AMH2097 Final Exam Study Guide Basic Information: Final Exam is Thursday, May 4th, 2017 at 7:30 am in our usual classroom Bring a pencil for scan-tron portion Exam is cumulative EXTRA CREDIT WORTH 12 POINTS!!!! 25% of exam will cover groups/ideas included in the Midterm: The IntroductiWe also discuss several other topics like ma 162 purdue
If you want to learn more check out how do telemachus’s actions in battle compare to his father’s?
We also discuss several other topics like mgmt 3000 uga lyons test 1
Don't forget about the age old question of Name the database functions.
If you want to learn more check out ■ What is the starting product?
We also discuss several other topics like market oriented era
on to Race, Ethnicity and Nationality and the History of Immigration, WASPs, Africans, African-Americans, Irish, and Chinese, Part I. 75% of the exam will cover the following: Immigration from China, Part II, Immigration from “Germany,” First Wave Catch-up, Second Wave World, Immigration from “Italy,” Jewish Immigration, Immigration from Mexico, Third Wave World, Immigration from Cuba, Current Immigration/Naturalization Process, Current Immigration Laws. You are also responsible for the Political Cartoons PPT posted on Blackboard Exam is 400 points: 90 multiple choice and 10 fill-in/listing/short answer questions Each question is worth four points Do not bring anything besides a pencil and pen on exam day Study Key Terms! Key terms all included on quizlet Cumulative Information: Questions to Consider What are the main differences between Race, Ethnicity and Nationality? How are they different than you originally thought? ∙ Race- the assumption of differences based on real or imagined physical characteristics; assuming someone is a particular race because of what the look like ∙ Ethnicity- a group of people that have something in common (religion, food, language, etc.); do not have to come from the same place; refers to cultural factors ∙ Nationality- where you are from/hold citizenship; country of origin ∙ Racism- taking the assumption of physical characteristics and assuming someone is superior/inferior to you because of themWhat does the United States do with these categories? Why is the creation of the “Other” important? ∙ The U.S. sets up racial and ethnic hierarchies (like a ladder, set up in our minds) o When our country was made, white at the top. The more different you ere, the more inferior and lower down on the ladder you were placed o Hierarchies change over time (war, making money, get used to them) o Every country has a different hierarchy (ex: in Nigeria, whites are not at the top) ∙ The other/alien- anyone other than you (religion, political views, etc.); the U.S. used this term to describe racial and ethnic minorities What are the waves of immigration and who came during those waves? Which was the largest? 1. Formative Wave o Colonizing wave o Primarily the English o Second group that came during this wave did not come voluntarily Africans o Also Germans, Scots-Irish, Jews 2. First Wave o Called first wave because the English did not consider themselves to be immigrants o Irish, Germans, and Chinese 3. Second Wave o A lot of people coming that shouldn’t; ends with the passing of our first immigration law o Immigrants from South Europe (Italians), Eastern Europe (poles, checks, Russians), largest migration of Jews from Russia and eastern Europe, Japanese 4. Third Wave o Another immigration law passed that loosened things up o Everybody o LARGEST wave What is the process of emigration for immigrants? Why do they come? Why do they leave? ∙ Why do they leave: push factors o Lack of jobs, famine, war, political turmoil, religion persecution o In some countries, some people may have a push factor while others do not (ex: lower class getting killed; communism- upper class leaving) ∙ Why do they come: pull factors o Availability of jobs, freedom, safer living and better home conditions, democracy (especially for women and people of color), education o Most importantly- we let them- very lenient compared to other countries ∙ The Process of Immigration 1. The Decision to leave/not to leaveo Propaganda literature, ads in newspapers, travel accounts, American letters, power of the return immigrant o Also anti-immigration forces including upper class use of clergy and journalists, American letters 2. Traveling to the port city o Some use all money to get here and cannot get onto boat/plane 3. Take Temporary Residence in the Port City o Have to work now to get money to leave o Some may realize they no longer want to; first experience of city life 4. Crossing the ocean o Many in steerage, food costs extra, many went into debt to not starve 5. Take Temporary or Permanent residence in city of arrival o Can’t afford to get uptown o Goal: leave these areas- competition for jobs 6. TRYING to fit into American society o Make sure you say trying ! just saying “fitting in” is wrong! What are the differences between assimilation and acculturation? What does the US want? What do immigrants want? What makes the process of assimilation quicker/slower? ∙ Assimilation- giving up all of your past culture and totally adopting the new culture o US wants anglo-conformity (completely giving up everything, train themselves to be white overnight; expect this to be done very fast) ∙ Acculturation- pretend to assimilate on the outside, but when you get home, you speak original language, practice original religion, etc. Cultural Pluralism o Immigrants want this- they do not want to give up everything o Here because they have to be, not want to be, and some even believe they will go back home one day ∙ Making the process quicker/slower: o Age, education, money, not having family/being away from home, having a culture similar to the U.S. What is the importance of “un-assimilate-able”? ∙ Un-assimilate-able is anyone that is not white o People in power will say that these people are un-assimilate-able, even if they try their hardest What are the three main models of immigration? How are they different? What are their main ideas about immigration and citizenship (rights)? ∙ Virginia Model- pro-immigration for labor but NO rights; people can come to work but they have no say in government ∙ Massachusetts Model- exclude ALL, except those just like us; only people exactly like them get equal rights ∙ Pennsylvania Model- Pluralism- the belief that we are happy that people are different, and we want them to come inWhat are the definitions of Nativism and Xenophobia? How long has our country been this way? ∙ Nativism-when you do not like somebody because of something about their ethnicity ∙ Xenophobia- fear of somebody who is different from you o Take the idea of not liking an immigrant group and go much further, assume they are invading the world, taking over the government, taking over jobs, etc. ∙ Our country has always been like this! What are our first laws of citizenship/naturalization? How did we treat our immigrants? ∙ Naturalization Act of 1790- Congress has authority to create a uniform rule of naturalization o Three models: no limits, period of assimilation, restriction ∙ Naturalization Statues: o “Free white person” and children born abroad could become citizens o “Declare Allegiance” and “Good, Moral Character” o Today, it is five years that you must be here before becoming a citizen just know this law created the rule that you need to live in the US for 5 years to become a citizen- was on pretest and midterm How did the WASP keep their power? Change who is WHITE WASPS were no longer the numerical majority but retain in power Majority and Minority have NOTHING to do with numbers! It means POWER- WASPS are ALWAYS the MAJORITY in this class because they are the people with POWER What are the factors of success for immigration according to WASPs? 1. Money- you must have it 2. Numbers- small numbers are good; large numbers are bad- WASPS fear loss of power 3. Location- stay away from WASPS and not all together 4. Stereotypes- must be good 5. Assimilation- must fit in and totally replace your culture Who are the Immigrants of the First Wave? ∙ Irish, Chinese, and Germans o Chinese were the “other” we hate them so much we pass our first immigration law against them) o Germans-largest group, yet we like them a lot What major movements were happening in America that affected them during the First Wave? ∙ Nativist Movement- anti-immigrant platform; wanted to limit amount of immigrants coming and who would be included; what can we do to stop horrible immigrants from coming in but still allow the ones we like?o Will eventually become a political party o What is American?- white anglo saxon protestant born in America o “Gatekeepers of American Culture”- fear loss of power and worried about children (blackening America; they did not want different colored children) ∙ Temperance Movement- idea of getting rid of alcohol o Believed immigrants a bunch of drunks, and alcohol leads to violence and sin o Believed whites could not get drunk o Problem because Irish and Germans are big drinkers o Movement that will last duration ∙ Evangelicalism (Protestantism)- the spread of your religion; huge movement to revive Protestant religion and make sure everyone is protestant o Professing that this is the ONLY religion that matters o Affected Irish and Germans because they are not protestant (although they thought Germans were because of Martin Luther) o Immigrants called heathens (no religion) Know how Africans/African-Americans, the Chinese and the Irish compare to immigrants for the Final Exam Note: Remember, Irish were the only first wave group to go up the hierarchy. Germans went down because of WWI, then hyper assimilated to go back up. Chinese never went up because they are “un-assimilate-able” ∙ Hierarchy, stuff like that, main things, will be used in a question like comparing groups together. o EXAMPLES: Mexicans constantly compared to Africans o Irish institutional Catholic Church, Chinese Six companies, what did the Italians do that is similar? Created mutual aid societies Information for the Final Exam Lectures: Lecture: Immigration from China, Part II What were the stereotypes of the Chinese? How do you see them in political cartoons? 1. Inferior Race o Inherently different, the “yellow-race” yellowness implies sick, diseased, urine, feminine (calling someone yellow is calling them girly) o Seen as an inherently “weak” and “feminine” race because of their appearance (dress, height) and jobs (took on feminine jobs) 2. Perpetual “Alien” o Means they can never assimilate o Remember un-assimilate-able is based only on physical characteristics- only thing immigrant groups can’t change (this was a midterm question!)o WASPS portrayed them as women because of long hair and silky clothes; also had a different language (Problem to WASPS is not the English they speak but their accent) o Completely different religions (WASPS call them heathens; not heathens, but Buddhism is SO far from protestant) o Live in ethnic enclaves o No desire to assimilate or even acculturate because of return migration 3. “Immoral” o Seen as criminals, not because they break laws but because they are associated with being morally wrong o Opium dens- WASPS say Chinese are immoral for bringing opium to the US o also seem as immoral because they do not go to church (instead go to temple and worship a statue- very different from WASPS) 4. Invaders o “Yellow Peril”- Chinese taking over all low-paying jobs in US o this stereotype was set by other immigrants, not WASPS (WASPS okay with this stereotype) o other immigrants hated the Chinese because they work for less o Seen as invasion in Cali because of the super small population (300,000 really not that many) In political cartoons- One shows Uncle Sam being eaten by the Irish on the East Coast and Chinese on the West. Another shows Chinese meeting African Americans on Rocky Mountains, saying they are equal What type of discrimination did the Chinese Immigrants face? (Remember: discrimination is done to immigrants by WASPS) ∙ People vs. Hall- Chinese cannot testify against whites o “a race that nature as marked as inferior”- basically saying they are not human and should nit be able to engage in citizenship ∙ Page Act of 1875- our first immigration act passed by Cali limiting who can come undesirables and prostitutes o Chinese didn’t care because they are already here, but then: ∙ Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 o Passed first by Cali, then the US o Says Chinese cannot immigrate to the US o Problem? The Chinese leave! Return Migration! Can no longer come and go as they wish ∙ Calling them un-assimilate-able ∙ Various stereotypes ∙ Working for Low PayHow did the Chinese Immigrants resist assimilation? (Remember resistance is what immigrants do to WASPS) ∙ Chae Chan Ping vs. US 1889 this is resistance! o Six Companies and Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Society take US to court and say this is against the constitution (unconstitutional) o Decision US can exclude people, Chae Chan Ping cannot come back in o Opinion federal government will pass every immigration restriction from here on out, states are not allowed to do this US can also pass any immigration law they want to ∙ Chinese did not care about assimilation because they were a return migration ∙ Chinatown-trying to create China in the US ∙ Set up the Six Companies- Kongsi-6 clans that are import export individuals that have made a home in both US and China; take on the role of what the Eldest Male does in China, like tell Chinese what job to take, where to live etc. o Through the six companies, the Chinese get families and keep culture ∙ Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Society takes place of Six Companies for all Chinese outside of San Fran ∙ Refusing to assimilate How did the Chinese Immigrants work up the hierarchy in the United States? ∙ Other groups usually move up by children, voting blocks, other groups coming in, assimilation; Chinese do none of this; they DO NOT MOVE UP THE HIERARCHY Lecture: Immigration from Germany What was the process of German emigration? This was the largest immigration to the US- over 8 million Germans immigrated to the US Origin: all over; Class: all three; Occupation: all; Politics: very liberal and active; Religion: Catholic, Protestant, Jews, and Free Thinkers; also different from other groups because dressed very nice, do not look poor Know the process of emigration for each group know how each group did this. A lot of comparison on the exam ex: how did Chinese come differently than Germans, etc. ∙ The Trip o Most have money (or paid by government), so skip step of living in port cityo Steamships- faster and better, also cheaper; had 3 classes on boat in different areas o Bulk of immigration from Germany- family Why did the “Germans” leave their countries? 1. ReligionCatholics and Free Thinkers were persecuted o Catholics in protestant areas persecuted (can’t go to school, get jobs) o Free Thinkers persecuted all throughout Germany o Heard about freedom of religion in America o Most Catholics and Free Thinkers- middle class 2. Wars and Revolution: Revolutions of 1848 o Nationalism starts sweeping through Germany (loving your country) o Belief that Germany should come together as one o Problem- who will lead country with numerous kings, etc? o This push factor Upper and Lower Class Upper class don’t want to be killed if they lose, Lower Class the ones doing the fighting and this does not benefit them at all both want to leave 3. Economic Factors o Industrialization, Potato Blight o Affects middle and lower class o Industrialization no skill needed, workers pay less; craftsmen also lost their jobs from this o Potato Blight affected Germans too, farmers lost jobs because potatoes were rotting, heard there is land in America 4. State Sponsored Immigration o Country paid for people to leave because of overpopulation Why did the “Germans” Immigrants come to the United States? 1. Land o Gottfried Duden (Midwest looks just like Germany, heard they are giving away land, writes letter back to Germany telling them how amazing America is) 2. Jobs o Jobs available in America for all types of people Who were the typical “Germans” immigrants? ∙ All three classes ∙ A lot of families Did the “Germans” succeed in the factors set up by WASPs? ∙ Money- might have it, depending on class (yes and no) ∙ Numbers- Fail- 8 million (largest group to the US)∙ Location- depends on class o Upper Class and Middle class go to German Triangle- WASPS not out there yet- so spreading out and away from WASPS; lower class located in NYC until they can leave; Farmers moved to Texas Hill Country; Germans set up New Germany Know where each class went! ∙ Stereotypes- very positive stereotypes set by the Pennsylvania Dutch o White, protestant, skilled/hard workers, get along with English colonists, not very involved in colonial politics, excellent farmers developing land and sold it to WASPS for money o Overall, success (wrong, but good) ∙ Assimilation- Germans used the positive stereotypes ^ set up by the PA Dutch to make them fit in ∙ Know that Germans fail the success factor of numbers What were the stereotypes of the “Germans”? How do you see them in political cartoons? Anti-German Stereotypes Emerge as beginning of World War I starts Understand these in addition to the positive stereotypes set up by the Pennsylvania Dutch, stated above^ 1. “The Hun” o “ape-like” and “violent” o propaganda 2. “Immoral” o Beer Gardens o 18th amendment- prohibition amendment, ends sale and consumption of alcohol for US 3. Germans as “Spies” o Espionage and Sedition Acts- will allow government to expel or deport anyone who we claim is doing us harm What type of discrimination did the “German” Immigrants face? ∙ Violence against German-Americans ∙ WASPS burn down newspaper presses ∙ Prohibition (Germans that own breweries, work for them, and farmers for breweries now out of jobs- many unemployed ∙ Stereotypes during WWI What type of jobs did the “German” Immigrants take? all kinds because all classes came How did the “German” Immigrants resist assimilation? ∙ Brewing Industry and Beer Garden Culture∙ Social Clubs- political clubs; did what Institutional Catholic Church and Six Companies did- helped Germans o However, not a strong voting block because Germans all different from one another ∙ German newspapers o Retain culture, find out what’s happening at home with their extended families ∙ Labor Unions- were very strong in ethnic enclaves ∙ Parochial Schools for all three religions o Taught in German language, learn German history, etc. How did the “German” Immigrants work up the hierarchy in the United States? ∙ Assimilation ∙ Voting Blocks ∙ Children (going against parents) ∙ Other immigrants (especially during second wave, Germans called model immigrants) After WWI and negative German stereotypes emerged: German Americans changed their names to something more American Lecture: Introduction to the Second Wave/Catching up with our First Wave Groups Who are the immigrants of the Second Wave? Italians, Jews, and Mexicans Pull- industrial revolution Average of 1 million people coming per year What major movements were happening in America that affected the Second Wave Immigrants? ∙ The Progressive Era- a group of people (political power) who are middle and upper class WASPS and want to make America great again o Believed immigrant groups bringing problems (drugs, prostitution, alcohol) o Against big business and cities- where most crime happens o Very powerful in government o Rely on science- believed things scientific fact at the time ∙ “Scientific” Racism- manipulating the info scientists and experts give us and creating laws and rules based on this information ∙ Nativists to Know Nothing Party to Immigration Law o Know Nothing Party- a lot in common with Progressives o Eventually able to pass Immigration law because of “scientific facts”Who are the Progressives and what were their main beliefs? See above What is “Scientific” Racism? Give examples of “Scientific” Racism in the United States See above for definition Examples: ∙ Literacy Tests as part of Jim Crow South ∙ Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 ∙ Prohibition added to the U.S. ∙ Craniology- measuring skills (larger skull= smarter); when realized African skulls larger, changed this and said they have a diseased brain ∙ Germ Theory- idea that germs are jumping out of things like trash ∙ Veneral Diseases (STDs) and “Splurge” ∙ IQ Tests- used to measure intelligent of immigrants o Not their original intention o In English, so immigrants that did not speak English considered idiots ∙ Eugenics- idea that intelligence is hereditary o Wanted to create perfect race and get rid of those coloring or darkening America o Positive Eugenics- reproduction o Negative Eugenics- sterilization ∙ Buck vs. Bellpermitted sterilization ∙ Ellis Island put scientific racism into action What was Ellis Island and how did it help create the Quota Acts? ∙ Ellis Island put scientific racism into action o Operated from 1892-1954 o Processed over 12 million immigrants ∙ Quota Acts o TWO (know quota, total number, and census year) o Established a quota for how may individuals of a particular immigrant group could enter the country annually o Immigration Act of 1924- first major immigration act Quota= 3% of the group’s population as of the 1910 census Total number= 357,000 o Immigration Act of 1924 2% of group’s population as of the 1890 census total number= 164,000 barred Asian immigrantsExceptions to Quotas: did not apply to immigrants from western hemisphere (our neighbors: Canadians, Mexicans, Caribbean, and central and south America)Why?- we needed immigrants that would work for nothing Ellis island helped to create the quote acts because: ∙ Began coutning people at ellis island helped us figure out how many people coming in to help us create quota acts ∙ ellis island changed to be counting center What are the main immigration laws of the 20th century? What did they do? ∙ Immigration Act of 1903 o Targeted anarchists (group that wants to get rid of the government violently) ∙ Immigration Act of 1917 o Literacy Test in order to enter country o Banned numerous types of people (idiots, alcoholics, poor, criminals, tuberculosis, contagious disease, physical disability, etc.) o 3 D’s: Dependents, Delinquents, and Defectives (know this) Did our Irish, German, and Chinese-Americans change during the Second Wave? In what ways? ∙ Irish- moving up because other groups are worse ∙ Chinese- slowly moving up o Earthquake burned down many government buildings, birth certificated held here o Paper Sons clans making fake birth certificates; claimed to be US citizens so they can now vote and go to and from China (not under exclusion act) o Some assimilated because of imperialism- can now speak English and know American culture o Other major changes: No more return migration Work expanding from San Francisco and moving to major cities Family- women coming over (Paper Daughters) people also coming over not married, Eldest male sends wife over, marry them, and have child who is US citizen o Still forming ethnic enclaves, but assimilation and idea of work more permanent o Chinese Exclusion Act Ends! o Magnuson Act (Chinese Exclusion Repeal Act of 1943) WWII starting and Chinese were on our side∙ Germans- moving down o WWI o New anti-German stereotypes emerge o Germans respond by Hyper-Assimilation How did the First Wave groups move up the Hierarchy because of the Second Wave? Other groups are worse!! Lecture: Second Wave Groups Note: first wave of Jewish Immigration was reform jews from Germany everything we talked about with Germans true for these individuals. Not a large group, trying to do good job making WASPS like them. Everything below refers to the JEWS from the SECOND WAVE: Ashkenazi Jews: she will clarify which group on the exam Why did the Second Wave Immigrants leave their countries? Northern Italians- voluntary migration, no push factor Southern Italians ∙ Political Reasons: Unification, Taxes o Unifying country cost money that the poor don’t have o Not making money, doing tenant farming o Cannot pay taxes o Go over what makes the south different from the north ∙ Overpopulation (only a problem in Mezzogiorno) ∙ Natural disasters o Disease o Volcano erupted, destroying soil o Tsunami in Sicily o Leads to disease and starvation Jews ∙ Russification- Russia taking over and doing imperialism. Take over politically but also forcibly assimilate overnight o Jews refuse, so Russia moves onto “final solution” ∙ Pogroms- Russia’s final solution; a state sponsored population elimination (today, called a genocide) Mexicans This refers to the ones that came voluntary (NOT incorporation) ∙ Mexican Revolution o Porfirio Diaz- liked by upper class, disliked by lower class Peonage- Mexican workers, very similar to slavery Rurales- extralegal organizationsWhy did the Second Wave Immigrants come to the United States? Northern Italians?--> economic opportunity ALL second wave groups came for jobs industrial revolution Jews ∙ also came because the only country that does not have a law against Jewish immigration Mexicans ∙ Chinese Exclusion act (we needed more workers) ∙ Exemptions from Quota Acts ∙ Jobs Who were the typical immigrants from each group? Southern Italians ∙ Return migration (planned on five year stay) ∙ During this stage (Ritornati) best candidate was young man (similar to all other groups except Irish) almost 100% men during this stage o Return rate went down in 1920’s because Immigration Law of 1921, things worse in Italy, roaring twenties in America o Caused switch to chain migration Sent money back to bring over the family (NOT entire village like Irish, just the family, because “trust no one” mentality) Jews? Family- couldn’t leave anyone behind because of pogroms, and come poor even though not poor there (same as Golden Exiles) Mexicans- both male and female, poor, primarily whatever age they could cross the border What was each group’s success in the factors set up by WASPs? Northern Italians ∙ Money- yes ∙ Numbers- yes, 26,000, small ∙ Location- yes, CA, FL, NYC ∙ Stereotypes?- yes. Skilled/educated, light-skinned, protestant ∙ Assimilation- yes, want to assimilate, want to be here, voluntary migration Southern Italians∙ Money?- no ∙ Numbers?- no ∙ Location? No- ethnic enclaves ∙ Stereotypes- no, bad ones ∙ Assimilation?- no was in lecture Jews ∙ Money- no ∙ Numbers- no 2.5 million ∙ Location- no, ethnic enclaves ∙ Stereotypes?- no ∙ Assimilation?- no (dress, kosher eating habits, religion, Torah/Talmud, language (Yiddish), Sabbath day) Mexicans? ∙ Money> no, very poor ∙ Numbers no, 1.5 million came because they were exempted from Quota Acts ∙ Location no ∙ Stereotypes no ∙ Assimilated? no, not assimilated What were the stereotypes of each group? How do you see them in political cartoons? Southern Italians ∙ Set by Northern Italians ∙ “Inferior Race” o “Mongrel Race”- “dark” mongrel means animality, calling them dogs o “Backward”- “Stupid” Illiterate called stupid, but they are actually illiterate (not allowed to read in southern Italy) stereotype reinforced because they did not allow their children to go to school NOT UN-ASSIMILATE-ABLE, they just don’t want to ∙ Roman Catholic Church o Similar stereotypes as the Irish (baby-eaters, vampires, cannibals, brainwashed by Papacy) o Non-Institutional (never in church) The church was the ones keeping southern Italians poor in Italy, and priests always dressed in expensive clothing o Virgin Mary, Saints, Rosary o Shrine o “Magic”o have problems with other immigrant groups, especially Irish ∙ “Violent” o Anarchy o not really anarchists, just did not want to follow rules of Italian government o Mafia Myth- all southern Italians are in the mafia and all organized crime is mafia Really only .0001% of all overall organized crime was southern Italians o Mafia vs. Cosa Nostra-“Our Thing” Cosa nostra- what southern Italians call their organized crime Mafia is a mutual aid society that came over from Siciliy, has nothing to do with organized crime o New Media and Film reinforced this stereotype Jews Ancient Stereotypes: ∙ Christians hate them due to religion o “Killers of Jesus Christ” o Jewish Faith and Traditions Torah/Talmud Orthodox vs. Reform ∙ Inferior Race o Physical characteristics dealing with Religion (horns, cloven hoofs, tails) o Un-assimilate-able – problem was physical or genetic!! Could not be changed o The devil ∙ Economics o Usury- making interest (Banking, Finance)- Christians not allowed to make interest o “Taking over the World” banks, news and film industry Mexicans ∙ “Inferior Race” o “Mexican Race” un-assimilate-able o scientific racism (unintelligent, could not pass IQ tests because 100% that came illiterate) o southeast blacks, southwest Mexicans o “Brown Scare” similar to yellow peril- fear that Mexicans taking over the world brown means not white, filthy, greasy ∙ “Violent” o crime orientedo street gangs (similar to Irish gangs)- for young individuals who would not find jobs o Drug Cartel ∙ The “Illegal Mexican” undocumented o When you come into the US without the proper channels o Myth of the illegal- since Mexicans are largest Hispanic group, consider all Hispanics to be Mexicans and all Hispanics are illegal o Labor Cycle o Media- constantly showing Mexicans in a negative light What type of discrimination did the Second Wave Immigrants face? Southern Italians ∙ Stereotypes listed above ∙ Lower paying jobs Jews ∙ Murder Incorporated ∙ anti-Semitism (anti-Jew) created new stereotypes ∙ the new KKK Anti everything and is now nationwide Mexicans ∙ stereotypes listed above ∙ Violence towards Mexicans and Mexican Americans ∙ Wages lowest o No minimum wage for agriculture o Excluded from “white” labor unions ∙ Segregation o Barred from white neighborhoods o Barrios- like ethnic enclaves for Mexicans, basically another name for ghettos o Mexican Americans not allowed to move into white neighborhoods What type of jobs did the Second Wave Immigrants take? Southern Italians ∙ Women- sweatshops (kept inside tenements) ∙ Children- also working (Italians do not like public schools- do not want to assimilate) ∙ Boys- sent to factories at age 3 or 4 ∙ Men- Padrone help them find jobs in factories; eventually Italian men learn English and find their own jobs∙ NYC got larger Italian men leaving factory jobs and going into municipal jobs (building subways, roads, bridges, garbage collectors) Jews ∙ Sweat ships- for entire families because Jews cannot work in factories (Sabbath day) ∙ Set up inside tenements Mexicans ∙ Mainly agriculture ∙ Low paying jobs How did the Second Wave Immigrants resist assimilation? Southern Italians ∙ Did not like public or parochial schools ∙ Did not want to assimilate because they planned to return home, just want to make money ∙ “Little Italy” ethnic enclaves Jews ∙ refused to change their religion ∙ Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS) at Ellis Island How did the Second Wave Immigrants work up the hierarchy in the United States? Southern Italians ∙ men move up hierarchy by learning English and thus leaving factories to take up municipal jobs (earn better money) Jews ∙ Ashkenazic Jews most likely to become citizens ∙ Created voting blocks and applied after five years ∙ Conservative Judaism- something between Orthodox and Reform ∙ Labor Laws of the 1920s five day work week, eight hour day ∙ Children move up hierarchy and Jews move up economically Lecture: The Third Wave What changed during the Third Wave? (Laws, groups) ∙ End of the Quota’s o LBJ overhauled immigration in 1965 ∙ Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 o Everyone on equal footing o Key policy is family reunificationo 290,000 limit a year, no more than 20,000 per country (looks equal on paper, but some countries have bigger populations than others) o this act started a massive undocumented immigration What was Mexican immigration after 1965? Four Kinds: 1. Official Visa (only 20,000 per year) 2. Commuters (live in Mexico but work in US; men and women; doing jobs no one else wants to do) 3. “Border Crossers” (short term work permits, like “guest workers”; supposed to leave when Visa expires and apply for a new one; mostly agricultural work) 4. Undocumented (smallest number) How did the Mexican immigrants and Mexican-Americans experience discrimination from WASPs and the Federal Government? From WASPS: stated under second wave discrimination (violence, wages, segregation, barrios, etc.) From Federal Government: ∙ Border Patrols o Racial Profiling ∙ Deportation- Operation Wetback ∙ Reform and Control Acts ∙ Fencing What were Mexicans’ and Mexican-Americans’ response to this discrimination? ∙ Chicano Political Movement ∙ Unions o United Farm Workers (UFW) o Cesar Chaves Why did the Cubans leave their countries? Note: Cubans all members of THIRD wave, but came in FOUR different movements!) ∙ Push: Socialist/Communist Government o Upper class were the first movement from Cuba because they hate communism Why did the Cubans come to the United States? ∙ Pull: Refugee o Refugee status- allowed to come in regardless of our immigration acts First migration: ∙ Upper class, incredibly rich ∙ Golden Exiles o Had to come in the middle of the night and leave a lot behind, but have the skill and friends to make money when they get here (like ashkenazic Jews!)o White o Completed all success factors Money, small numbers, settled away from WASPS (FL and NJ) o Cuban Refugee Program- upper class open banks to give out loans for Cubans to start businesses golden exiles paid back loans in only five years Second Migration: ∙ Middle class, well dressed, educated, had money ∙ Freedom Fliers- airplanes went and picked them up to bring them to America; usually done in secret because Fidel Castro not happy about this ∙ Also completed most success factors ∙ Refugee status, but no loans Third Migration: ∙ Marielitos ∙ No money, lower class, darker, stereotypes that they were criminals; however small numbers and went to Miami ∙ Refugee status but not allowed to work; put in refugee camps until promised a job and able to apply for permanent residency ∙ Golden Exiles went and sponsored them for jobs Fourth Migration: ∙ Cuban Balseros (30,000) boatpeople ∙ not considered undocumented because granted refugee status ∙ 1994 US-Cuban Immigration Agreement o Non-Welcoming- ending refugee status o Wet Feet/ Dry Feet Policy What type of discrimination did the Cubans face? ∙ Non-welcoming immigration ending refugee status ∙ Wet feet/dry feet What type of jobs did the Cubans have? ∙ All kinds because all classes came through the different migrations How did the Cubans resist assimilation? ∙ Ethnic enclave of Little Havana/ Calle Ocho ∙ Voting Blocks- Cubans became citizens as soon as they could (5 years) ∙ This group becomes citizens the quickest and the most How did the Cubans work up the hierarchy in the United States? ∙ Becoming citizens as soon as possible What is the current US/ Cuban Relations? ∙ Thawing (Raul Castro 2008) restoring full diplomatic ties and easing travel restrictions ∙ Death of Fidel Castro ∙ The End of Wet Foot/Dry Foot ∙ Embargo? Raul Castro has hinted at retiring, which may cause changes and us to lift the embargo ∙ EXAM: know what embargo is and that it is STILL STANDING even though most people (65%) do not agree with it Lecture: Civil Rights Movement What are the steps in the Civil Rights Movement for African Americans? Origins: The Great Migration, Segregation, WWII, and Riots/Lynching Steps: 1. Litigation o NAACP (laws already in place need to be followed; want things fought to the Supreme Court) 2. Mass Action 3. Radicalism (Creation of the “Black” Movements) What were the successes and failures of the movement? Successes: ∙ Brown v. Board of Education going against Plessy Ferguson o About desegregating public schools o Decision was brown child can go to white school o Opinion separate but equal is not equal; desegregation of schools have to happen “in all deliberate speed” ∙ 24th Amendment ends poll tax and outlawed anything else like this that limited people from voting ∙ Civil Rights Act of 1964 saying we need to follow laws already in place of Congress will send in the national guard; says separate but equal is not equal ∙ Novel Peace Prize won by MLK ∙ Voting Rights Act of 1965 African Americans van vote, and if you don’t let them, we will change your voting districts Failures: ∙ Plessy v. Ferguson said separate but equal is equal ∙ White Citizen’s Council o Citizens coming together and forming clubs to not push for desegregation in their towns o Did things to make sure African Americans don’t move into their towns∙ Southern Manifesto o Congress will not pass any laws to help fund this o Basically says Brown v. Board didn’t happen (once again, laws in place not being followed) What caused the riots in Long, Hot Summers? 1. De-Industrialization o US moved from producing nation to buying nation o African Americans in north that worked in factories lose their jobs 2. Police Oppression 3. “White Flight” o whites moving to suburbs o left poor African Americans and immigrants in cities o rich people leave, no one paying taxes for services 4. Jim Crow- schools and housing (no good ones) What was the split in the Movement? What were the ideas on both sides? 1. Liberal Reformers (King and the SCLC) o Change from within by reforming institutional policies to accommodate minority groups 2. Radicals o Belief that real chance could only be accomplished by revolution, rebuilding whole institutions, severing relations with the white capitalist power structure and forging a new, separate, independent black national identity After 1965, radicals dominate debate What is Black Separation and Power? ∙ Black Poweridea that blacks should be proud to be black; why are they trying to fit in with whites? o Going back to Africa to learn about African civilization, come back wearing traditional African clothes o Symbol of black power was a fist (NOT nonviolent) ∙ Black Separation o Goes with black power but does not have to (can believe both or just one) o Belief that blacks and whites cannot live in American together; need to give African Americans their own country and be separated from whites o Want to start their own country What civil rights movements did the African Americans inspire? ∙ Red Power Movement ∙ Chicano Political Movement (La Raza)∙ LGBT ∙ Women’s Rights Lecture: Current Immigration/Naturalization Process and Current Immigration Law What is the current Immigration and Naturalization Process in the United States? 1. Permanent (immigrant) o Lawful permanent resident o Receives a permanent resident card, or green card o Eligible to work and may later apply for citizenship 2. Temporary (non-immigrant) o Not staying for a long time- set time period o Tourists, temporary agricultural workers, students, etc. o NOT eligible for citizenship o may not work or may work only for a particular place (work is limited) o required to leave the country when visa expires, can apply for another but must go back home to do this Step one: Residency Step Two: Naturalization What are visas? What are the two main types of visas? Visas are what you need to come into the U.S. 1. K-1 o Permanent visas for fiancés; people coming to get married to a US citizen (must marry within 6 months) o Gives nothing else besides the ability to come in, but puts you on the path to citizenship o Dr. Robbins husband came on this 2. F-1 o Most common student visa o Temporary and must leave when it expires What is Residency? What is the process of receiving Residency? Residency ∙ Complete the form to apply for permanent residency, the I-485 ∙ Aka Green Card- costs $1070 ∙ Grants permanent residency for only 2 years ∙ Every 10 years you must renew it for another $450 What is Naturalization? What is the process of becoming naturalized? Naturalization- the process of becoming a citizen ∙ Apply for citizenship with the N-400 which costs $680∙ Can apply if you: o Permanent resident for 5 years o Permanent resident for 3 years and married to a US citizen o Permanent resident who is currently serving in the US military with at least 1 year of service ∙ Must go through an interview/test of your knowledge of US history, government, and English language ∙ Interviewed by the USCIS ∙ Swearing In- determines you have good moral character and willingness to support and defend the US and its Constitution What are the current Immigration Laws today? 1. Immigration Act of 1990 ∙ Goals: o Reunit families o Admit workers in occupations with strong demand for labor mostly agricultural o Provide refuge o Provide admission to people from a diverse set of countries ∙ 70,000 per year allowed to come in ∙ New Items: o Family Visa o Job Visas o Diversity Visa o Lottery How have the Presidents Clinton, George W. Bush, Obama and Trump changed immigration policy in the US? ∙ President Clinton: o 1994 US-Cuban Immigration Agreement o Border Security-Fencing ∙ President George W. Bush o 2001 USA Patriot Act broadened the scope of aliens ineligible for admission or deportation due to terrorist activities ability to deport anyone not a citizen (like people on visas) monitoring of foreign students o 2002 Homeland Security Act created the DHS (changed the INS and expanded it, transfers it under homeland security) becomes three new agencies, including the USCIS ∙ President Barack Obamao Common sense proposal for immigration reform: Continuing to strengthen border security Streamlining legal immigration (make it easier) Earned citizenship for undocumented (similar to Reagen’s amnesty policy) Cracking down on employers for hiring undocumented workers o DACA Undocumented immigrants who entered the country before their 16th birthday and before June 2007 to receive renewable work permit and exemption from deportation Puts them on path put does not give them citizenship o DAPA Undocumented immigrants who have lived in the US since 2010 and have children who are American citizens or lawful permanent residents Deferred action is not full legal status, but comes with three-year renewable work permit and exemption from deportation o US v. Texas Texas sued over President Obama’s right to pass an executive order on immigration Texas won because 4/4 means going with who is suing DAPA declared unconstitutional ∙ President Trump o Promised continuation of DACA o Wants to build a wall o Executive Order 13768 Increased the number of immigrants considered a priority for deportation o Executive Order 13769 Protecting the nation from terrorist attacks by foreign nations Suspended entry for citizens from seven countries for 90 days Stopped Syrian refugees indefinitely AND all refugee entry for 120 days Challenged legally o Executive Order 13780 Revised order #13769 Iraq can come in, permanent residents and visa holders can come in, and Syria not in a different category from other refugees)What are the statistics on current immigration, both documented and undocumented? ∙ US admits approximately 1 million legal immigrants a year (1990 act says 700,000 this is permanent visas) ∙ State Department issues 5 million temporary visas (remember harder to get a permanent visa than a temporary one) ∙ Undocumented immigrants get here by entering without going through a checkpoint, or overstaying their temporary visa (the newer way) ∙ An estimated 300,000 people come to the US undocumented every year ∙ The total undocumented immigrants estimated at 10 million (3% of population) ∙ Dominant undocumented group right now is from southeast Asia coming in on boats and through ports Don’t forget to study the political cartoons on blackboard !