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School: Georgia State University
Department: Speech and Communications
Course: Human Communication
Professor: Davin grindstaff
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Human and communication
Cost: 50
Name: Human Communication Final
Description: Everything that has to be covered for the finals
Uploaded: 04/30/2017
186 Pages 585 Views 0 Unlocks

-Persuasion -Group Decision Making -Assignment OverviewApril 5, 2017 Chapter 12 SCOM 1000 Spring 2017 Ms. Brittaney Bethea, MPHWhat is persuasion? The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) theorizes that persuasion  occurs along a continuum.  Peripheral  Processing Persuasion Central  ProcessingPersuasion occurs through central processing when message recipients carefully consider  the arguments and evidence contained in the message and form opinions based on that  content. When a receiver is doing central processing, he or she is being an active participant in  the process of persuasion. The peripheral route to persuasion occurs when the listener decides whether to agree with the  message based on other cues besides the strength of the arguments or ideas in the message.  ▪ Research on language power and source perceptions has clearly established that  speakers using powerful language are rated more positively in terms of  intelligence, attractiveness, competence, credibility, sociability, and social  power than are speakers using powerless language. ▪ When motivation and ability to process information are both high, message  recipients elaborate on message content. Motivation Ability What is a metaphor?  Figure of speech which makes an implicit, implied or hidden comparison between two  things that are unrelated but share some common characteristics. https://youtu.be/A0edKgL9EgM▪ Something that represents something else. ▪ Arbitrary (no necessary connections to what they represent) ▪ There is no right or wrong symbol. ▪ Conventionalized: if we want a symbol to represent someone else, we have to agree  on the meaning.▪ Connotative: thoughts and emotions associated with a word. ▪ Denotative: a words direct, explicit dictionary definition. ▪ Sayings, maxims, and adages. ▪ https://youtu.be/dgWlE1NsEjU ▪ Found across disciples. ▪ Examples: ❖An ounce of prevention is worth an pound of cure. ❖Don’t put all your eggs in one basket. ▪ Texting, Tweeting and other social media are prime platforms for this type of language.▪ Labels are pragmatic. They have a logical use. ▪ For example: ❖Names (difficult to pronounce or easy to pronounce) and the power they have.  ❖Categories (single parent or two parent households) and the power they have. ▪ Euphemisms: inoffensive words often substituted for offensive ones. ▪ Double-speak: ambiguous or evasive language ▪ Why do we use them? To make words and statements sting less!Euphenism Example: “Prostitute” vs. a  person who sells sex consistently to  make a living.Double-speak: Flight attendant instructions never  mention the potential for a plan to “crash into the  ocean.” They always reference “emergencies,” instead.• Hesitations – e.g. “-er” and “um” • Hedges – e.g. “Maybe she just feels kinda blue.” • Intensifiers- e.g. “very, too, so, quite” • Polite forms - “Perhaps Gould overstated his argument regarding  an apparent weakness in Darwin's notes.” • Tag questions- e.g. “That's false,isn't it?” • Disclaimers- e.g. “I'm not an expert but you might want to try restarting your  computer.” • Deictic phrases – e.g. “I want him to come here now” lacks context for the  audience.April 5, 2017 Chapter 13 SCOM 1000 Spring 2017 Ms. Brittaney Bethea, MPH❖ Nature & Types of Small Groups ❖ Stages & Formats of Small Groups ❖ Structure & Functions of idea  generation, personal growth,  information-sharing, and  problem solving groups.▪ Small Group: collection of individuals & common purpose; interdependence. ▪ The Team: specific purpose and clearly defined roles; goal directed and content  focused.Virtual Groups and  Teams: individuals  who work across  time, space, and  organizational  boundaries with  links strengthened  by webs of  communication  technology.▪ 1. Opening ▪ 2. Feed-Forward ▪ 3. Business ▪ 4. Feedback ▪ 5. Closing▪ 1. Round Table ▪ 2. Panel ▪ 3. Symposium▪ Idea-generation groups: exist solely to generate ideas. Don’t criticize Strive for  quantity Combine  and extend Develop  Wild IdeasAim to help members cope with a  particular difficulty such as drug  addition, having an alcoholic parent,  being newly released from jail, etc. Information-sharing groups, such as focus groups, enable  members to acquire new information or skills through the  sharing of knowledge.Problem-solving groups meet to solve a specific problem or to reach a decision.Created by  philosopher  John Dewey  (1910) to make  problem solving  more efficient  and effective.Test  Selected  Solution Select Best  Solutions(s) Define and  analyze the  problem Establish  criteria for  evaluating  solutions Identify  possible  solutions Evaluate  Solutions ▪ Decision by authority ▪ Decision by authority rule ▪ Decision by consensus▪ Delphi methods: minimizes dominant influence and peer pressure.  ▪ Nominal group technique: limited discussions and confidential voting Instructions:  With your assigned team members, review the scenario assigned to your team; follow the  sequence of problem solving (slide 16) to determine a solution to formally pitch on 4/12  class. How you communicate with each other, when you meet, and who you make  responsible for turning in the team’s pitch is entirely up to the consensus of the group. ▪ Group 1: You are the director of a childcare center. Recently a three year old at your center found a  way to leave the center during recess time and was found wandering two blocks away. You and your  team of childcare teachers need to come up with a solution and a formal letter to parents to ensure that  this doesn’t happen ever again. (Letter to Parents 1 page, double-spaced, printed). ▪ Group 2: You work in the marketing department for a clothing company. You were recently approached  by a customer who would like a special t-shirt designed for a fundraiser they are hosting. The  fundraiser is to raise money for a local food pantry. The name of the food pantry is “Everyone’s  Kitchen.” Your team must design the t-shirt for this fundraiser (T-Shirt Design, printed, in color) ▪ Group 3: Your work team was given a trip as a reward for exceeding your sales goals last year. You all  boarded the cruise for a relaxing luxury week long vacation in the Pacific Ocean. You encountered a  bad storm and the ship partially sank. Only the top is still visible off the north tip of the island. You are  all now stranded on an uninhabited island in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. The storm basically  ruined most things on board, leaving very few useful items. Your task is choose the 12 most useful items  to help you survive on this deserted island. (Justification of 12 items in a plan to survive for 7 days, 1  page, double-spaced, printed. ▪ Group 4: The company you work for has a great idea for a new cell phone that has five times the  battery life of the closest competitor. The leader needs the team to come up with a name, tagline, and  logo for the product that fits with the company brand moto: “We Connect the World.” (Pitch, 3 slide PPT,  printed in color).Note: One member from your group must also email me no  later than Tuesday 4/11 the parent letter (Group 1), T-shirt  design (Group 2), survival plan (Group 3), and product pitch  (Group 4). Late submissions will NOT receive full credit.

Assignment Weekly Web Activities,  Homework and Class  Participation (5 pts. Per week) [total points Week’s 1-12] Points Earned Points Worth 100 Exam One

100 Exam Two

100 Speech

100 Exam Three

100 Assessments (16.6 pts each)



▪ Why do we use them?

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Points Earned 534-550 Letter  Grade A+ 512-533 A 495-511 A 479-494 B+ 457-478 B 440-456 B 424-439 C+ 402-423 C 385-401 C 330-384 D 329 and lower F

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April 12, 2017 Chapter 14▪ The definition of argumentation ▪ How people apply criteria to arguments ▪ How people can use criticism  ▪ The process through which arguments are tested ▪ How people make reasonable decisionsServes as the process through which people seek to enhance the positive  contributions of their personal reality while holding in abeyance its  unreasonable tendencies. Note: abeyance = state of disuse or suspension. http://www.slideshare.net/csmicho/argumentation-theory-13586512▪ How do we make sure this doesn’t happen? https://youtu.be/MBvvmaPyj-k ▪ Position announcement: criteria for hiring > critical decision.  ▪ Arguments > refined criteria Critical  decisions:  selecting and  applying a set  of criteria  designed to  generate the  best possible  solution.Presenting an argument The better you understand the way it will be evaluated the better you can make it. Evaluating an argument The better you understand the relevant criteria, the better your decisions will be. Central determining question:▪ Laws are in place that specify that a company may not use criteria based on age,  gender, religion, race, national origin, marital status, disability status, veteran  status, etc. ▪ These laws were put into place to counter beliefs and/or belief system some  people have about people in a particular demographic group and to prevent them  from discriminating against another. What is  discrimination?▪ Beliefs are not necessarily reasonable? Beliefs are worldviews and the mechanism in which you experience stereotypes,  prejudices, norms, and culture. Worldviews are not inherently reasonable or  unreasonable.  ▪ Thinking is not necessarily reasonable? People use biases and heuristics to guide their decisions, based on what facts are  readily available. (i.e. Google Search vs. Library database search). ▪ The Mind is not necessarily reasonable? Our mind creates its own reality. (i.e. https://youtu.be/GSnjt83nEho)▪ When your arguments (claims and supporting evidence) align directly with the  criteria in the minds of the decision makers. ▪ Language and shared interpretation ▪ Facts ▪ Presumption ▪ Probabilities ▪ Commonplaces▪ Parts missing ▪ Order in arguments ▪ Overlapping argumentsReview the Reasoning Process on pg. 372-380, to become familiar with examples of: ▪ Argument by logic/deduction ▪ Argument by generalization ▪ Argument by cause ▪ Argument by sign ▪ Argument by analogy ▪ Argument by authority ▪ Note: You will need to be able to select the type of argument on Exam 3 after given  an example to read in a question.Your genetic make-up, the environment in which you have lived, your  worldviews, and the social interactions you have experienced all influence how  you make judgments of arguments.April 12, 2017 http://bit.ly/2oxzGkSSCOM 1000: Human Communication Chp. 16 • Examine the role of images in persuasion. • Examine how images shape beliefs, attitudes and behaviors▪ Fewer people are reading newspapers and books. More people are watching  movies and TV.  ▪ Predominant means of transmitting information in the 20th century ▪ Traditionally the study of persuasion has focused on influence attempts that take  place within the world of words. o Iconicity: Bearing a resemblance When an image stands for an idea or a concept. o Indexicality: Seeing is Believing The ability of images (photos and videos) to document an event  that happened; function as circumstantial evidence.  o Syntactic Indeterminacy: Don’t look for logic in images.  Pictures can’t convey logical relationships; the observer has to  guess. Precise nature of relationships can not be determined.  (e.g. How much weight was loss?)ACTIVIST ARTAwareness through interpretation: odd, disturbing, or  peculiar art piques the viewer’s curiosity.  ACTIVIST ART • Awareness through participation: catalyst for social change;  collaborative and interactive.▪ Awareness through participation: catalyst for social change; collaborative and  interactive. Example: https://youtu.be/7o6kbRBFLdI▪ American movies…  ▪ export Western values ▪ Promote pop culture ▪ Models exemplar and violent behavior ▪ Promote viewer identification ▪ Perpetuate stereotypes ▪ There are three challenges advertisers face: ▪ 1. Media clutter ▪ II. Anti-advertising ▪ III. Image-oriented, seeks to create positive associations between a brand and  idealized lifestyles ▪ Even without text, photos tell their own persuasive stories. ▪ https://www.instagram.com/natgeo/ ▪ https://www.instagram.com/photojournalism/ ▪ Remember, they aren’t objective. It is from the photographer’s point of view. They  decide which events to capture, develop, and how they are edited.Consume visual communication in media with a critical  eye.  Ask… • Who’s point of view is this? • What is the message? • What do they want me to do? • What context is the ad/movie/show situated in?3 more classes▪ Due April 23rd, by midnight. ▪ See iCollege for three links, (1 PDF Doc) 1. Willingness to communicate (5-10min): 10pts. Assignment Points Web Activities 100 Exam One 100 Exam Two 100 Speech 100 Exam Three 100 Assessment 50 TOTAL 550

How much weight was loss?

▪ How do we make sure this doesn’t happen?

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2. Personal report of communication apprehension (5-10min.): 10pts.3. Critical thinking assessment (1hr.): 30pts. Note: To receive full credit, you MUST have taken the pre-assessment survey. It was  due 2/5/17.▪Group Presentations & Reflection  (20min.) ▪Political Communication - Part I (30min)▪How did your group choose to communicate  with each other? ▪How did your group make decisions? ▪What challenges arose? ▪How were you able to solve them? ▪What could have made it easier to  collaborate?Chapter 15 Part I (pg. 387-397)  April 17, 2017▪ Political communication defined  ▪ News system ▪ Work routines, and professional norms  ▪ News biasPolitical communication is the use of media to influence the way the  public vote and how political decisions are made.▪ Online info sources (i.e. blogs, social media, etc.) pump political info into the news  stream.  ▪ Gate-keeping control and editorial policies change in news organizations https://youtu.be/Li01isTF0QM (2min. 10sec) ▪ Economic pressures  ▪ What is the result of all these factors at play? A rapidly fragmented media sphere  where cable channels pick up “spin” from dubious blogs and online sources marketing  news and commentary to the political viewpoints of increasingly partisan audiences. Organizational Work Routines ▪ Basic rules that journalism schools  and news outlets train reporters and  editors to follow in deciding what to  cover, how to cover it, and how to  present the results of the work.  Professional Norms ▪ Moral standards, codes of ethics and  guidelines about inserting one’s  voice and viewpoint into a story.1. Routine cooperation with news sources 2. Work routines of news organizations 3. Daily information sharing and working relations with fellow reporters.▪ Independence: On one level, it means not becoming seduced by sources,  intimidated by power, or compromised by self-interest. On a deeper level it  speaks to an independence of spirit and an open-mindedness and intellectual  curiosity that helps the journalist see beyond his or her own class or economic  status, race, ethnicity, religion, gender or ego. ▪ Objectivity: Because the journalist must make decisions, he or she is not and  cannot be objective. But journalistic methods are objective. It calls, rather, for a  consistent method of testing information – a transparent approach to evidence – precisely so that personal and cultural biases would not undermine the accuracy of  the work; Seeking out multiple witnesses, disclosing as much as possible  about sources, or asking various sides for comments.▪ Although the American press is arguably the most free and politically independent  in the world, U.S journalist display the least amount of diversity in decisions about  who they interview and what visuals they choose for their stories.  ▪ http://www.wnyc.org/story/assessing-social-medias-growing-clout-in-the-news landscape/ (8min. 30sec)▪ Everyday practices of journalist and their news organizations contribute to  personalized, dramatized, and fragmented news.  ▪ No news organizations or journalist are unbiased. SCOM1000 April 19, 2017
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