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USC / History / HIST 102 / history 102 final exam

history 102 final exam

history 102 final exam

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: History
Course: European Civilization From the Mid-17th Century
Professor: Daniel snyder
Term: Fall 2015
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Cost: 50
Name: History 102 Final Study Guide
Description: final study guide- combo of book and notes
Uploaded: 04/30/2017
14 Pages 157 Views 1 Unlocks
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Why did the Soviet Union seem a success and how did the democracies respond?




How did total war structure the home fronts?




How did the allies defeat central powers?



CHAPTER 25 Factors that led to the 1st World War WHAT: Serbian terrorists assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand  (heir to the throne of Austro-Hungarian Empire) One month later,  Austria declared war on Serbia. Germany entered the war on Austria’s  side. Italy eventually joined the Central Powers to Don't forget about the age old question of path goal theory northouse
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form the Triple  Alliance to put on a defensive front. They squared off against the Allies  (Russia, France, and Britain).  WHEN: June 28, 1914- when Ferdinand was shot. By 1918, the war  involved countries across the globe. SIG: Empire Building- The volatile force of nationalism in Eastern  Europe increased overall tensions, while a complicated system of  international alliances heavily influenced who declared war and when.  Once in motion, war was difficult to stop given the widening gap  between traditional diplomatic policy and the needs of an increasingly  industrialized military.  Public sentiment was heavily swayed toward the idea of war as a way  to prove national superiority. Mass Politics- Both policymakers and citizens thought the war would  provide a resolution to social and cultural crisis. Public opinion played a large role in this war- most people relied on the media to give them a sense of what was happening in international  relations. Everyone thought the war would provide resolutions to the  social and cultural problems. Some Europeans thought of the war as a  “powerful cleanser for corruption”. Provided an opportunity for men to  assert their role as “men” and a chance to be apart of something  bigger than themselves. For politicians, they thought it would mask  social conflicts and to displace domestic hostility. How did the allies defeat central powers? WHAT: The war was fought in the muddy trenches on the Western  Front, in a series of advances and retreats in Eastern Europe, around  the globe in places like the middle east, and at sea in the form of  blockades and submarine attacks. Germany proved victorious on the  Eastern Front by the beginning of 1918 but the struggling allies  received needed reinforcements when the US entered the war. A final  surge against the starving and demoralized Germans led to the fall of  the Central Powers and eventually Germany’s withdrawal from the  eastern lands its troops had occupied. WHEN: early 19th century, US came in the summer of 1918 SIG: Empire Building- major empires came together to defeat  the central powersMobilization Plans:  German military plan devised in 1915 that called for a sweeping attack on France through Belgium and the Netherlands. Germany thought that  Russia would take longer to mobilize their army because of its size and  overall poor quality of transportation. Officials knew that France would be  able to mobilize quickly. The smaller Austrian army would hold off the  Russians while the German army would take on the French forces. This plan  pressured politicians to declare the mobilization of Russian forces as an act  of war on Germany. By invading Belgium, policymakers knew this had a great potential to bring Britain into the war. Britain’s policy makers regarded the  German invasion of Belgium as the pretext they needed to enter the war  with mass support. Thus leading to the quick advancements of the war. Industrialized War: Politicians had an assumption that war in the 20th century would be  quick because of the development and advancement of railroads and cars.  They all viewed the war as an opportunity to show their country’s power to  the world. Officials all thought that pouring the most men possible into the  front lines would win them the war. The reality was very different. No  government realized the crucial role that industrial labor would have within  the war. Supplies such as poisonous gas, machine guns, mass-produced  uniforms, and canned food all came from factories. Eventually, both sides  realized they needed to intervene to maintain civilian morale and have  enough supplies for the war. WWI and Gender Relations WHAT: Labor shortages were sweeping the globe. Men were being  pulled from their everyday lives to fight in the war. Women stepped up  and took their place. This was the first time that women were seen in  the public sphere. Once the war was in full swing, women who already  held a skilled position were promoted to the job that a man once had.  A large sector of women remained in domestic fields like cooking, child  care, and maids as well. For the first time many women were able to  make their own decisions with their husbands gone. In total war,  gender roles flipped upside down. Men were stuck in trenches, feeling  unable to be heroic like their country promised them they would feel. WHEN: 1916 SIG: Mass Politics & Economic Dev.- Role of women from here on  out would drastically change. They kept the economy running without  the men. Soon after the war ended, women gained the right to vote in  US and other countries.  Propaganda During WWITo ensure citizens remained committed to the war effort, governments  also sought to regulate the production and distribution of ideas. On both  sides, people would be sent to prison of even execution for sympathizing  with the opposite side. By censoring newspapers and doctoring photos,  politicians ensured that the public viewed the war positively. Poster  campaigns specifically were very popular, promoting a very strong sense of  nationality. Not only did the propaganda aim to promote pride in one’s  country but also enforce hatred of the enemy. This became so effective  across the board that the British royal family even changed their name from  Hanover to Windsor in an attempt to erase their German heritage. Sig: mass politics- governments needed to keep morale high in order to be successful in the war How did total war structure the home fronts? WHAT: The crucial role of industrial production in total war empowered  industrial workers. Class relations shifted when workers, many of whom were women, realized the importance of their collective power. Gender  relations also shifted as women moved into more public roles.  WHEN: 1914-1918 WHERE: across world really SIG: economic development- women were being thrust into new  roles within the work place, keeping the economy going by filling those positions. They were a crucial role to the war effort because without  them, nations wouldn’t have the supplies to keep going. Mass Politics- To maintain morale and shape public perception of the  war, states turned to censorship and propaganda. Demonization of the  enemy and the need for a total war mentality fostered a climate of  violence and even genocide. Consequences of this war for the European and global political order? WHAT: The strain of total war led to revolution in Russia and the  establishment of the world’s 1st communist state. The punitive peace  imposed on Germany weakened the new democratic German state  while the redrawing of state boundaries in central and eastern Europe  heightened rather than resolved nationalist tensions. Similarly, the  remapping of Middle East betrayed wartime promises to competing  national groups and failed to foster political stability or economic  prosperity in the region. WHEN: 1918 SIG: Mass politics- eventually led to the 1st communist state,  empire building- weakened empires, redrawn country lines,  economic development- remapping of countries ended up  being a financial downfall for otherRussia & Revolution Russia began WWI already divided. Regions such as Lithuania, Latvia,  Poland, and Ukraine, anti- Russian sentiments were running high. Nationalists of these regions saw this as an opportunity to split from Russia. The clash  between Tsar Nicholas II’s vision as a divine autocracy and the political  demands of the growing middle and working classes created an explosive  situation. The revolution officially begun when a group of women protested in Petrograd in February of 1917. The group of protestors grew over the next  couple of days across the city. The soldiers that were sent to break up the  protest joined in. Governmental orders lost all authority. October Revolution: Bolshevik Rev. – party in the Petrograd Soviet  (leader was Vladmir Lenin). Lenin demanded the overthrow of the provisional government. They declared a policy of peace and land. Not everyone was a  fan of this new policy and civil war erupted as rival socialists, liberals, and  tsarist supporters resisted their rule. Foreign countries even sent in troops in  an attempt to rid of communism. Water supply was low, transportation  systems shut down, and famine erupted the land. Bolsheviks ended up  ruling. The victory then inspired socialists across Europe. Treaty of Versailles- Treaty between Germany and the allies after WWI.  Germany took all the blame, lost their overseas colonies, limited their  armies. Most significantly, it stated that Germany was to take blame for the  war and pay the allies for their loss. CHAPTER 26 Impact of WWI on European cultural life: WHAT: The massive destruction of total war led many Europeans to  embrace pessimistic assessments of human nature society. Others,  however, argued that the war had created the possibility of radical  social improvement, particularly through technological and scientific  research and development. WHEN: post WWI (after 1918) SIG: mass politics- starting to doubt their own government/way of  life Reason behind the collapse of democracy throughout much of interwar  Europe: WHAT: Nationalist conflicts and economic underdevelopment weakened the new democracies of eastern Europe. As the Great Depression stalled the global economy, many voters and politicians embraced  aspects of fascism, a new form of Radical Right politics that emerged in Italy after WWI. An intensely nationalistic ideology, fascism exalted the  power of the state, dismissed democracy as weak, and glorified  military action. It also used mass spectacles to generate enthusiasm  and a sense of belonging to a mighty movement. WHEN: stock market dropped in 1929 SIG: Economics-underdevelopment and overall depression of the  economy led to people to no longer believe in democracy, needed a  single leader to pull them through their struggle mass politics people no longer believed in the power of democracy Nazi’s success at creating a dictatorship in Germany: WHAT: Weimar Republic (democratic parliamentary system put in place by the allies post WWI). Resentment of the treaty and hyperinflation  The Nazis remained a fringe party until the Great Depression weakened German democracy and polarized voters and political leaders. Once in  political power, the Nazis used terror and intimidation to destroy all  that remained of German democracy. The Nazi economic program  lowered the standard of living for many Germans but also lowered  unemployment rates. Nazi racial and political ideology demonized  many groups, most particularly jews. WHEN: stock market drop in 29 SIG: economic dev- great depression thrust the country into the  disbelief in democracy, mass politics- democracy was failing Why did the Soviet Union seem a success and how did the democracies  respond? WHAT: Through violence and dictatorial rule, Stalin imposed mass  modernization on the Soviet economy but the vast cost of his  collectivization of Soviet agriculture and his industrial program  remained largely hidden. In western Europe and the US, governments  moved toward social democratic programs and policies. In France and  Spain, Popular Front governments sought to unite non-fascist parties  together in democratic governments but faced defeat or overthrow. SIG: economic dev- The Russian economy developed massively.  Stalin industrialized the country and made up for lost time. Other  countries took different approaches to stimulate the economy like  Roosevelt’s New Deal. mass politics- rise of social democracy.Stalin: Emerged as the soviet leader when lenin had died. When Lenin was in  charge, he was the secretary and was in charge of who was in the party and  who was not. A lot of the party owed their membership to him, therefore, he  was elected. Once his regin began, he made sure that everyone wanted  to/would worship him. He put up propaganda of himself everywhere. He then dismantled the old economic polcy put forth by Lenin and launched the  soviet union into industrialization. Got rid of the small farms, and went with  big communist factories to produce everything. Era of hard work to get  Russia to where it should be was what they thought of as “Heroism”. He then went on to kill people who he thought might try to compete with him along  with their family and friends. What did/did not change in women’s experiences after WWI? WHAT: In many, although not all, western states, women received the  national franchise after WWI and had wider employment and  educational opportunities. Gender ideology, however, did not change  very much. Both WWI’s high cost in human life and falling birth rates  after the war impelled political leaders to find ways to encourage  women to remain in the home and to produce more children. They felt  like a smaller population meant a weaker country. Birth control though  drastically improved the lives of women because of the improvement  of their health and living standards. WHEN: post WWI (20’s) SIG: mass politics- women gained the right to vote in national  elections and hold a position in national office economic dev.-  expansion of heath care meant women could become nurses, social  workers, secretaries, etc. How did the interaction between the West and the world outside change  after WWI? WHAT: The French and British empires grew as a result of the war, but  so, too, did anti-colonialist nationalist movements. The Great  Depression strained the economies of overseas territories and  increased indigenous resentment against European imperial rule. The  growth of anti-Western Islamic movements in the 1920s and 1930s also weakened the hold of European powers on their empires and  dependencies. At the same time, many Western thinkers and artists  began to see non-Western cultures as a source of the vitality and  creativity that they believed to be disappearing from industrial  societies. WHEN: post WWI, 20s and 30sSIG: economic dev- Great Depression empire building Reorganization of European Empires A large part of Russia was split into smaller countries (Lithuania,  Latvia). After the Russian revolution, the government realized that it had to  start over. Ovwrl Austrian empire collapsed. Germany had a defeated army,  flawed state. It was chaos. No one technically won. If anything the US won  because they came out as a world power. Italy was on the winning side, got  no colonies and remained poor afterwards. France lost a significant portion of their land. Most of the actual fighting took place in France’s territory and  they were a disaster demographically, experienced heavy physical  destruction, major population loss, and experienced a multitude of housing  problems. Cultural Crisis: Veterans across the globe felt betrayed. They felt like they fought for  nothing and were very angry for their time and energy wasted. Veterans in  Washington D.C. demanded a consolation. However it drastically changed  the political landscape for women. They could now vote. Great Depression: Global economic crisis after the stock market crash of 1929. European  countries had paid for the war by taking out loans instead of raising taxes  within their own nation. Most of these same countries then borrowed the  money from the US. There were massive unemployment rates and hyper  inflated prices of goods. Assessing blame for WWI: No one country alone really “won” the war. The massive lost of people  and overall capital takes away from any advantage. The only argument that  really can be made is that the US could be considered to win the war  because they emerged from the war as a world power. People start to blame  the war on democracy saying things like “democracy is what got us into this  mess”. Various nations started to doubts the importance and effectiveness of democracy and started to lean towards the idea of having one leader again,  which eventually lead to the rise of fascism. CHAPTER 27 How did military and political expectations lead to WWII? WHAT: Supposed to be the “war to end all wars”, WWI set up WWII. The peace settlements exacerbated nationalist tensions in eastern Europe  and aroused German and Japanese resentment at the same time that the destruction of total war convinced many Europeans of the  necessity of avoiding war at all costs. Throughout the 1930s, both  Germany and Japan expanded their territorial base and military might. WHEN: 30’s SIG: empire- tov enhanced hitlers overall appeal to the german  population. mass politics- treaty of Versailles made Germany  resentful, everyone wanted to avoid war at all costs. League of nations (through tov) was too weak to police countries economics- tov  weakened western economics (paying everyone back), GD made every country look out for only themselves How did Nazi Germany conquer the continent of Europe by 1941? WHAT: With the techniques and technologies of blitzkrieg. (offensive  military tactic, use of planes, tanks and cars to punch through enemy  lines) German military strategists overcame the defensive stalemate  that had characterized the western front during WWI. Although  frustrated in the Battle of Britain, the Germans experienced initial  success in the invasion of the Soviet Union. WHEN: 1940-41 SIG: empire building Why did the Allies win in 1945? WHAT: In the defeat of Nazi Germany, the fighting on the Eastern Front  proved crucial. In addition, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the US  outpaced Nazi Germany and its allies, including Japan, in the industrial  production and scientific developments that fueled total war. Nazi  atrocities also strengthened resistance throughout occupied Europe.  Overall, the allies had 3 main victories in which their opponent did not  have to means to recover from. (Battle of Midway, Battle of El Alamein, and Battle of Stalingrad) WHEN: secured the bag in 45 SIG: economic- the allies overall outpaced the Germans in production rates, they were able to get more supplies and had the ability to  maintain that level What were the context, causes, and consequences of genocide during WWII? WHAT: The conquest of western Poland marked the beginnings of the  Nazi regime to reorder the racial/ethnic composition of eastern Europe. With the invasion of the Soviet Union, the so-called Final Solution,  which included the industrialization of mass murder in the death  camps, took shape. At the same time, WWII heightened nationalist and ethnic tensions that in many areas erupted into civil war. It also  provided further incentives for the Stalinist government of the Soviet  Union to tighten its murderous hold on the peoples under its control.WHEN: during WWII 1940-1945 SIG: empire building- Germany was out to conquer Europe and rid of anything/anyone that would stand in their way. What did total was mean for civilians in the occupied regions and on the  home front? WHAT: Many Europeans were forced to labor for the Nazi war effort,  while other opted to join the Resistance, the underground fight against  the Nazi regime. Total war also meant the experience of massive  bombing campaigns as well as unprecedented economic and military  mobilization of women. In western Europe, government efforts to  ensure civilian morale, as well as the more general experience of  wartime suffering, produced a widespread commitment to the idea and ideals of social democracy. SIG: economic development-women took men’s place mass  politics-government had to keep their spirits up CHAPTER 28 The Nazi Racial State: Germans believed that Germans were their own racial group with  special biologic features.  Organization of genocide: Separation, Concentration, Extermination Why and how did the world step from WWII to the Cold War?WHAT: A common enemy rather than shared aims cemented the  alliance of the Soviet Union with the western democracies. Differences  over the political settlement of eastern and central Europe, particularly the borders of Poland and the division of Germany, strained the  alliance, as did Stalin’s murderous policies in the areas of Soviet  control. The Truman doctrine (declaration that the US would fight  against communism), the Marshall Plan (use of US funds to ensure the  success of Europe), and the formation of NATO and the Warsaw Pact all marked key steps in the outbreak of the Cold War. The Cold War was  the overall struggle for global supremacy. Roosevelt felt like the  establishment of democracies was essential to global security and  American prosperity. Where as Stalin thought that the more countries  he controlled under communism the safer everyone would be. WHEN: 40’s SIG: mass politics& empire- Stalin wanted to build up not only his  country and expand its borders but also employ communism as well.  Britain and the US also fought to make sure that communism did not  spread across Europe. What was the impact of decolonization and the Cold War on the global  balance of power? WHAT: Although Europeans imperial powers emerged from WWII  determined to hold onto their overseas territories because of the  economic hardship, the economic and political costs proved too great.  Already by the late 1940s, decolonization signaled a contraction of  European global power. WWII strengthened colonial independence  movements and nationalists pointed out the contradictions that the  democratic nations were making but not allowing the same freedoms  to their country. At the same time, however, Cold War rivalries  increased Soviet and American intervention around the world, as  events such as Korean War, the Suez Crisis, and the Vietnam War  illustrated. Ex. Peaceful exit of Ghana from imperial rule. Violent exit of Algeria  from French rule. The difference relies on how many settlers are in the  country. Peaceful exit of India from Britain’s rule. (see Ghandi) If a lot  of settlers from the imperialist country, ore violent the revolution will  be.  WHEN: 40’s SIG: empire- economic dev- imperialist countries felt that it was  crucial to maintain their hold over these countries to have another  source of income and supplies for their own country to recover.  However, they realized that when these countries demanded their independence, they did not have the means to hold onto them. mass  politics Ghandi: Indian man who had a high level western education. He led the revolution through his philosophy of non-violence. India was the first  country to break free from the imperialist hold. Example of non violence: salt march, people marched to the sea to get their salt  instead of buying it and the money going to the British. Their goal was  to make India too expensive and hard to govern Ghana: gets independence in 50s. They targeted the British  government through their coco crops which were very important to  them. They were the 1st African country to gain independence (also  done through non violence) Indochina- Ho Chi Minh proclaimed independence (modeling after the  declaration of independence). French army fought back to retain their  colony and eventually lost in Vietnam. Algeria- very violent independence. Generations of French people lived  there and considered themselves “true Algerians”. At first France tried  to hold onto their colony, rounded up peasants and tortured them to  find the nationalists and kill them (possibly responded so violently  because of their loss over Vietnam that same year) France was  humiliated and wanted to hold onto this country. The loss of Algeria  divided the country and people questioned French democracy. What patterns characterized the history of Soviet Union and eastern Europe  after the death of Stalin? WHAT: In an effort to stabilize political life and accelerate economic  growth, Nikita Khrushchev initiated de-Stalinization, an effort at limited decentralization and the restoration of some civil liberties.  Khrushchev’s reform efforts shuddered to a halt in 1964, when he was  removed from power. Economic stagnation and renewed political  persecution characterized the Brezhnev years. In eastern Europe, the  crushing of the Hungarian Revolution in 1956 signaled the sharp limits  of de-Stalinization, a lesson reinforced in 1968 when the reform  movement known as the Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia was  defeated. WHEN: 50’s and 60’s SIG: mass politics- tried to limit the control of communism but  economic dev- under both rulers, the soviet union did not progress in any direction, if anything it was a disappointing change of leadershipWhat patterns characterized the history of western Europe in the 50s and  60s. WHAT: The artistic shift from existentialism and abstract Expressionism  to Pop Art reflected the wider western move from austerity into  affluence, as consumerism became a way of life throughout Western  Europe and the US. This was also a period marked by political stability,  founded on the social democratic consensus, and by efforts at  European economic unification through the Common Market Prosperity  and stability attracted immigrants by the 1970s many European  societies were well on their way to becoming multi-colored, multi cultural societies. WHEN: later half of 20th century SIG: mass- triumph of social democracy throughout western Europe  economic dev- western European economies embarked on 2 decades of consumer spending and dramatic economic growth. CHAPTER 29 How did the developments in the 70s and 80s destabilize post WWII national  and international structure? WHAT: As the superpowers attempted to stabilize relations through  negotiation and arms control, rising tensions due to economic crisis  escalated industrial unrest and political conflict, eroding the social  democratic political consensus and leading to the crumbling of  détente. WHEN: 70s and 80s SIG: economic dev- experiences another form of economic crisis,  when Egyptian and Syrian forces started a war with Israel which in turn raised the price of oil being deported from OPEC (organization of  petroleum exporting countries) nations. Nixon also let the weakening  dollar “float” which lead to economic downfall everywhere, also the  increased competition because of the industrialization of south  American, latin American, and asain countries. Mass politics- b/c of  rise of terror (students across the globe were frustrated with their  inability to cause change in their country and turned to terrorism)  caused political consensus to crumble. New wave of feminism and  environmentalism (spaceship earth) What factors explain not only the outbreak but also the success of the  revolutions of 89-91?WHAT: Economic hardship contributed to a longing of radical change,  while activists and ordinary people worked to create structures of civil  society that were crucial for the successful revolutions that tore  through Soviet bloc. Man named Gorbachev went through the horrors  of Stalin and still was a hard core supporter of communism. One  harvest season, his family was able to collect 6 times the average  harvest one season and his family was rewarded by being able to send  him to college for free. He learened about economics and law and post  university degree, he did not necessarily agree with everything that  Stalin accomplished. He turned the country around when he came to  power by promoting policies of “openness” and “reconstructing”. He  wanted to reverse the economic decline through modernization,  decentralization, and the introduction of a limited market. He knew  that these things would succeed with a communist party so in 1990, he ended it. WHEN: 89-91 SIG: economic dev- Soviet union was mass producing goods but not  worry about the quality of the good that they were producing. Their  only successful products were oil and vodka. Gorbachev modernized  the economy mass politics- change from communism to a more pro  capitalist movement What were the consequences of the revolutions of 89-90 for the societies of  Eastern Europe? WHAT: The complicated and exhausting process of building new  nations divided eastern Europe into “winners”, states that were able to  stabilize their economies that continued to flounder and where power  was concentrated with just a few. WHEN: late 90s early 90s SIG: economic dev- some previous communist economies had  developed and become successful (like west Germany) mass politics Germany was put back together, breakup of Yugoslavia (communism  was a unifying ideology but since it fell apart, Yugoslavia broke up) How and why was the West redefined at the end of the 20th century and the  beginning of the 21st? WHAT: Islamist terrorism replaced communism as the new foe for the  West, and intellectual, artistic and technological developments  contributed to a postmodern rejection of Western cultural supremacy.  The struggle to interrogate diverse economies within the European  Union, as well as increasingly diverse cultures within societies,  continues to redefine the West. WHEN: late 20th, early 21stSIG: mass politics- economic dev- introduction of the Euro and the  overall European Union changed many people’s lives, EU decided to let eastern European countries join IF they met financial standards, there  was and still is a struggle to combine and coordinate all of europe’s  diverse economies. Because of EU, some economies boomed (Ireland)

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