthur launched a daring counterattack at Inchon, behiKorean lines, in September 1950. d. President Truman acknowledged and accepted General MacArthur's push toChinese border and his threat to use nuclear weapons against the Chinese. 0 points QUESTION 55 1 Which of the following was not a step toward racial equality in postwar America? a. the release of the Commission on Civil Rights report, To Secure These Rights b. the defeat of Operation Dixie c. the signing of Jackie Robinson to the Brooklyn Dodgers d. the desegregation of the armed forces 0 points QUESTION 56 1 Which was not a development of 1949? a. Mao Zedong emerged victorious in the long Chinese Civil War. b. NATO was established. c. The Soviets formalized their own eastern European alliance, the Warsaw Pact. d. The Soviet Union tested its first atomic bomb. 0 points QUESTION 57 1 While the anticommunist hysteria of the postwar years came to be known as "McCarthyism," it arose well before Senator Joseph McCarthy entered the scene. True False 0 points QUESTION 58 1 While there were four main competitors for the office of the presidency in 1948, Truman's main rival was a. Norman Thomas.b. Thomas A. Dewey. c. Henry A. Wallace. d. Strom Thurmond. 0 points QUESTION 59 1 Who was the U.S. senator from Wisconsin who announced in February 1950 that he had a list of Communists working for the State Department, and whose name later entered the political vocabulary as shorthand for character assassination, guilt by association, and abuse of power in the name of anticommunism? a. Julius Rosenberg b. George C. Marshall c. Alger Hiss d. Joseph R. McCarthy QUESTION 60 1 Who was the person who sent the Long Telegram from Moscow in 1946 that lay the foundation for what became known as the policy of "containment"? a. George C. Marshall b. George F. Kennan c. Harry S. Truman d. Douglas MacArthur CHAPTER 24 REVIEW QUESTION 1 A leading voice of the Beats was a. Allen Ginsberg.b. William Levitt. c. Adlai Stevenson. d. Orval Faubus. QUESTION 2 All of the following were instrumental in suburban life and the rise of the subdivisions except a. the loss of a communal city center. b. the construction of malls. c. the availability and affordability of cars. d. government-backed low-interest loans to returning veterans. QUESTION 3 Although Americans in the 1950s grew more intensely religious, fewer than ever were affiliated with religious institutions. True False QUESTION 4 Although it was a nationwide phenomenon, 1950s suburbanization gathered its greatest momentum in the West. True False QUESTION 5 As families escaped their everyday lives for the "open road," this businessman franchised his business into approximately 700 McDonald's fast-food stands built by 1964. a. Conrad Hilton b. Ray Kroc c. Dave Thomas d. William Levitt QUESTION 6 As late as the 1990s, nearly 90 percent of suburban whites lived in communities with non-white populations of less than a. 15 percent.b. 1 percent. c. 20 percent. d. 10 percent. QUESTION 7 As part of the expansive and dynamic growth of the American economy, in the twenty years after 1950, about 7 million white Americans left cities for the suburbs, nearly 3 million blacks moved from South to North, and half a million Puerto Ricans moved to the mainland. True False QUESTION 8 As president, Eisenhower sought to roll back the New Deal, abolish Social Security and unemployment insurance, and eliminate labor laws and farm programs. True False QUESTION 9 By the end of the 1950s, almost 90 percent of American families owned television sets, average daily television viewing time was five hours, and television had proven itself the most effective advertising medium ever invented. True False QUESTION 10 By the mid-1960s, 25 million Americans owned shares of stock. True False QUESTION 11 Causes of the civil rights revolution included all of the following except a. the Cold War and rise of independent states in the Third World. b. the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947. c. destabilization of the racial system during World War II. d. mass migration out of the segregated South. QUESTION 12 Cultural dissent was more conspicuous than political dissent during the 1950s.True False QUESTION 13 During the 1950s, gay men and lesbians increasingly created their own subcultures in major cities. True False QUESTION 14 During the 1950s, material consumption came more and more to eclipse economic independence and democratic engagement as the hallmarks of American freedom. True False QUESTION 15 During the 1950s, prominent psychologists insisted that women who were unhappy as housewives suffered from a failure to accept the "maternal instinct." True False QUESTION 16 During the 1950s, the farm population rose from 15 million to 23 million, while agricultural production declined by 25 percent. True False QUESTION 17 During the 1950s, the mass movement for civil rights found principal support among a. the southern black church. b. Democratic and Republican political leaders. c. union leaders. d. corporate leaders. QUESTION 18 Dwight Eisenhower entered the presidency determined to dismantle the New Deal. True False QUESTION 19 For all of America's successes, by 1960 more than one in five Americans lived in poverty.True False QUESTION 20 Government policies and expenditures played a crucial role in the postwar economic boom. True False QUESTION 21 In 1956, for the first time in American history, white-collar workers outnumbered blue-collar factory and manual laborers. True False QUESTION 22 In 1957, the Eisenhower Doctrine a. declared that the military-industrial complex must be reined in. b. expanded the Marshall Plan to Southeast Asia. c. asserted American authority in Vietnam in the wake of the French defeat at Diend. pledged the United States to defend Middle Eastern governments threatened bycommunism or Arab nationalism. QUESTION 23 In 1960, women earned, on average, 60 percent of the income of men. True False QUESTION 24 In many ways, the economy and culture of the 1950s were dominated by the automobile. True False QUESTION 25 In the 1950s, Richard Nixon pioneered efforts to transform the Republican Party's image a. from defender of freedom-loving peoples and anticommunists to proponents of db. from defender of the military-industrial complex to champion of the small farmerc. from defender of business to champion of the "forgotten man," for whom heavy had become a burden. d. from defender of the small farmer to champion of the military-industrial complexQUESTION 26In the 1950s, the National Security Council advised President Eisenhower not to use nuclear weapons in Vietnam. True False QUESTION 27 In the 1950s, the number of houses in the United States doubled; most were built in the suburbs. True False QUESTION 28 In the aftermath of Rosa Parks's arrest for refusing to give her bus seat to a white rider, a yearlong bus boycott took place in what city? a. Montgomery, Alabama b. Birmingham, Alabama c. Memphis, Tennessee d. Little Rock, Arkansas QUESTION 29 In the consumer culture of the 1950s, the measure of freedom became the ability to gratify market desires. True False QUESTION 30 In the decades following World War II, pluralism reigned supreme and the free exercise of religion was yet another way of differentiating the American way of life from that of life under communism. True False QUESTION 31 In the post–World War II United States, Americans' daily lives were transformed by the widespread use of televisions, air conditioning, dishwashers, long-distance telephone calls, and jet travel. True False QUESTION 32 In the two decades following World War II, services that had generally been enjoyed only by the rich or solidly middle class in the years before the war— including central heating, indoor plumbing, and electricity—now became features of common life. True False QUESTION 33 It is a myth that children in the 1950s and 1960s were trained to hide under their desks in the event of an atomic attack. True False QUESTION 34 Milton Friedman's book Capitalism and Freedom outlined all of the following ideas regarding individual liberty except a. an increase in the minimum wage laws. b. the repeal of the graduated income tax. c. turning over to the private section virtually all government functions. d. the repeal of the Social Security system. QUESTION 35 New York became the most prominent symbol of the postwar suburban boom; one-fifth of the population growth of the 1950s occurred there. True False QUESTION 36 One of the key advantages the Soviet Union held over the United States on a global scale was America's continuing issue of a. segregation. b. financial bailouts for banks. c. aid to the middle class. d. propaganda. QUESTION 37 One strand of social analysis in the 1950s asserted that Americans were psychologically and culturally discontent, lonely and anxious, and yearning not so much for freedom as for stability and authority. True False QUESTION 38 One strand of social analysis in the 1950s criticized the monotony of modern work, the emptiness of suburban life, and the pervasive influence of advertising. True False QUESTION 39 Orval Faubus was among the attorneys on the team hired by the NAACP to pursue the watershed case Brown v. Board of Education. True False QUESTION 40 President Eisenhower hailed the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education as a positive move toward a more equal and just America; when a federal court ordered that Autherine Lucy be admitted to the University of Alabama in 1956, Eisenhower authorized the use of federal troops in her support. True False QUESTION 41 Prior to her arrest that led to the Montgomery bus boycott, Rosa Parks had never been involved in National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) activism. True False QUESTION 42 Regarding the first intercontinental ballistic missile, John F. Kennedy warned that Republicans had allowed this to develop in which the Soviets had achieved technological and military superiority over the United States. a. a missile gap b. the space shuttle program c. a new version of chemical warfare d. an early form of the internet QUESTION 43 Richard Nixon's rise in politics was fueled in part by his ability to make free market conservatism appealing to ordinary people. True False QUESTION 44 The 1954 update to the doctrine of containment, announced by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, that declared a Soviet attack on any American ally would be countered by a nuclear attack on the Soviet Union, was called "brinksmanship" by its critics and this by supporters. a. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) I b. isolationism c. nuclear imperialism d. massive retaliation QUESTION 45 The Brown decision encouraged an awakening of civil rights protest— and segregationist protest—in the South, ensuring it would have the backing of federal courts. True False QUESTION 46 The Cold War began in a. the United States. b. Asia. c. Europe. d. Africa. QUESTION 47 The National Defense Education Act, which for the first time offered direct federal funding for higher education, was passed into law by Congress in 1957 in response to a. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev's visit to the United States. b. inner-city riots, and the rise of feminist activist endeavors across the Midwest. c. the Soviet launch of the first artificial Earth satellite, Sputnik. d. the French defeat by Vietnamese forces at Dien Bien Phu. QUESTION 48 The baby boom lasted until a. the mid 1970s. b. the late 1950s. c. the early 1980s.d. the mid 1960s. QUESTION 49 The name for the small group of poets and writers who railed against mainstream culture, and that included Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg, was a. Beats. b. Beatle s. c. hippies . d. yippies . QUESTION 50 The principal organization in the Southwest—the equivalent of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)—that challenged restrictions on housing and employment, as well as the segregation of Latino students was named a. the National Urban League (NUL). b. the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC). c. the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE). d. the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). QUESTION 51 The so-called kitchen debate between Nixon and Khrushchev occurred in a. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. b. Moscow, Russia. c. Stalingrad, Russia. d. New York City, New York. QUESTION 52 The suburban explosion of the 1950s did much to diminish racial divisions in America. True False QUESTION 53Under this kind of program, cities demolished poor neighborhoods in city centers that occupied potentially valuable real estate; in its place were constructed retail centers and all-white middle-income housing complexes. a. neighborhood stabilization program b. white flight c. urban renewal d. suburbs QUESTION 54 What did President Eisenhower call his domestic agenda, which embraced a "mixed economy," in which the government played a major role in planning economic activity, and by which Eisenhower consolidated and legitimized the New Deal? a. Modern Republicanism b. the Great Society c. the "New" New Deal d. the New Frontier QUESTION 55 What was the coalition of black ministers and civil rights activists that pressed for desegregation and was formed in 1955, and in whose organizing Martin Luther King Jr., took the lead? a. the Southern Christian Leadership Conference b. the Interfaith Council of Churches c. the Congress on Racial Equality d. the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) QUESTION 56 What was the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case decided on May 17, 1954, in which the "Warren Court" unanimously asserted that segregation in public education violated the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment? a. Menendez v. Westminster b. Loving v. Virginia c. Brown v. Board of Education d. Plessy v. FergusonQUESTION 57 Which does not describe Rosa Parks in the years prior to her December 1, 1955, arrest? a. She was a housewife, with no previous experience as a political activist. b. She was a participant in meetings protesting the conviction of the Scottsboro Boys. c. She was for many years a secretary in her local NAACP chapter. d. She had attended a training session for political activists at the Highlander School in Tennessee. QUESTION 58 Which of the following did not inform or influence Martin Luther King Jr.'s, 1950s leadership of the civil rights movement? a. the writings of Malcolm X, particularly his autobiography b. a philosophy of struggle in which hate must be met with Christian love, and violpeaceful demands for change c. the nonviolent protests of the Congress of Racial Equality d. the writings of civil disobedience of Henry David Thoreau and Mahatma Gandhi QUESTION 59 Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence? a. Nixon's "Checkers speech"; Eisenhower's farewell address; Nixon-Kennedy debates b. start of Montgomery bus boycott; Southern Manifesto; Brown v. Board of Education c. Geneva summit between Eisenhower and Khrushchev; Soviet invasion of Hungary; U-2 incident d. National Defense Education Act; launching of Sputnik; end of Korean War QUESTION 60 Which of the following was not a prominent feature of suburban married life during the Fifties? a. a decline in divorce rates b. a growing desire among husbands and wives to find fulfillment through the sharrecreation, and sexual relations c. a rise in birth rates d. a growing tendency of husbands and wives to share the roles of breadwinner anQUESTION 61 Which of the following was not a significant trend in 1950s America?a. the rise of a youth culture that challenged the bland conformism of postwar America b. the growing association of the automobile with individual freedom c. the emergence of TV as the nation's prevalent form of entertainment d. a surge of student radicalism on college campuses QUESTION 62 Which was not part of the new "social contract" between organized labor and management in leading industries during the 1950s? a. Employers granted benefits such as private pension plans, health insurance, anadjustments to employees. b. Employers ceased trying to eliminate existing unions. c. Unions sponsored "wildcat" strikes in an effort to discipline management. d. Unions agreed to leave decisions regarding capital investment and plant locatioQUESTION 63 While most Americans saw the alliance of the Defense Department and private industry as a source of jobs and national security, Eisenhower felt it was a threat to democracy, calling this power the a. daybreak of freedom. b. golden age. c. military-industrial complex. d. massive resistance. QUESTION 64 World War II was followed in the United States by what has been called "a golden age" of capitalism; between 1946 and 1960, the nation's gross national product more than doubled. True FalseCHAPTER 25 REVIEW QUESTION 1 A leading motto of the Women's Liberation movement was a. "Pay any price, bear any burden." b. "We are the silent majority." c. "The personal is political." d. "Turn on, tune in, drop out." points QUESTION 2 According to defenders of the Vietnam War, American military withdrawal would encourage the spread of communism elsewhere around the world. True False 0 points QUESTION 3 As part of President Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty, poor people were required to play a leading part in designing and implementing local policies. True False 0 points QUESTION 4 As part of the Freedom Summer, in June 1964 three young voting rights activists were murdered in Mississippi—James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner. True False 0 points QUESTION 5 At the 1968 Miss America beauty pageant, the media came to derisively label radical feminists as "bra burners," but no bras were actually burned at the event. True False 0 points QUESTION 6 At the peak of the Vietnam War, the number of American troops in Vietnam was approximately a. 500,00 0.b. 1,750, 000. c. 17,000 . d. 200,00 0. 0 points QUESTION 7 Coupled with the high rate of economic growth in the 1960s, the War on Poverty succeeded in reducing the incidence of poverty overall. True False 0 points QUESTION 8 Following a 1969 police raid on the Stonewall Inn, a gathering place for homosexuals in New York City's Greenwich Village, five days of rioting occurred and a militant gay rights movement was born. True False 0 points QUESTION 9 In August 1961, the Berlin Wall was erected a. by the Soviet Union to stem a growing tide of emigrants fleeing from EastWest Berlin. b. by the United States in an effort to keep illegal immigrants from entering West Berlin and subsequently claiming freedom in western Europe. c. to separate Berlin from East Germany—a decision mutually agreed upon the United States and the Soviet Union. d. by the United States so that East Germans could not enter West Berlin. 0 points QUESTION 10 In Griswold v. Connecticut, the Supreme Court struck down all laws discriminating against homosexuals as a violation of the right to privacy. True False 0 points QUESTION 11 In May 1963, Birmingham police chief Eugene "Bull" Connor unleashed his forces against this group. The actions deeply affected President Kennedy, causing him to endorse the civil rights movement. a. housewivesb. moviegoers c. sit-in demonstrator s d. schoolchildren 0 points QUESTION 12 In The Conscience of a Conservative, Barry Goldwater argued for all of the following except a. support for the Civil Rights Act of 1964. b. substitution of private charity for public welfare programs. c. a more aggressive conduct of the Cold War. d. abolition of the graduated income tax. 0 points QUESTION 13 In his August 1963 speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial delivered to 250,000 black and white Americans, Martin Luther King Jr., declared: "I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: 'We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.' " True False 0 points QUESTION 14 In the "counterculture" of the 1960s, there was, for the first time in American history, a rejection of respectable norms of clothing, language, and sexual behavior. True False 0 points QUESTION 15 In the weeks following passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act, a joyful calm, mixed with a great celebratory jubilee that included parades, barbecues, and church prayer meetings, characterized the principal response of inner-city African-Americans to the new law. True False 0 points QUESTION 16 Johnson's Great Society failed to reduce poverty in America to any significant degree. True False 0 points QUESTION 17 President Johnson entered office determined to see a substantial civil rights bill passed by Congress. True False 0 points QUESTION 18 President Kennedy entered office determined to rid American foreign policy of its Cold War assumptions. True False 0 points QUESTION 19 President Kennedy's policy toward Latin America, the Alliance for Progress, has generally been regarded as an overwhelming success. True False 0 points QUESTION 20 President Lyndon Johnson grew up in one of the wealthiest sections of United States—the Central Texas Hill Country. True False 0 points QUESTION 21 Richard Nixon won the 1968 presidential election by the largest landslide in American history. True False 0 points QUESTION 22 Rock festivals, like Woodstock in upstate New York in 1969, brought together hundreds of thousands of women seeking equal rights, equal pay, and equal respect. True False 0 points QUESTION 23 The 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibited all of the following except a. discrimination on the grounds of sex. b. racial discrimination in employment. c. racial discrimination in privately owned public accommodations. d. racial discrimination in housing rental or sale. 0 points QUESTION 24The 1964 voter registration drive in Mississippi, in which hundreds of white college students from the North participated, was known as a. Freedom at Last. b. Mississippi Freedom. c. Freedom Summer. d. Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. 0 points QUESTION 25 The 1967 U.S. Supreme Court decision that declared unconstitutional the laws in sixteen states that prohibited interracial marriage was a. New York Times v. Sullivan. b. Griswold v. Connecticut. c. Lawrence & Garner v. State of Texas. d. Loving v. Virginia. 0 points QUESTION 26 The 1968 Kerner Report blamed the widespread inner-city riots— occurring across the country from Harlem to Watts—on a. African-Americans. b. segregation, poverty, and "white racism." c. the Democratic Party. d. the Republican Party. 0 points QUESTION 27 The 1968 military engagement in which Viet Cong and North Vietnamese troops launched well-organized uprisings in cities throughout South Vietnam and completely surprised American military leaders was called the Tet offensive. True False 0 points QUESTION 28 The Democratic segregationist challenger for the 1964 presidential election was a. Matthew E. Welsh of Indiana. b. Sam Yorty of California.c. Jennings Randolph of Virginia. d. George Wallace of Alabama. 0 points QUESTION 29 The Free Speech movement was initiated at the University of Minnesota in 1964. True False 0 points QUESTION 30 The Greensboro lunch counter sit-in marked the first appearance of college students at the forefront of social protest in America. True False 0 points QUESTION 31 The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee's goals included a. recontextualizing the Cold War and unilateral disarmament on the part of United States. b. coordinating the achievement of better schooling, "by any means necessaincluding violence - contrary to its name. c. replacing the culture of segregation with a "beloved community" of racial justice. d. replacing the culture of militarism with a foreign policy of isolationism anddisarmament. 0 points QUESTION 32 The Twenty-fourth Amendment to the Constitution is the 1965 law that allowed federal officials to register voters. True False 0 points QUESTION 33 The U.S. Supreme Court ruling that an individual in police custody must be informed of the right to remain silent was a. Miranda v. Arizona. b. Baker v. Carr. c. Missouri v. Seibert. d. Harris v. New York.0 points QUESTION 34 The Vietnam War was the longest war in American history and the only military war that the United States has lost. True False 0 points QUESTION 35 The War on Poverty guaranteed an annual income to all Americans, created jobs for the unemployed, promoted unionization, and made it more difficult for businesses to shift production overseas. True False 0 points QUESTION 36 The centerpiece of President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society was the endeavor to eradicate poverty. True False 0 points QUESTION 37 The civil rights bill and program of domestic liberalism launched by President Lyndon B. Johnson were far less ambitious than President Kennedy's initiatives on these matters. True False 0 points QUESTION 38 The controversial Supreme Court ruling, which created a constitutional right to terminate a pregnancy was called Griswold v. Connecticut. True False 0 points QUESTION 39 The gelatinous form of gasoline that burns the skin of anyone exposed to it that was dropped by American airplanes on enemy positions during the Vietnam War was called a. deoxyge n. b. Agent Orange. c. napalm. d. Petroline . 0 points QUESTION 40The organization demanding greater Indian tribal self-government and the restoration of economic resources guaranteed in treaties, founded in 1968, was called a. the Wounded Knee Solidaritists. b. the American Indian Movement. c. the American Indian Assimilationists. d. the Indian Militancy Group. 0 points QUESTION 41 The organization that launched the Freedom Rides, by which integrated groups traveled by bus into the Deep South to test compliance with court orders banning segregation on interstate buses and trains was called the a. Democratic Party. b. Southern Christian Leadership Conference. c. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). d. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). 0 points QUESTION 42 The social movements of 1960s America were mimicked in countries around the world, with massive antiwar demonstrations, and demands for improved workplaces and women's rights. True False 0 points QUESTION 43 This conservative political group was founded in 1960 after meeting at the estate of William F. Buckley, with a goal of taking control of the Republican Party from leaders who had, in their opinions, embraced some communist doctrines, such as the New Deal. a. Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party b. the Peace Corps c. Young Americans for Freedom d. Mattachine Society 0 points QUESTION 44 This long-time civil rights organizer call a meeting in Raleigh, North Carolina, in April 1960, out of which produced the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). a. Martin Luther King Jr b. Ella Baker c. John Lewis d. Stokely Carmichael 0 points QUESTION 45 This prominent militant group, founded in Oakland, California, in 1966, was varied in their focus. While becoming notorious for armed self-defense in response to police brutality, they also ran health clinics, schools, and children's breakfast programs. a. the Black Panther Party b. the New Left c. Freedom Riders d. Young Americans for Freedom 0 points QUESTION 46 What was the April 1961 CIA-led invasion of Cuba to topple Fidel Castro that proved to be a total failure when, of the invading force of 1,400, most were captured and more than 100 killed? a. Cuban Crisis b. Bay of Pigs c. Cuban missile crisis d. Operation Chiquita 0 points QUESTION 47 What was the first gay rights organization in the United States, founded in 1951 by Harry Hay? a. the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered Association (GLBT) b. the Rainbow Association c. the Mattachine Societyd. the Pink Triangle Group 0 points QUESTION 48 What was the name for the 1965 immigration law that abandoned the national origins quota system and established racially neutral criteria for immigration? a. the Johnson-Hays Act b. Hart-Celler Act c. the Turner Whitfield Act d. the Dawes Act 0 points QUESTION 49 What was the organization created by the Kennedy administration to aid the economic and educational progress of developing countries? a. Counter Intelligence Program b. Volunteers in Service of America c. the Peace Corps d. Alliance for Progress 0 points QUESTION 50 What was the title of the 1963 book by Betty Friedan that took as its theme the emptiness of consumer culture, and painted the suburban home as a "comfortable concentration camp" for women? a. A Fierce Discontent b. Fear of Flying c. The Flames of Discontent d. The Feminine Mystique 0 points QUESTION 51 Which of the following was not a central purpose of President Johnson's Great Society program? a. ending poverty in America b. establishing a federally guaranteed annual income for every family c. providing food for the needy d. enhancing the access of poor people to a good education 0 points QUESTION 52 Which of the following was not one of the climactic moments of 1968? a. Eugene McCarthy's strong showing in the New Hampshire primary b. the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. c. bloody clashes between police and protesters at the Chicago Democratic convention d. the Berkeley Free Speech movement 0 points QUESTION 53 Which was not a goal of the August 28, 1963, March on Washington? a. an end to the use of the Grandfather Clause restricting suffrage b. a public-works program to reduce unemployment c. passage of a civil rights bill d. legislation barring discrimination in employment 0 points QUESTION 54 Which was not an event in the civil rights movement of 1963? a. A bomb at a black Baptist church in Birmingham killed four young girls. b. James Meredith, a black student, entered the University of Mississippi. c. 250,000 people, black and white, marched in Washington, D.C., in support of civil rights. d. A sniper killed Medgar Evers, field secretary of the NAACP in Mississippi. 0 points QUESTION 55 Which was not part of President Johnson's 1965–1967 "Great Society"? a. the disbanding of the national broadcasting network b. Medicare and Medicaidc. funds poured into urban development and education d. the establishment of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 0 points QUESTION 56 Which was the organization that crafted the Port Huron Statement, criticized corporations, unions, and the military-industrial complex, and proclaimed "a democracy of individual participation"? a. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) b. the National Organization of Women (NOW) c. Congress for Racial Equality (CORE) d. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) 0 points QUESTION 57 While not confirmed, it is assumed the assassin of John F. Kennedy was Sirhan Sirhan. True False 0 points QUESTION 58 While serving a nine-day jail term in 1963 for violating a ban on demonstrations, Martin Luther King Jr., wrote his eloquent plea for racial justice, "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." True False 0 points QUESTION 59 Who was the leader of the United Farm Workers (UFW)—as much a movement for civil rights as a campaign for economic betterment— who, beginning in 1965, led nonviolent protests, including fasts, marches, and a national boycott of California grapes? a. Santos C. Vega b. Jaime Escalante c. César Chavez d. Julian Nava 0 points QUESTION 60 Who was the leading African-American known for his fiery oratory, insistence that blacks control the political and economic resources of their communities, and who was assassinated by members of the Nation of Islam after he formed his own Organization of Afro American Unity? a. Malcolm X b. Stokely Carmichael c. Medgar Evers d. Bobby Seale 0 points QUESTION 61 Who was the marine biologist whose book Silent Spring spelled out how the insecticide DDT kills birds and other animals and causes sickness among humans, and who launched the modern environmental movement? a. Ralph Nader b. John Muir c. Rachel Carson d. Helen Caldicott QUESTION 62 With the sit-ins, college students stepped onto the stage of American history as a leading force for social change. True False QUESTION 63 In a single week in June 1963, more than 15,000 people were arrested in 186 cities across the United States in civil rights demonstrations, with Birmingham, Alabama, as the citadel of segregation. True FalseCHAPTER 26 REVIEW QUESTION 1 1. "Neoconservatives" came to believe that well-intentioned government social programs did more harm than good. In many cases, welfare, for example, not only failed to alleviate poverty, but also encouraged single motherhood and undermined the work ethic. True False 0 points QUESTION 2 1. "Stagflation" refers to a. stagnant economic growth and high inflation. b. environmentalists' concerns with falling deer populations in national parks. c. low inflation and high economic growth. d. men who burned the American flag in protest during the Vietnam War. 0 points QUESTION 3 1. A major initiative of the Carter administration was the a. Whip Inflation Now campaign. b. Panama Canal treaty. c. founding of the Environmental Protection Agency. d. Strategic Defense Initiative. 0 points QUESTION 4 1. All of the following developments undermined the public faith in the effectiveness of the federal government except a. the Watergate scandal. b. the economic downturn of the 1970s. c. the Camp David agreement. d. the outcome of the Vietnam War. 0 points QUESTION 5 1. As a result of this 1971 Supreme Court case, judges throughout the country ordered the use of busing as a tool to achieve school integration. a. Griggs v. Duke Powerb. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke c. San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez d. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education 0 points QUESTION 6 1. As president, Carter appointed fewer blacks to important positions than had Nixon. True False 0 points QUESTION 7 1. Both foreign policy "realists" and conservative Cold Warriors applauded President Jimmy Carter's emphasis on human rights. True False 0 points QUESTION 8 1. By 1970, African-Americans accounted for nearly 50 percent of all welfare recipients. True False 0 points QUESTION 9 1. By 1979, there were thousands of local gay rights groups across the United States. True False 0 points QUESTION 10 1. By the 1990s, public schools in the North were considerably more segregated than those in the South. True False 0 points QUESTION 11 1. By the end of President Reagan's two terms in office, American conservatism was a spent force as all its goals had been completely fulfilled. True False 0 points QUESTION 12 1. By the end of the 1970s, the civil rights and sexual revolutions produced resentments that promoted the Democratic coalition.True False 0 points QUESTION 13 1. By the mid-1970s—in consequence of women's changing aspirations and the availability of birth control and legal abortions—the American birthrate declined dramatically. True False 0 points QUESTION 14 1. By the mid-1990s, the richest 1 percent of Americans owned only 10 percent of the nation's wealth, half their share twenty years earlier. True False 0 points QUESTION 15 1. Carter's actions in Afghanistan had unforeseen consequences, including the rise to power by this group a. the Taliban. b. the Abu Nidal Organization. c. the Muslim Brotherhood. d. the Islamic Front. 0 points QUESTION 16 1. Due to both Agnew and Nixon leaving office before their terms ended, Gerald Ford and Nelson Rockefeller together served as the only persons holding the office of president and vice president (respectively) for whom no one had actually voted. True False 0 points QUESTION 17 1. During the 1970s, the divorce rate soared; by 1975, it was twice what it had been a decade earlier. True False 0 points QUESTION 18 1. During the second half of the 1960s and the 1970s, conservative Christianity increasingly aligned with a. the Republican Party. b. the Libertarian Party. c. the Democratic Party. d. the Socialist Party. 0 points QUESTION 19 1. For the only time in the twentieth century, other than the 1930s, the average American ended the 1970s poorer than when the decade began. True False 0 points QUESTION 20 1. From 1973 to 1993, real wages a. essentially did not rise. b. fell sharply. c. rose sharply for almost all American workers. d. fell gradually, then rose sharply. 0 points QUESTION 21 1. In 1960, only 20 percent of women with young children had been in the workforce; the figure reached 55 percent in 1990. True False 0 points QUESTION 22 1. In 1968, a "backlash" among formerly Republican voters against both black assertiveness and antiwar demonstrations helped to propel Richard Nixon into the White House. True False 0 points QUESTION 23 1. In 1971, the New York Times began publishing this classified report prepared by the Defense Department that traced American involvement in Vietnam back to World War II and revealed how successive presidents had misled the American people about it. a. the Containment Policy Report b. the Pentagon Papers c. the Ellsberg Papers d. the Rehnquist Files0 points QUESTION 24 1. In 1972, Congress cut down Title IX, which attempted to ban gender discrimination in higher education. True False 0 points QUESTION 25 1. In 1973, long lines of cars appeared at American gas stations, which either ran out of fuel or limited how much a customer could buy as a result of a. the oil embargo. b. increased domestic oil production. c. industry standards on fuel efficiency. d. domestic weather issues. 0 points QUESTION 26 1. In 1978, California voters approved Proposition 13, which banned further increases in property taxes but reduced funds for schools, libraries, and other public services. True False 0 points QUESTION 27 1. In 1979 there was a near-fatal accident at a nuclear power plant, which released a large amount of radioactive steam into the atmosphere at a. Three Mile Island. b. Chernobyl. c. Kyshtym. d. Windscale. 0 points QUESTION 28 1. In August 1981, the union of air traffic controllers began a strike in violation of federal law, creating a potentially hazardous travel situation. Reagan's response was to a. meet the union demands as the air traffic controllers had crippled the abilityb. meet with union leaders personally and negotiate demands, which ensured c. fire all the union strikers, replacing them with the military. d. agree to a one-year evaluation whereby the strikers received a two-percent part of their continued employment. 0 points QUESTION 29 1. In Ford's "Whip Inflation Now" campaign, a. inflation increased but joblessness fell. b. inflation increased but joblessness continued to rise. c. inflation and joblessness both fell. d. inflation fell but joblessness continued to rise. 0 points QUESTION 30 1. In Nixon's first three years in office, the proportion of southern black students attending integrated schools a. increased slightly, but it was a positive step in the right direction. b. was at a standstill. c. more than doubled. d. decreased initially, but steadily climbed by the third year. 0 points QUESTION 31 1. In Reagan's second term, his relationship with Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev a. exploded as a result of both countries' need to overspend militarily. b. softened, creating a close relationship. c. improved slightly, but Reagan maintained his comments about the Soviet Unias an "evil empire." d. remained defensive, as Reagan waited to see what would happen in Afghanis0 points QUESTION 32 1. In the spring of 1970, more than 350 colleges and universities experienced student strikes, and troops occupied twenty-one campuses in protest over the Vietnam War. True False 0 points QUESTION 33 1. In this 1986 Supreme Court decision, the Court upheld the constitutionality of state laws outlawing homosexual acts. a. Lawrence v. Texasb. Loving v. Virginia c. Romer v. Evans d. Bowers v. Hardwick 0 points QUESTION 34 1. It is a myth that U.S. soldiers killed 350 South Vietnamese civilians in the My Lai massacre of 1968. True False 0 points QUESTION 35 1. Like a strong majority of women across the United States, Phyllis Schlafly was an adamant supporter of the Equal Rights Amendment, which was designed to remove the legal ability to discriminate "on account of sex." True False 0 points QUESTION 36 1. Many whites came to view affirmative action programs as a form of reverse discrimination. True False 0 points QUESTION 37 1. Nixon was the first American president to visit the Soviet Union, wherein he engaged in negotiations for increased trade and arms-control treaties called a. Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty. b. Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (SART). c. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT). d. Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF). 0 points QUESTION 38 1. President Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger continued President Lyndon Johnson's policy of attempting to undermine Third World governments deemed dangerous to American strategic or economic interests. True False0 points QUESTION 39 1. President Nixon resigned the office of the presidency in 1974, in the wake of the Watergate scandal and cover-up. True False 0 points QUESTION 40 1. President Richard Nixon sought to replace the polarized and hostile relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union with a new era of "peaceful coexistence" called a. détente. b. glasnost. c. realism. d. perestroik a. 0 points QUESTION 41 1. Prior to taking office, Jimmy Carter achieved all of the following except a. being a "born-again" Baptist. b. holding a federal office. c. graduating from the U.S. Naval Academy. d. earning a living as a farmer. 0 points QUESTION 42 1. The Iranian revolution deeply impacted the public's view of Carter's administration. After hostages were taken captive in Tehran, they were finally released a. after Carter agreed to send the deposed shah back to Iran. b. provided the OPEC terms would be met. c. when Carter issued a public statement agreeing to meet their arms demands. d. on Carter's last day as president. 0 points QUESTION 43 1. The Reagan administration conducted a massive expansion of military spending during the 1980s. True False 0 points QUESTION 441. The Senate's Church Committee concluded that many of America's problems would be solved if people would attend church more frequently. True False 0 points QUESTION 45 1. The Vietnam War was a military, political, and social disaster, and the only war the United States has ever lost. True False 0 points QUESTION 46 1. The controversy over Roe v. Wade was a political hotbed that affected a range of issues from battles over nominees to judicial positions, and led to demonstrations at family-planning and abortion clinics. True False 0 points QUESTION 47 1. The economy of the 1970s moved from stagflation to affluence, increasing the appeal of the conservative argument that government regulation raised business costs and eliminated jobs. True False 0 points QUESTION 48 1. The first divorced man to run for president was a. Ronald Reagan. b. Gerald Ford. c. Richard Nixon. d. Jimmy Carter. 0 points QUESTION 49 1. The first woman nominated for vice president by a major party was a. Michele Bachmann. b. Hillary Clinton. c. Sarah Palin. d. Geraldine Ferraro. 0 points QUESTION 50 1. The movement to reverse the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision was supported by all of the following except a. Evangelical Protestants. b. feminists. c. social conservatives. d. the Roman Catholic Church. 0 points QUESTION 51 1. The number of workers employed in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy rose sharply during the 1970s. True False 0 points QUESTION 52 1. This Reagan-appointed Supreme Court justice was the first female member of the Court. a. Elena Kagan b. Sonia Sotomayor c. Ruth Bader Ginsburg d. Sandra Day O'Connor 0 points QUESTION 53 1. This piece of legislation reduced the tax rate on the wealthiest Americans to 28 percent, a sharp retreat from the idea that the wealthy should pay a higher percentage of their income in taxes than other citizens. a. Redistribution Act b. Share the Wealth bill c. Tax Reform Act d. Ways and Means Act 0 points QUESTION 541. Tom Wolfe dubbed the 1970s, a time in which "lifestyle" emerged in depoliticized form, the a. "Me Decade." b. "Morality Astray." c. "Culture of Narcissism." d. "Conspicuous Consumption." 0 points QUESTION 55 1. Upon entering office, President Nixon accepted and even expanded many elements of Lyndon Johnson's Great Society program. True False 0 points QUESTION 56 1. Upon entering office, President Nixon surprised many people by calling a rapid halt to American military involvement in Vietnam. True False 0 points QUESTION 57 1. What was the 1978 Supreme Court decision that rejected the idea of fixed affirmative action quotas, but allowed that race could be used as one factor among many in admissions decisions? a. Griggs v. Duke Power b. San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez c. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke d. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education 0 points QUESTION 58 1. What was the 1979 organization created by Virginia minister Jerry Falwell, devoted to waging a "war against sin" and electing "pro-life, pro-family, pro-America" candidates? a. Save Our Children b. Moral Majority c. America First d. Family First 0 points QUESTION 591. What was the name for the plan by which President Nixon gradually drew down the number of American troops in Vietnam, saying they would be replaced by South Vietnamese soldiers? a. "Operation Infinite Glory" b. "Kissingerian Peace" c. "Vietnamization" d. "Cut and Run" 0 points QUESTION 60 1. Which of the following was not a major theme raised by critics of Reagan's presidency? a. His involvement in the Iran-Contra scandal left his reputation tarnished. b. During his presidency, the national debt tripled. c. He appeared more interested in safeguarding the environment than in safegunation from communism. d. His policies left a widening gap between the rich and the poor. 0 points QUESTION 61 1. Which was not a reason that Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) rolls expanded rapidly during the 1960s? a. an increase in births to unmarried women b. a sharp rise in the number of poor female-headed households c. The federal government tripled AFDC payments to individual recipients. d. an aggressive campaign by welfare rights groups to encourage people to apply for benefits CHAPTER 27 REVIEW QUESTION 1 1. After recovering from the recession of 1990–1991, the U.S. economy continued to expand for the rest of the decade; the boom became the longest uninterrupted period of economic expansion in American history. True False 0 points QUESTION 2 1. After the Gulf War of 1991, Osama bin Laden declared war on America.True False 0 points QUESTION 3 1. All of today’s Indians live in five western states (California, Oklahoma, Arizona, New Mexico, and Washington). True False 0 points QUESTION 4 1. As president, Bill Clinton opposed his predecessor's passion for free trade, believing instead that regulatory tariffs would ensure higher standards of living for American workers. True False 0 points QUESTION 5 1. Between 1980 and 2000, the poor and the middle class became worse off while the rich became significantly richer. True False 0 points QUESTION 6 1. Between 1990 and 1995, the federal government and the states as a whole stopped constructing prisons to cut back on federal spending. True False 0 points QUESTION 7 1. Between 2000 and 2002, the price of NASDAQ stocks rose by nearly 80 percent. True False 0 points QUESTION 8 1. Bill Clinton was the first Democrat to win reelection to the presidency since Franklin D. Roosevelt. True False 0 points QUESTION 9 1. By 2000, a majority of American households owned stocks directly or through investment in mutual funds and pension and retirement accounts. True False 0 points QUESTION 101. By 2000, more than 400,000 Americans had died of HIV/AIDS. True False 0 points QUESTION 11 1. By 2000, twenty-three states had passed laws establishing English as their official language. True False 0 points QUESTION 12 1. By 2010, more than 13 percent of the American population was foreign born. True False 0 points QUESTION 13 1. By 2010, more than 4 million Muslims resided in the United States. True False 0 points QUESTION 14 1. By 2010, more than a third of African-Americans lived in the suburbs. True False 0 points QUESTION 15 1. By the year 2000, and in 2010, what percentage of all marriages ended in divorce? a. 25 percent b. 10 percent c. 50 percent d. 20 percent 0 points QUESTION 16 1. By the year 2000, how many American households owned a personal computer? a. one-quarter b. halfc. one-third d. almost every home 0 points QUESTION 17 1. Clinton’s continuing popularity throughout the impeachment controversy demonstrated how profoundly traditional attitudes toward sexual morality had changed. True False 0 points QUESTION 18 1. During the 1990s, Presidents George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton both asserted the view that America should embrace the mission of creating a single global free market as a path to greater worldwide freedom. True False 0 points QUESTION 19 1. During the 1990s, religion in the United States lost much of its appeal, as a secular culture based on consumption and mass entertainment dominated American society. True False 0 points QUESTION 20 1. During the 1991 Gulf War, President George H. W. Bush's approval rating reached 89 percent, but he lost the presidential election the next year. True False 0 points QUESTION 21 1. During what years did the Berlin Wall, the most prominent symbol of the Cold War, divide East and West Berlin? a. 1961– 1989 b. 1948– 1992 c. 1945– 1975 d. 1947– 2000 0 points QUESTION 22 1. In 1994, Californians approved Proposition 187, which denied illegal immigrants and their children access to welfare, education, and health services. True False 0 points QUESTION 23 1. In 1994, the Republican Party won control of both houses of Congress for the first time since the 1950s; they proclaimed their triumph the "Freedom Revolution," and Newt Gingrich, a conservative congressman from Georgia, masterminded their platform, which was called the a. Moral Majority. b. New Freedom Revolution. c. Contract with America. d. Morning in America. 0 points QUESTION 24 1. In 1994, tribal massacres rocked Rwanda, in central Africa. Over 800,000 people were slaughtered and the United States sent in a massive military force in an effort to staunch the flow of blood. True False 0 points QUESTION 25 1. In 1996, President Clinton signed a Republican bill into law, abolishing the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and replacing it with a system of grants of money to states, with strict limits on how long recipients could receive payments. True False 0 points QUESTION 26 1. In 2000, the largest employer in America was a. Microsoft. b. General Motors. c. Wal-Mart. d. Enron. 0 points QUESTION 271. In 2008, several states spent more money on their prison systems than on higher education. True False 0 points QUESTION 28 1. In Casey v. Planned Parenthood of Pennsylvania (1992), the Supreme Court a. ruled that since this issue was not in the Constitution, they had to leave it to the states to decide. b. reaffirmed a woman’s right to terminate a pregnancy. c. overturned Rowe v. Wade. d. ruled that the state (through a physician’s care), not a woman, has the right to terminate a pregnancy. 0 points QUESTION 29 1. In February 1991, the United States launched Operation Desert Storm as part of the Gulf War and quickly drove the Iraqi army from what country? a. Iran b. Kuwai t c. Israel d. Iraq 0 points QUESTION 30 1. In his January 1996 State of the Union address, President Clinton announced that "the era of big government is over," and, in effect, turned his back on the tradition of Democratic Party liberalism and embraced the antigovernment outlook associated with Republicans since the days of Barry Goldwater. True False 0 points QUESTION 31 1. In line with their 1994 platform, Republicans in the U.S. House of Representatives moved swiftly to approve deep cuts in all of the following except a. education. b. Medicare. c. environmental programs. d. the military.0 points QUESTION 32 1. In the 1992 run for the presidency, Bill Clinton held all of the following views except a. he promised to "end welfare as we know it." b. he supported affirmative action for racial minorities. c. he opposed gay rights. d. he supported abortion rights. 0 points QUESTION 33 1. In the 2000 election, George W. Bush won the popular vote, but lost the electoral vote to Al Gore. True False 0 points QUESTION 34 1. In the early 1990s, in an effort to stop "ethnic cleansing," the United States and its NATO allies, after considerable indecision, launched airstrikes against Bosnian Serb forces. True False 0 points QUESTION 35 1. In western Europe and Canada, governments provide universal medical coverage for all citizens, but in the United States there was—in the 1990s and early 2000s—no universal medical coverage. True False 0 points QUESTION 36 1. In what year did the Soviet Union cease to exist and, in its place, fifteen new independent nations arise? a. 1967 b. 1991 c. 1999 d. 2000 0 points QUESTION 37 1. Many stock frauds stemmed from the repeal of this piece of legislation from 1999, a New Deal measure that separated commercial banks (which accept deposits and make loans) from investment banks (which invest in stocks and real estate and take larger risks).a. National Bank Act b. Sarbanes-Oxley Act c. Glass-Steagall Act d. Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act 0 points QUESTION 38 1. Numbering around 50 million in 2010, this group had become the largest minority group in the United States. a. Latinos b. African Americans c. Native Americans d. Asians 0 points QUESTION 39 1. On September 11, 2001, planes controlled by terrorists crashed into all of the following except a. a bridge in Washington, D.C. b. a field southeast of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. c. a wing of the Pentagon. d. the Twin Towers in New York. 0 points QUESTION 40 1. Pat Buchanan delivered a speech at the 1992 Republican national convention that declared cultural war against all the following except a. the Christian Right. b. supporters of abortion rights. c. gays. d. feminists. 0 points QUESTION 41 1. President Bill Clinton was formally impeached (charged with a crime) but not convicted or removed from office. True False 0 points QUESTION 42 1. President Clinton modified the military’s strict ban on gay soldiers, instituting a policy, _______________, by which officers would not seek out gays for dismissal from the armed forces. a. "It’s private, private" b. "We don’t need to know" c. "Our business is the military" d. "Don’t ask, don’t tell" 0 points QUESTION 43 1. The 1990s Christian Coalition became a major force in Republican Party politics and launched crusades against all of the following except a. secularism in public schools. b. gay rights. c. creationism. d. abortion. 0 points QUESTION 44 1. The Christian Coalition was founded by the evangelical minister a. Jim Baker. b. Pat Robertson. c. Jerry Falwell. d. Robert G. Grant. 0 points QUESTION 45 1. The Enron Corporation became famous in the 1990s for its leading part in the computer revolution, especially in software. True False 0 points QUESTION 46 1. The Internet was first developed as a high-speed communication network for telephone operators. True False 0 points QUESTION 471. The United Nations endorsed the U.S. invasion of Panama but denounced Operation Desert Storm. True False 0 points QUESTION 48 1. The collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and eastern Europe occurred during what years? a. 2002– 2003 b. 1989– 1991 c. 2000– 2002 d. 1963– 1974 0 points QUESTION 49 1. The decline of public tolerance of homosexuality was among the most striking changes in American social attitudes in the last twenty years of the twentieth century. True False 0 points QUESTION 50 1. The first time Israel formally recognized the legitimacy of the Palestine Liberation Organization was in 1993 at the a. Potsdam Convention. b. Oslo Accords. c. Rochester Convention. d. Camp David Accords. 0 points QUESTION 51 1. The largest one-day drop in stock prices in history occurred on April 14, 2000. True False 0 points QUESTION 52 1. The percentage of the black population in prison stood five times higher than the proportion for white Americans; more than one-quarter of all black men could expect to serve time in prison at some time during their lives. True False 0 points QUESTION 53 1. The protesters assembled at the 1999 meeting of the World Trade Organization in Seattle represented a striking mix of industrial workers and environmentalists. True False 0 points QUESTION 54 1. The stock market boom of the late 1990s was fueled in part by high-level corporate fraud. True False 0 points QUESTION 55 1. This first female attorney general, __________, was appointed by President Clinton. a. Loretta Lynch b. Janet Reno c. Nancy Pelosi d. Hillary Clinton 0 points QUESTION 56 1. What is the name of the terrorist organization responsible for the attacks of September 11, 2001, that killed nearly 3,000 Americans? a. Al Qaeda b. Taliban c. the Arab Alliance d. Salafist Jihadist Unity 0 points QUESTION 57 1. What occurred in Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China, in April 1989? a. An upgraded version of Microsoft Windows was released, causing a flood of consumerism to flood the square, seeking cheap pirated copies.b. An appearance by the rock group The Clash led hundreds of young people to flood the square, dancing and singing. c. Tens of thousands of students gathered, burning in effigy, "The Goddess of Freedom," to show their contempt for American foreign policy. d. Tens of thousands of students, joined by workers, teachers, and some government officials, occupied the square and demanded greater democracy in China. 0 points QUESTION 58 1. What third-party candidate received 19 percent of the popular vote in the 1992 presidential election, the best result for a third-party candidate since Theodore Roosevelt in 1912? a. Pat Buchanan b. Al Gore c. Ralph Nader d. Ross Perot 0 points QUESTION 59 1. Which U.S. president first spoke of the coming of a "new world order"? a. George H. W. Bush b. John F. Kennedy c. Lyndon Baines Johnson d. Jimmy Carter 0 points QUESTION 60 1. Which of the following was not a key element of the Republican "Contract with America"? a. less government regulation b. sharper restrictions on the sale of handguns c. lower taxes d. end affirmative action 0 points QUESTION 61 1. Which of the following was not a policy adopted by the federal government during the Clinton years?a. international free trade agreements b. an effective antipoverty policy c. universal health care d. expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit 0 points QUESTION 62 1. Which was not a terrorist attack on the United States undertaken by Al Qaeda? a. a truck bomb that exploded at the World Trade Center in 1993, killing six people b. blasts in 1998 at American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, which killed more than 200 people c. the October 1985 killing of an American aboard an Italian cruise ship d. the attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon on September 11, 2001, in which 3,000 people lost their lives 0 points QUESTION 63 1. Who was the African-American chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff who, in the early 1990s, argued that the United States should not commit its troops abroad without clear objectives and a timetable for withdrawal? a. Colin Powell b. John Shalikashvili c. Peter Pace d. Henry Hugh Shelton 0 points QUESTION 64 1. Who was the leader of Al Qaeda in 2001? a. Saddam Hussein b. Ayman al-Zawahiri c. Osama bin Laden d. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed 0 points QUESTION 65 1. Who won the Cold War?a. Soviet Union and its allies b. China and its allies c. China and the Soviet Union claimed themselves winners d. United States and its allies 0 points QUESTION 66 1. Who won the popular vote in the presidential election of 2000? a. Bill Clinton b. George W. Bush c. George H. W. Bush d. Al Gore CHAPTER 28 REVIEW QUESTION 1 1. After September 11, 2001—after two decades in which the dominant language of American politics centered on deregulation and individualism—the country experienced a renewed feeling of common social purpose. True False 0 points QUESTION 2 1. After the fall of Baghdad, people around the world began to compare the Iraq War with a. the Balkans. b. Vietnam. c. Korea. d. the Cold War. 0 points QUESTION 3 1. An immense influx of cheap goods from Europe slowed down the loss of manufacturing jobs in the United States and enabled Americans to keep buying. True False 0 points QUESTION 4 1. As a vice-presidential candidate, Sarah Palin attacked Democrats with all of the following except a. being unpatriotic. b. tough on crime. c. lacking traditional values. d. not representing the "real America." 0 points QUESTION 5 1. As part of President Bush's plan to ignore laws that restricted his power as commander-in-chief during wartime, he authorized this organization to eavesdrop on Americans with a court warrant. a. National Security Agency b. Federal Communications Agency c. Bureau of Information d. National Espionage Agency 0 points QUESTION 6 1. Before becoming president, George W. Bush had been an executive in the oil industry. True False 0 points QUESTION 7 1. Bush became the first president since Herbert Hoover to see the economy lose jobs over the course of a four-year term. True False 0 points QUESTION 8 1. During the Great Recession, the mortgage crisis affected _________ the most. a. white-collar workers b. the elderly c. new immigrants d. minorities 0 points QUESTION 9 1. During the Great Recession, these groups ranked third from the bottom in public esteem—just above prostitutes and convicted felons.a. mortgage companies and insurance companies b. politicians and administrators c. construction companies and new development builders d. bankers and stockbrokers 0 points QUESTION 10 1. During the Great Recession, with the value of their homes and stock market accounts in free fall, Americans cut back on spending, leading to business failures and a rapid rise in unemployment. True False 0 points QUESTION 11 1. Edward Snowden was a former employee of the National Security Agency who released documents online that detailed NSA programs that monitored virtually all telephone, instant messaging, and email traffic in the United States. True False 0 points QUESTION 12 1. Evidence of global warming first surfaced in the 1990s when scientists studying layers of ice in Greenland concluded that Earth's temperature had risen significantly during the past century. True False 0 points QUESTION 13 1. Global warming is caused when gases released by burning fossil fuels such as coal and oil remain in the upper atmosphere, trapping heat reflected from Earth. True False 0 points QUESTION 14 1. In 2001, President George W. Bush persuaded Congress to enact the largest tax cut in American history. True False 0 points QUESTION 15 1. In 2003, two-thirds of Americans opposed legalizing same-sex marriages; by 2015, over 60 percent were in favor. True False0 points QUESTION 16 1. In 2006, the House of Representatives approved a bill making it a felony to be in the country illegally and a crime to offer aid to illegal immigrants. True False 0 points QUESTION 17 1. In 2013, the top 10 percent of Americans received nearly three fourths of the total income. True False 0 points QUESTION 18 1. In April 2003, the president prohibited the use of torture except where special permission had been granted. The Defense Department reacted by a. obeying the order, despite their reservations. b. pushing Congress to pass a more strict form of legislation that would allow them to more violently interrogate. c. ignoring the order and any future orders regarding "unlawful combatants" from Europe. d. committing methods of interrogation considered torture. 0 points QUESTION 19 1. In Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, the U.S. Supreme Court considered the lawsuit of Yasir Hamdi, an American citizen who had moved to Saudi Arabia and been captured in Afghanistan. Hamdi was imprisoned in a military jail in South Carolina without charge or the right to see a lawyer; and the Supreme Court ruled that he had a right to a judicial hearing regardless of the nation being in "a state of war." True False 0 points QUESTION 20 1. In January 2005, at his second inaugural address, Bush outlined a new American goal: a. "Peace, Unity, and Freedom." b. "America First." c. "Not one step back." d. "Ending tyranny in the world." 0 points QUESTION 21 1. In July 2010, Congress enacted a financial regulatory reform law, which sought to place under increased federal oversight many of the transactions that had helped create the economic crisis. True False 0 points QUESTION 22 1. In March 2003, with Great Britain as its sole significant ally, President Bush sent the U.S. military to attack Iraq, calling the war a. "Operation Infinite Justice." b. "The Iraqi Attack." c. "Operation Iraqi Freedom." d. "Operation Enduring Freedom." 0 points QUESTION 23 1. In March 2010, Congress passed a sweeping health-care bill that required all Americans to purchase health insurance and most businesses to provide it to their employees. True False 0 points QUESTION 24 1. In November 2001, the Bush administration issued an executive order authorizing the holding of secret military tribunals for noncitizens deemed to have assisted in terrorism. True False 0 points QUESTION 25 1. In Obama's second term, he faced a new crisis when this self proclaimed group took control of parts of Iraq, Syria, and Libya. a. Al Qaeda b. the Separatists c. Muslim Brotherhood d. ISIS 0 points QUESTION 26 1. In October 2001, the United States launched a war named "Enduring Freedom" against the Taliban ina. Iran. b. Afghanista n. c. Pakistan. d. Iraq. 0 points QUESTION 27 1. In President Obama's first inauguration, he stated which of the following? a. He promised a foreign policy based on unilateral force. b. He spoke of the need to decrease income inequality. c. He praised the Bush policies. d. He pledged to protect the environment. 0 points QUESTION 28 1. In President Obama's first three months, he announced all of the following plans except a. restoring Bush's rhetoric about a God-given American mission to spread freedom throughout the world. b. launching a diplomatic initiative to repair relations with the Muslim world. c. keeping the prison at Guantanamo Bay open. d. continuing the previous administration's executive orders restricting women's reproductive rights. 0 points QUESTION 29 1. In September 2002, the Bush administration released a document called the National Security Strategy, which announced a new foreign-policy principle called a. "war of attrition." b. "preemptive" war. c. the Freedom Act. d. the Patriot Act. 0 points QUESTION 301. In the 2008 Supreme Court ruling, the Court affirmed the detainees' right to challenge their detention in U.S. courts in a. Obergefell v. Hodges. b. Bowers v. Hardwick. c. Lawrence v. Texas. d. Boumediene v. Bush. 0 points QUESTION 31 1. In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, a new department, ___________________, in the federal government was created to coordinate efforts to improve security at home. a. Department of Homeland Security b. Department of State c. Department of Defense d. Department of Strategic Services 0 points QUESTION 32 1. In the election of 2008, Obama carried every age group except persons over sixty-five. True False 0 points QUESTION 33 1. In the year after September 11, evidence emerged of links between Al Qaeda and the Iraqi government of Saddam Hussein. True False 0 points QUESTION 34 1. In the years immediately following the September 11 attacks, the U.S. defense budget a. exceeded that of the next twenty world powers combined. b. grew to double the amount spent in the previous decade. c. was constant, but Bush pushed Congress to make a substantial, five-year military plan. d. declined as the UN provided additional military support. 0 points QUESTION 35 1. Ninety percent of the jobs lost during the recession of 2001-2002 were in the ________ sector. a. service b. manufacturi ng c. health care d. technology 0 points QUESTION 36 1. Obama's "stimulus" package was the largest single spending appropriation in American history. True False 0 points QUESTION 37 1. Obama's Republican challenger in the presidential election of 2012 was Mitt Romney, the former governor of Massachusetts and a practicing Mormon. True False 0 points QUESTION 38 1. One of the positives that came out of Hurricane Katrina was that the mayor had been effective in evacuating the coastal areas. True False 0 points QUESTION 39 1. President Bush's popularity and approval ratings improved both due to the war in Iraq and Hurricane Katrina. True False 0 points QUESTION 40 1. President George W. Bush strongly supported the Kyoto Protocol of 1997, which sought to combat global warming. True False 0 points QUESTION 41 1. Prior to Hurricane Katrina, nearly 30 percent of New Orleans's population lived in poverty. True False 0 points QUESTION 421. Sonia Sotomayor was the first Hispanic and third woman in history to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court. True False 0 points QUESTION 43 1. The 2003 Iraqi War marked a new departure from American foreign policy; previously, the United States had been reluctant to use force outside the Western Hemisphere except as part of an international coalition. True False 0 points QUESTION 44 1. The 2005 natural disaster, devastating much of the South, particularly New Orleans, was a. Hurricane Katrina. b. Mount St. Helens. c. the Zika virus outbreak. d. Hurricane Opal. 0 points QUESTION 45 1. The 2011 protest against growing economic inequality, declining opportunity, and malfeasance by the banks was called a. Occupy Banks. b. Occupy Wall Street. c. Occupy America. d. Occupy Now. 0 points QUESTION 46 1. The Chinese government responded to the U.S. housing bubble market by a. sensing America's weakness and expanding their military spending. b. investing in Korean-made products over American. c. refusing to send young people to America for their college educations, leaving many colleges to lose enrollment. d. loaning money to the United States by buying up federal bonds. 0 points QUESTION 47 1. The Kyoto Protocol sought to combat world banking failure. True False 0 points QUESTION 48 1. The USA Patriot Act conferred all of the following powers on law enforcement agencies except a. the power to obtain personal records from third parties like libraries. b. the power to open letters and read email. c. the necessity of obtaining a judicial warrant prior to spying on citizens. d. the power to wiretap. 0 points QUESTION 49 1. The Wall Street investor who claimed to have made enormous profits for his clients yet had run a Ponzi scheme in which to profit was named Bernard Madoff. True False 0 points QUESTION 50 1. The decision to begin the Iraq War reunited the Western alliance and inspired a massive movement throughout the world. True False 0 points QUESTION 51 1. The election of 2008 redrew the nation's political map. True False 0 points QUESTION 52 1. The midterm elections of 2010 experienced the emergence of a new political party, the Tea Party, which appealed to those who wanted more federal power. True False 0 points QUESTION 53 1. The most dramatic achievement of Obama's presidency in foreign affairs was his fulfillment of his campaign promise to end American involvement in the Iraq War. True False 0 points QUESTION 54 1. The percentage of Americans living in poverty and those without health insurance declined during Bush's presidency. True False 0 points QUESTION 55 1. The three nations alleged by President Bush to constitute an "axis of evil" were a. Pakistan, Iran, and Indonesia. b. France, Germany, and Russia. c. Iran, Iraq, and North Korea. d. Libya, Iraq, and Cuba. 0 points QUESTION 56 1. The worst environmental disaster in American history was the Gulf oil spill in 2010. True False 0 points QUESTION 57 1. This 2015 Supreme Court ruling overturned state laws barring marriages for same-sex couples. a. Obergefell v. Hodges b. Lawrence v. Texas c. Loving v. Virginia d. Bowers v. Hardwick 0 points QUESTION 58 1. What was the 2003 Supreme Court decision declaring unconstitutional a Texas law making homosexual acts a crime? a. Lawrence v. Texas b. Bowers v. Hardwick c. Gideon v. Wainwright d. Loving v. Virginia0 points QUESTION 59 1. When J. P. Morgan Chase and Citibank pleaded guilty to felony conspiracy charges, the companies were handed hefty punishments by the federal government. True False 0 points QUESTION 60 1. Which of the following is not a correct statement regarding Barack Obama's life before the White House? a. He was elected to the House of Representatives in 2004. b. He opposed the Iraq War. c. He attended Harvard Law School. d. He was the product of an interracial marriage. 0 points QUESTION 61 1. Which of the following is not a reason Democrats were encouraged by John Kerry's run for the White House? a. He had prior political experience on a national level. b. He had military experience. c. He was a man of the people carrying an enthusiastic momentum. d. After leaving the army, he joined the antiwar movement. 0 points QUESTION 62 1. Which of the following was not a precursor to the Black Lives Matter movement? a. the shooting of James Whitehead by Texas police officer Robert Arnold b. the shooting death of Michael Brown by a Ferguson, Missouri, police officer c. the choking death of Eric Garner by New York police d. the shooting death of Trayvon Martin by George Zimmermann 0 points QUESTION 63 1. Which of the following was not a significant point of dispute between supporters and opponents of the American war in Iraq? a. whether Saddam Hussein had links with Al Qaedab. whether the United States had the right to invade another country based on little or no evidence of weapons of mass destruction c. whether Saddam Hussein was a humane and popular leader d. whether Saddam Hussein had stockpiled weapons of mass destruction